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Publication numberUS2090656 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 24, 1937
Filing dateFeb 7, 1931
Priority dateFeb 7, 1931
Publication numberUS 2090656 A, US 2090656A, US-A-2090656, US2090656 A, US2090656A
InventorsWilliams David M
Original AssigneeWilliams David M
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic firearm
US 2090656 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1937. D. M. WILLIAMS 2,090,656

AUTOMATIC FIREARM Original Filed Feb. 7, 1931 '7 Sheets-sheaf. 1

Aug. 24, 1 937.

D. M. WILLIAMS AUTOMATIC FIREARM 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed Feb. '7, 193;

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Original Filed Feb. '7, 1931 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 0v 1 L J WW f E L W I 1 MN 2 W I g MM T E 7///////////// VV /W/ v Aug. 24, 1937.

D. M. WILLIAM 5 AUTOMATI C FIREARM Original Filed Feb. '7, i931 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Aug. 24, 1937. D. M. WILLIAMS AUTOMATIC FIREARM Original Filed Feb. '7, 1931 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 7 Q \www m NW v w ,QN wm QmN lwww nww mfiN \www. 3 NM N ll, whw k g QNN WW Q @N aw {ii I 1 J g w km .QN Nkw Au 24, 1937. 5, M, wlLLlAMs 2,090,656

AUTOMATIC FIREARM Original Filed Feb. 7, 1951 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 D. M. WILLIAMS AUTOMATIC FIREARM Aug; 24, 193 7.

Original Filed Feb. '7, 1931 fi y. ZZ.

7 Sheets-Sheet '7 Patented Aug. 24, 1937 PATENT OFFICE AUTOMATIC FIREARM David M. Williams, Godwin, N. C.

Application February '1, 1931, Serial No. 514,252 Renewed August 19, 1933 61 Claims.

The present invention relates to new and useful improvements in automatic firearms.

It has been proposed heretofore to provide a cartridge chamber adapted to receive a cartridge but in all cases the cartridge chambers have had a long stroke and have been so positioned with respect to the magazine which carries the cartridges that a separate device was required to return the cartridge chamber, and this also neces'sitates returning means such as springs, levers, plungers and pins, and as a corollary thereto, retaining means to retain the returning devices in the gun. Further, the magazine or ammunition carrier has been so closely positioned with relation to the chamber means that the ammunition cannot be fed from the ammunition carrier means into the chamber means when the chamber isin a retracted position. According to the present invention, it is not necessary to have any returning means, and consequently no retaining means. This simplifies the entire construction, cutting out unnecessary movement in the gun, reducing the cycles of operation.

The hammered blow of the bolt mechanism herein set forth serves to drive the vibrator home, provided it is not already so positioned. which is the firing position or its forward seat position.

A vibrator of the character herein set forth reduces the movements required for one complete function of the gun or, as it may be difierently termed, reduces the number of cycles, as the operation of the bolt mechanism does not depend upon the return of the vibrator as if the cartridge 5 chamber portion of the barrel made a movement of such length as to require its return by mechanical means before the gun could be reloaded,

and of course, if the cartridge chamber were not moved forwardly, the ammunition would not 40 fit into the cartridge chamber due to it having directly passed or partly passed the ammunition container and of course the cartridge.

In a vibrator constructed as set forth, the action of entire gun mechanism is absolutely free to move without any reference to the loading or unloading position of the vibrator.

The use of a vibrator constructed as herein set forth enables a floating breech mechanism to be used of the type which does not have a mechanical lock but is of the gas lock breech type having the required characteristics to furnish the necessary inertia.

The vibrator of the present invention is preferably a threaded member. Threads may be 5 eliminated therefrom and, then other means may be employed to limit the motion of the vibrator. In that case, the vibrator becomes a moveable member and cooperates with bolt means having a predetermined locking andunlocking stroke and initiates rearward movement of the bolt means on firing of the gun. Means are provided for delaying the unlocking of the bolt means from the moveable member after the latter has initiated rearward-movement of the bolt means.

A gun constructed as herein set forth, when properly proportioned, gives accuracy of the highest order. The gun is not restricted to the use of light weight bolt mechanism as any convenient weights may be used which make the gun function properly. It may be pointed out that the .22 caliber self-loading guns in use today are adapted to be used with low speed ammunition. Recently there has been developed the high speed ammunition. As far as known at the present time, these guns do not function satisfactorily using the new high speed ammunition. When using the new high speed ammunition, safety is not insured and accuracy of a high order is not obtained. If guns of such a character are modified to incorporate therein the vibrator of the present invention and the weight of the bolt properly adjusted, the new high speed ammunition may be used with safety and with accuracy of a high order.

It may further be pointed out that small caliber guns or low power guns of the automatic type have been so constructed that they inherently have a weak, delicate, or unreliable action and do not function with certainty. The

-mechanism of the low caliber guns does not function with the same degree of certainty as do the high pressure, high velocity military rifles of the self-loading or automatic design. The kick or recoil of small cartridges of the .22 caliber class causes it to be practically impossible to design a satisfactory functioning self-loading or automatic rifle of this caliber. As a result, there has been developed by various arms organizations an especially designed .22 caliber cartridge, and a rifle especially adapted to use it. However, this new cartridge and rifle has in a great measure been a failure from the standpoint of economy, accuracy and popularity with sportsmen. By incorporating the vibrator of the present invention in small caliber gims, they can be made to function as the high pressure, high velocity military rifles function in self-loading or automatic designs, and further the small caliber guns may have incorporated therein the high tension or much desired high speed firing mechanism which permits the operator to shoot with greater accuracy. For example, a .45 caliber Colt automatic Government model (army automatic) has strong resistance 5 springs in its pistol mechanism, due to the fact that the .45 caliber Colt cartridge has sufiicient recoil or kick upon firing to function the strong gun action. The action has a stroke that is longer than that required for a .22 caliber automatic pistol.

In accordance with the present invention, the vibrator herein disclosed may be incorporated in a .45 Colt automatic pistol and its construction slightly changed as necessity may require, and then the pistol may be operated with .22 caliber ammunition instead of with .45 caliber ammunition, and it functions just as well as it did when using the .45 caliber ammunition. Therefore, there is a great saving in the cost of ammunition and other advantages, as later will be pointed out. The vibrator also locks the breech of the pistol by employing' 'the gas lock principle. It may be pointed out that using a vibrator, as herein-disclosed, provided with means for restricting the movement of the vibrator to a relatively short distance, upon firing the gases will operate upon the vibrator's front or gas contact end with great violence, and this functions when threads are employed on the receiver, or when equivalent means are employed to take the slack out of the threads or the like, giving the vibrator a short movement rearwardly. When stopped by the restricting means, it will rebound forwardly and this movement will be repeated again and again or until the vibrating energy ceases to such an extent thatit ceases to move or vibrate the vibrator.

When a firearm having a vibrator herein disclosed is fired at the instant of firing before the bullet has emerged from its shell or mouth, gases escape. However, at the instant the bullet has cleared the mouth of the shell, the gases are free to act without any mechanical restriction and as a result thereof the forward end of the gas contact end of the vibrator receives the full force of the given pressure generated at that time. The gas end of the vibrator is of such a diameter that its total area far exceeds the total area of the head of the powder case or shell, therefore the pressure generated acts upon this greatly enlarged area of the gas end of the vibrator and the vibrator is held in close contact or in a locked position m0- mentarily with the bolt or block mechanism.

The point is here made that the distance the vibrator travels and the position which the ammunition carrier assumes with respect to the vibrator should be such as to eliminate the necessity of any returning means. In no case shall the motion or movement of the vibrator cause the vibrator or its bore to be positioned over the magazine so as to require a returning device to return the vibrator to a position which permits it to be reloaded from a magazine or other ammunition carrier.

- A vibrator is provided which does not travel a sufficient distance to require any returning means and retaining devices to retain the returning means. Ammunition may be fed from the ammunition carrier, irrespective of any position the vibrator-may assume. The length of the vibrator movement in most cases does not exceed a l of an inch, and sometimes is even less. However, the length of travel of the vibrator can be increased to of an inch, at an inch or even more, provided the magazine or ammuni- .tion carrier is properly located with respect to the vibrator.

There is also provided a novel extractor mechanism and a compound safety which comprises one for transporting purposes and one for hunting purposes, as hereinafter more specifically set forth.

In its broadest form, applicant's invention comprises the combination in a repeating firearm of a barrel member, a sliding member, said barrel member and slide member being reciprocable one with respect to the other to move between approximal and spaced positions, a vibrator arranged to engage one of said members and initiate movement of the members to spaced position, and a magazine for cartridges positioned to allow the cartridges to be fed rearwardly of the vibrator. As pointed, out, the vibrator is mounted for limited reciprocation. More specifically, there is provided a firearm having a barrel, a bolt and a vibrator interposed between the barrel and the bolt and having a loosely threaded attachment to the barrel to permit reciprocatory movement relative thereto between narrow limits, the vibrator having its rear portion bearing against the forward portion of the bolt and in free engagement therewith. In one form,of the invention a sleeve is affixed to the rear end of the barrel and projects rearwardly thereof. The sleeve is provided with an internal screw thread having the spaces between the convolutions greater than the thicknesses of the thread. A vibrator is interposed between the barrel and bolt and is provided with an external screw thread having the spaces between the convolutions greater than the thickness of the thread, the threaded portions of the sleeve and the vibrator engaging for limited reciprocatory movement of the vibrator with respect to the barrel. The vibrator has a cartridge supporting chamber therein alined with the bore of the barrel and normally closed by the forward end of the bolt.

The firing mechanism includes a scar, a pivoted set lever movable into and out of sear releasing position, a pivoted safety bow movable into safety position to engage the set lever and hold it out of the sear releasing position, and movable out of position to engage the set lever to permit movement thereof to sear releasing posi-tion, and manually operable means engaging the safety bow to lock the same against accidental movement to release the set lever. The safety bow has a finger engageable arm projecting downwardly for engagement by the firing finger of the gunner and acts to move the safety bow to set lever releasing position upon forward movement of the finger.

There is also provided a bolt slidably mounted in the receiver, an ejector pin mounted in the bolt and arranged to permit sliding movement of the bolt thereon. The ejector pin has its forward end projecting forwardly of the bolt upon full retraction of the latter. A pair of extractor levers are pivoted to the bolt and have forwardly projecting cartridge hook noses and springs urging said noses towards each other. The receiver has a slot extending longitudinally of the receiver, the slot having a shoulder at its rear end. A cam lug on one of the levers sliding in the slot and engageable with the shoulder upon retraction of the bolt moves the lever to cartridge releasing position against a spring action.

The present invention also contemplates certain novel details of combination, construction Cfl and arrangement of parts of the improved apparatus, whereby certain important advantages are obtained, as will be more fully described hereinafter and pointed out in the claims, it being understood that the invention is susceptible of various changes in construction which may be made within the scope of the claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.

The present invention will be disclosed and fully explained by reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:

Figure 1 is a side elevation of a portion of a gun showing the parts as generally assembled, the stock of the gun being omitted for the purpose of illustration;

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the gun taken on the line 2'-2 of Fig. 3, the gun mechanism being shown in the closed position ready to fire;

Fig. 3 is a transverse section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is a transverse section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section similar to Fig. 2, the parts being shown in open position assumed after firing;

Fig. 6 is a longitudinal section taken on a horizontal plane on the line 6--6 of Fig. 5, showing the cartridge extracting means in the disengaged position after the cartridge has been ejected. This figure also shows the cam operated extractor arm in its depressed position. This figure also shows the top of the magazine and the relative relation of the cartridge about to be fed into the cartridge chamber by the forward movement of the bolt;

Fig. 7 is an enlarged vertical view partly in section taken through the barrel showing the vibrator in its closed position; this view also shows the bolt in side elevation and the short right hand extractor engaging the rim of the cartridge;

Fig. 8 is an enlargedside elevation of the vibrator;

Fig. 8a is an end view of the vibrator;

Fig. 9 is 'a vertical section of the bolt handle taken on the line 99 of Fig. 6, showing the means for dismounting the bolt handle from the bolt. This also shows means for holding the gun mechanism in its open position.

b Fig. 10 is a perspective view of the trigger mem- Fig. 11 is a perspective of the safety lever;

Fig. 11a is a detail showing the engagement between the set lever and the safety lever;

Fig. 12 is a perspective view of the transport safety pin;

3 Fig. 12a is a detail showing the position the safety pin takes in relation to the how, the transport safety being shown in the off position and the safety lever in the safe position. The safety lever. is in a position to be moved by the opera- 3 tors finger.

Fig. 12b shows the transport safety in the on position and the safety lever cammed to its safety positions Fig. 13,is a perspective view of the rear end of 5 the set lever;

of properly adjusting the engagement of the set lever pawl with the set lever;

Fig. 16 is a modified form of the vibrator used in a mechanically locked gun, the vibrator including an extension member adapted to'engage and lock the bolt member;

Fig. 17 is a detail of a unit showing a vibrator adapted to be inserted in a large caliber gun for the purpose of allowing said large caliber gun to a mechanically function with small caliber ammunition as efficiently as it would if large caliber ammunition were used;

Fig. 18 is a longitudinal vertical section of a modification showing the vibrator used in a gun of the forward sliding barrel type;

Fig. 19 is a longitudinal vertical section of a modification showing the vibrator adapted to be operated bydirect recoil;

Fig. 20 is a longitudinal vertical section of a vibrator used with the modified form of barrel end;

Fig. 21 is a transverse vertical section on line 2l2l of Fig. 20; W l

Fig. 22 is a longitudinal vertical section partly in elevation showing a modified form of vibrator;

Fig. 23 is a horizontal longitudinal section showing the vibrator positioned at a point remote from the central axis of the barrel;

Figs. 24 and 25 are vertical sections on the line 24-24 of Fig. 23, showing the bolt handle in automatic position and disengaged position with respect to the vibrator.

The gun comprises a receiver I carrying a barrel 2 having a rifle bore 3. The gun carries the usual stock 4 and is provided with a guard indi cated as an entity by the numeral 5. Positioned within the receiver I is a bolt 5 having at its forward portion a. projecting member I adapted to engage a vibrator 8.

The bolt 6 is apertured centrally at 9 to receive a portion of the bolt mechanism cooperating therewith, the lower wall of the bolt being slotted at from the aperture to its periphery, this affo'rdingmeans for inserting the sear mechanism in said slot Ill of the bolt 5. The bolt 6 is provided in its right hand wall with a T-slot ll adapted-to receive the bolt handle mounting I2. Mounted within the forward portion of the bolt aperture 9 is a striker 13 provided with a striker point ll adapted to engage the rim of the cartridge l5 and prime or fire the same. Mounted adjacent the rear end of the aperture 9 is a striker spring compressor element IS. The forward end I! of the element l6 has asliding relation with the rear portion of the striker member l3. Confined within the striker member I3 is a spring l8 bearing at its front end on the forward wall IQ of the striker and at its rear end on the front end of the compressor element It.

Mounted in the rear end of the receiver plug 2! is an ejector 22 serving to guide the bolt spring 23 encasing the ejector rod at its rear end. The plug 2| is recessed at 24 for the purpose of seating the head of the ejector 22. This head 25 is provided with a key 26 to prevent rotation of the ejector 22. The spring 23 is seated at its rear end against the face of the ejector head 25 and at its front end in the forward wall of spring compressor well. 21 indicates a retaining plunger for locking the receiver plug 2| against rotation.

Mounted in theforward end of the slot [0 is a cocking lever 28 pivotally mounted on a pin 29, the cooking lever 28 being adapted to engage the striker. cam 30. There is also positioned in the slot Ill a sear 3|, pivotally mounted on a pin 32. The sear 3| is provided with a notch 33 adapted to engage a corresponding notch 34 in the striker l3. The rear portion of the sear 3! is provided with fingers 35 adapted to engage a 42 adapted to engage the set lever 43. The set lever 43 is pivotally mounted at 44 and is provided with a lug 45 adapted to engage tail piece 46 of the sear lever 31. The gun is provided with the usual box magazine 48 and mechanism to hold the same in place. The magazine 48 is provided with a recess 49 adapted to engage a finger piece 58 serrated at 5|. The finger piece 50 is provided with a projecting member 52 adapted to engage a recess 53. The finger piece 58 is apertured at 54 to receive a plunger 55 pivotally mounted at 56. The forward end 57 of the plunger bears against a spring 58. Mounted in the floor plate 59 is a set spring holder 68 carrying a set lever spring 8|. Mounted in the top portion of the set lever spring is a plunger 82 having a ball point 63 adapted to engage a socket 64 in the set lever 43. The fioor plate catch 65 pivotally mounted on the pin 66 engages floor plate 59 at 61, as shown in Figs. 2 and 5, to lock the floor plate. The fioor plate catch 65 is held in position by means of the spring 88. The floor plate catch 65-is recessed at 69 to provide a seat for pawl plunger I8 actuated by the spring II. The spring II functions to push the plunger III against the pawl 42. The pawl 42, as shown in Fig. 14, is provided with a hook I2 adapted to'engage the notch I3 of the stirrup 14 of the set lever 43, as shown in Fig. 13. The set lever pawl 42 is provided with recesses I5 adapted to engage the prong IS on the plunger I8 and so hold the pawl under tension and in general in its proper position relative to the other mechanism. In connection with the trigger mechanism there is provided a safety mechanism which functions to depress the set lever 43 and so prevent the latter from actuating the sear mechanism. In Figs. 2 and 5, the safety mechanism is shown in its position which allows the gun to be fired. There is provided a safety pin H, as shown in Fig, 12, having a cam face I8 curved to provide a cam surface I9 and a substantially plain surface 88. The safety pin is adapt- 50 ed to cam the safety lever bow 8| of the safety lever 82 rearwardly, the construction of the safety lever being shown in detail in Fig. 11. The safety lever 82 is provided with forked arms 83 having -a top cross member 84, the under surface of which is V-shaped in cross sectio to fit into the notch I3, as shown in Fig. 13. e relationship of the V-shaped under surface of the top member 84 to the notch I3 is shown in Fig. 11a. The safety lever 82 is provided with apertures 85 to 0 receive pin 48. When the bow 8| of the safety lever 82-is cam-med rearwardly, the top member 84 moves forwardly to engage and cam down the notch I3 in set lever 43 and prevents the lug 45 from rising into the slot I8 and operating the 5 sear lever 31. This operates to prevent accidental discharge of the gun. When the bow 8| of the safety lever 82 is in engagement with the surface l9 of the safety pin II, the bow is in its safe position and when the pin is moved so as to allow bow 8| to engage the surface 88, the safety pin 11 is in its neutral or firing position.

It may bepointed out that when the V-shaped under surface 84a is in engagement with the V- shaped notch I3, as shown in Fig. lie, the safety lever will remain in its safe position due to the seating relationship of the surfaces which affords a frictional contact sumcient to keep it in the safe position. The mechanism set forth provides the gun with two independent safeties, one for transporting purposes and one for hunting purposes. This may be termed a compound safety. When the transport safety pin 11 is pushed to the right, the right and left hand sides of the gun being indicated in Fig. 3 by the letters R and L, cam surface I9 engages bow 8|, camming safety lever 82 into its transport safety position and at the same time the safety lever is in the position shown in Fig. 11a. This insures a positive locking for the purpose of transporting the gun.

When it is desired to use the gun in emergency and at the same time desired to have a safety device capable of being released quickly without a loss of time, the safety pin 11 is moved to the left until the surface 88 coincides or is in line with trigger bow 8|. Fig. 12a. is a detail showing the position the safety pin takes in relation to the bow 8|, the transport safety being shown in the off position and the safety lever in the safe position. The safety lever is in a position to be moved by the operators finger. When it is desired to release from the hunting safety position and throw the safety lever 82 to a filing position, this is accomplished by the back of the trigger finger moving toward the front of the gun against the bow 8|, causing the V-shaped surface 84a to to be disengaged from the notch I3 and allowing the notch 13 to rise and be engaged by the hook I2'of the set lever pawl 42.

The trigger mechanism is provided with means for making adjustments with regard to the trigger pull or adjustments with respect to pawl hook I2 and notch I3. To effect the adjustment there is provided an adjusting screw 88 which abuts against an adjusting lever 81 which has a tail piece 88 and projecting therefrom locating fingers 89 curved at their upper portion designed to contact with the forked arms 42a and 42b of the pawl 42. The adjusting lever 81 is provided with an aperture 810. and is pivotally mounted on the pin 81b. Screwing in or out screw 86 causes adjusting lever 81 to rock on its pivot 81b more or less forwardly, thereby causing fingers 89 to position pawl 42 in its adjusted position. In other words the fingers 89 press against the rear of the forked arms 42a and 42b to allow the pawl 42 to move on its pivot pin 48, and so vary the relative position or adjustment of the pawl hook I2 and the set lever notch I3.

The trigger 39 is provided with an aperture 98 adapted to receive a trigger plunger member 4| having a spindle 9| recessed to receive a spring 92. Positioned at the upper end of the spindle 9| is a plunger head 93 cut away to provide a cam shoulder 94 and a locating stop 95. The upper surface 98 of the plunger head 93 provides ma-detentrto cooperate witmstirrupdug 91 carried by the stirrup I4 of the set lever 43. The trigger 39 is also provided with a finger 98 which may be adjusted to any desired position when the gun is being assembled. The finger 98 cooperates with the surface 420 of the pawl 42. This construction is shown in Figs. 2, 10, 13 and 14. The plunger cam shoulder 94 contacts with the pawl 42 at the point 99, as shown in Fig. 2 to provide a camming action which eliminates any back lash or looseness with respect to the trigger 39 and the pawl 42 by forcing the pawl 42 in close contact with the finger 88 of the trigger 39. This forms a rigid unit which is eminently desirable. As wear develops, the plunger adjusts itself to the 30 brator 8.

wear, assuming a higher position, and at the same time still maintains the rigidity of the unit. The trigger 39 is held under tension by means of plunger I4I and plunger spring I42 mounted in adjusting lever 81.

Referring to the vibrator 8 and its association with the bolt 6, it is to be noted that the latter is shouldered at I99 to provide a bolt stem I which in one position projects intothe interior of thevibrator. The vibrator 8 comprises a cylindrical 'member I92 having a rearward bolt engaging face I93 and a forward face I04. Projecting from the latter is a vibrator piston member I95. The face I93 of the vibrator contacts with the face of the bolt at I00. The vibrator 8 is provided with extractor recesses I06 and I01, as shown in Fig. 8a/for the purpose of receiving the extractors as hereinafter refeired to. The receiver hood I98 is internally threaded at I09 toreceive the external threads IIO of the vibrator 8. Means are provided for allowing the vibrator to vibrate upon being duly actuated. Various constructions may be employed to bring about this result. In thedrawings oneconstruction has been shown which has been found to give very satisfactory results. It is to be noted that the distance between the internal threads I09 of the receiver hood I93 is greater than the thickness of the external threads III! of the vi.-

Consequently, when the external threads are in engagement, opportunity is afforded for the vibrator threads I I0 to move and thereby allow the vibrator to have a vibratory motion when properly actuated. This is clearly brought out in Fig. 7 which is greatly enlarged in order to bring out the construction permitting a vibratory motion of the vibrator. In other words, I the construction shown provides athread tolerance permitting vibrationof the vibrator. It is to 4 'be understood that the thread tolerance may be varied so as to permit a greater or less movement of the vibrator. Adjacent the roots of the thread II 0 clearance cuts III are provided cut in the body of the vibrator, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8 45 for the purpose of providing recesses. The undercut portions III function to allow collection of foreign elements which ordinarily would tend to induce the sticking together of the external threads I10 and internal. threads I09. The vi- 5 brator piston I05 is provided with a circular clearance out I I2 cooperating with clearance cut H3 in the barrel 2. The vibrator 8 is provided with a magazine slot I I4 for the purpose of allowing the magazine to be positioned within the 55 vibrator, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8a. The vibrator 8 is provided with a lightening cut H5 in order to make the vibrator function better.

It is to be noted that the vibrator piston I05 engages the recessed portion -I I3 of the barrel 2.

0 The vibrator piston I95 and barrel 2 are subjected to corrosive action or rusting due to the action of the gases and other elements, and in order to totally eliminate or substantially reduce this action the piston I05 is provided with a non.- 5 corrosive shell IN. This may be non-corrosive steel or any material which will resist corrosive action. The barrel 2 is provided with a noncorrosive metal cylinder IIB.

Referring to Fig. 6, the gun is provided with I 70 an automatic extractor I I 9, this being a left hand 75 provided with a lug I 20 which functions as a cam against a receiver shoulder I2I. The extract H9 is provided with a recess II8 forming a seat for spring I2I, the spring holding the extractor II9 under tension. The extractor is cut away to provide a lug I20 which travels in a slot I33 cut in the receiver I. When the gun is in the closed position, cam lug I20 is at a position indicated at I32, the cam lug having traveled through the slot I33 in receiver I. The cam lug I20 is pushed outwardly by the tension of the spring I21 and the extractor arm I22 assumes a position substantially parallel to thereceiver I and bolt 6. When this occurs, the hook I23 is in position to engage the rim I5a of the cartridge I5.

The right hand extractor I29 is pivoted at I35 and is provided with a hook I 3| for engaging the rim I5a of the cartridge I5. The rear portion or arm I34 of the extractor I29 is provided with-a recess I28 adapted to receive the spring I30 which holds the extractor I29 under tension.

The extractor I29 is provided with a dismounting notch I290. which is adapted to cooperate with a retaining plunger spindle I45, as more clearly shown in Fig. 9. The ejector member 22 is provided at its forward portion with a finger I36 having an ejector point I24 adapted to protrude from the conduit I25 when functioning to eject the shell. The location of the ejector conduit I25 is clearly shown in Fig. 4.

Thereceiver I is provided with a bolt handle slot I40 extending from the bolt handle to the point I38, the bolt handle being identified as I31 and having a bolt handle mounting I2. The bolt handle is retained in the bolt by means of the retaining plunger I39. The cartridge I5, as shown in Fig. 6, is positioned in the magazine 40 and is ready to be pushed into the vibrator 8. To fire, the striker point I4 continues its movement through the striker conduit I44 with sufficient protrusion to fire the cartridge. The position of the striker conduit I44 is clearly shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 3, which is a cross section taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 2, showing the gun at its closed position ready to fire, indicates the position the transport safety 'I'I takes in the ready-to-fire position. It is to be noted that the trigger poppet I4I is slidably mounted in the adjusting lever 81. The trigger plunger proper M is shown in the engaged position with reference to the pawl 42. The safety lever 82 is in the ready to fire position, and the lug 45 is in contact with the sear lever 31. There is a slight gap I43 between the trigger plunger detent face 95 and the set lever lug 91, as more clearly shown in Fig. 2, when the gun is in the ready to fire position.

Referring to Fig. 9, the bolt handle mounting -I2 is slidably fitted in the T-shaped slot II. The

retaining plunger I39 has a spindle portion I45 adapted to engage the bolt 6, thereby functioning to keep the bolt handle mounting I2 in its proper relationship with respect to the T-slot II. The retaining plunger I39 is held in position by the action of the spring I46 and cup I41, the outer end of the cup resting against nut I48. The cup M1 is apertured centrally to admit a flattened portion I49 of the retaining plunger I39 in the bottom of the cup. The cup I41 rests against the nut I48. One end of the spring I46 is seated against bottom wall I41a of the cup I". A sleeve I50 is mounted around the retaining plunger I39.

The sleeve 'I50 is provided with a flange I50a.

and slidably mounted in the mouth of the cup M1. The spring I46 seats against the flanged end of the sleeve I50. The cylinder end of the sleeve I50 rests against a seat II in the bolt handle I31. I52 is a split keeper mounted on the flattened portion I49 of the retaining plunger I39. The motion of the retaining plunger I39 is limited by the abutment or shoulder I53. A dismounting'notch I54 serves for retracting the retaining plunger I39. Nut I48 is provided with external threads adapted to engage the bolthandle I31. This nut is also provided with a slot I55, as shown in Fig. 1, for the purpose of unscrewing the nut from the bolt handle I31. The retaining plunger I39 is provhied with a lug I56 which is adapted to engage a recess I51 in receiver I, as shown in Fig. 1, when it is desired to hold the mechanism in the open position or retracted position. The cylindrical portion I58 of the retaining plunger I39 serves to guide the sleeve I50. When it is desired to dismount the bolt handle unit from the bolt, a dismounting medium is inserted in the notch I54 and force applied to retract the retaining plunger outwardly. On application of appropriate force, the retaining plunger I39 moves outwardly, carrying sleeve I and compressing spring I46 against the bottom wall of the cup I41, this cup resting against nut I48. At the same time the spindle I45 of the retaining plunger I39 withdraws from the bolt aperture I59 and permits the bolt handle mounting I2 to be moved from its T-slot II. When it is desired to retain the gun mechanism in its open position and the bolt handle mechanism is positioned in the bolt 6, the bolt handle and the bolt mechanism is pulled to its full open position by grasping the .bolt handle I31 until the lug I56 coincides with therecess I51, formed in receiver I, as shown in Fig. 1. The finger is then pushed inwardly on the plunger at I54. This causes the split keeper I52 to move with plunger I39, carrying cup I41, and compresses spring I66 against sleeve I50, causing the lug I56 to engage with the recess I51, as shown in Fig. 1. When the retaining plunger I39 is held in the aforedescribed position and when the lug I56 contacts with the forward portion of the recess I51, as shown in.

, mechanism to spring forwardly, it is only necessary to pull back on bolt handle I31, which breaks frictional contact between the lug I56 and the recess I51. Retaining plunger I39 then moves to its normal position under the action of spring I46. The retaining plunger I39 and its train of mechanism is shown in Fig. 9 in its normal or neutral position.

Fig. 18 shows the utilization of the vibrator herein disclosed in a forward sliding barrel type gun. The receiver which carries the stock and all other mechanism necessary to fire and properly operate the gun is indicated by the numeral I60. The receiver I60 is provided at its rear or breech end with a recess for receiving the rotary or turning bolt I6I. The rotary bolt I6I is provided with a cam slot I62 and a straight or neutral slot I63. The function of these slots is to allow suitable means to be inserted therein for the rotation of the bolt I6I. Any known means may be used for efl'eeting the rotation of the bolt. However, the following sets forth one set of means which may be used. Suitable means, for example pins, may be fixed in the receiver I60 to engage slots. I62 and I63. When the bolt travels forwardly, it does not rotate.

' of the vibrator is integral.

aoe ese The pins or any other suitable turning means are engaged with-slots I63. However, the bolt I6I does rotate when the pins or other suitable tuming means engage slots I62, this causing the bolt head carrying locking lugs I64 to unlock from the vibrator I66. This form of the mechanism is provided with the usual firing pin well I65. The vibrator I66 is constructed on the same principle and of the same general design as heretofore described. As shown in Fig. 18, the locking portion of thevibrator and the threaded portion This is merely the preferred form and obviously may be changed.

The vibrator I66, which is chambered centrally to receive the ammunition powder case I66a, is threaded externally at I61 with the usual vibrator threads having the usual clearance cuts I68. The usual piston I69 and clearance cut I10 are also provided. The magazine I is shown as located on the drawings, although the position thereof may be varied. The magazine may be of the usual box type of either single or double row cartridge design, although any other suitable type may be employed. The magazine is provided with a magazine spring I12 which serves to push or actuate the magazine follower I13. Threaded recesses I14 and I15 are provided for receiving the usual stock bolts. The drawings show a cartridge I16 positioned in the magazine IN. The barrel proper I18 is provided with an extension member I11 having threads I80 adapted to engage corresponding threads on the barrel I18. The barrel extension member I11 is also provided with threads I19 adapted to engage corresponding threads on the vibrator I66. Suitably mounted on the barrel I18 is a collar I8I which functions to provide a seat for the barrel spring I82 encircling the barrel. At the muzzle end of the receiver or jacket I60 is located a spring collet I83 split longitudinally to form fingers at its front end and threaded at its rear end at I831) so that it may be screwed into the receiver I60.

The spring fingers I83a embrace the muzzle piece I84 of the barrel. The rear wall [830 of the split collet I83 functions as a seat for barrel spring I82. The split collet I83 is externally threaded at I83b to engage corresponding threads in jacket I85. The muzzle piece I84 is threaded to engage corresponding threads on the barrel I18. The muzzle piece I84 is of a larger diameter than any other portion of the barrel that operates between the fingers I63a of the collet I63, thereby causing the barrel to slide freely when the muzzle piece I84 has moved from the collet fingers I83a. This construction also permits the muzzle piece I84 and the collet I83 to have a snug driving fit at the time of firing which promotes accuracy.

When the cartridge I66a is fired, the bullet I86 emerges from the mouth of the shell and the gases produced expand with full force upon the piston I69 at and adjacent the clearance cut points I10. This forces the barrel I18 forwardly with great force. The barrel I18 moves forward, carrying with it the extension member I11. The threads I19 move forward with the extension member I11, engaging the threads I61 located on the vibrator. This functions to pull the vibrator I 66 and at the same time bolt I H forwardly. During such forward motion, the bolt rotating means travels in neutral slot I63. Upon continuation of the forward movement the rotating means enters rotary slot I62. This causes the bolt lugs I64 to rotate and unlock from the vibrator I66. The bolt remains fixed at this point and the vibrator barrel andother action continues forward to the full open position. During this motion, the spring I82 is compressed and the muzzle member I84 slips out from between collet fingers I 83a. 0n continuation of this movement, collar I8I continues forwardly fully compressing spring I82 against collet I83.

10 The gun is then in the open position. The spring I82 acts to return the barrel I18, the latter receiving a cartridge from the magazine "I. On continuation of the movement, the bolt mechanism is locked to the vibrator I66. The gun is 5 then in the closed position, as shown in Fig; 18,

and is ready to fire.

a *Fig. 19 shows a. modified form of mechanism employing the vibrator principle. By comparison of this figure with other figures, it will be noted 20 that as shown in Fig. 19 the vibrator I81 does not have an extending piston member, the powder case I92 being held or chambered by the barrel I89 positioned in receiver I88. The head of the powder case I92 is positioned or held by the forward end of the vibrator I81. The vibrator is threaded with the usual vibratory threads I93 adapted to engage corresponding receiver threads I94. The vibrator, as shown, also ail'ords means whereby bolt I9I may be locked thereto by suitable mechanism cooperating therewith, the vibrator being recessed at I95 to receive bolt I9I and apertured at I91 to receive the head of the powder case. The bolt lugs I96 are shown locked in the vibrator. In action the vibrator I81 cooperates wlth bolt I9I, and the powder case I92 is violently set back, imparting to the bolt carrier I98 the necessary momentum to operate the gun.

Figs. 28 and 21 show a further modified struc- 0 ture. The vibrator I99 has the usual vibrator threads 288 engaging corresponding internal threads 282 on the receiver 28I. The bolt member I98 has a stem or spindle I98a projecting into the vibrator I99. The vibrator I99 is provided with a vibrator piston 283. The barrel 284 is provided with a chambered spindle 285. At the forward end of the chambered spindle 285 is located one or more vents 286 which communicate with gas chamber 2. The powder case 281 carrying a projectile 288 is positioned in the chamber 2 I8 of the barrel spindle 285. The piston 283, being cylindrical'in shape, has a sliding fit on spindle 285. It also has a sliding fit in barrel 284. The barrel 284 is provided with a recess .289, adapted to receive the vibrator piston 283. a T

Upon a cartridge being fired in a mechanism of the character set forth, the powder case 281 will recoil against bolt spindle I98a. When the bullet 288 passes ports 286, the gases will expand through ports 286 and into chamber 2 and then expand against the vibrator piston 283 of vibrator I99, causing the vibrator to impart to bolt I98 the required momentum to operate the 5 gun. The vibrator, aside from the distinguishing features set forth, is constructed as ,previ-, ously described.

' Fig. 16 shows a still further modified structure utilizing the'vibrator principle in a me- 70 chanically locked breech type gun. The bolt 2I2, which is of the usual rotary type, has a straight slot 2I3 continuous with a camming slot 2I4, and is provided with the usual lugs 2I5. The slot 2I3 is designed to have a delayed action 75 relative to the unlocking means. It may be -rel time.

barrel 23I.

pointed out that the cam slot 2I4 causes a rotary motion when it cooperates with the unlocking means. means for controlling the rotary motion of the bolt 2I2 and for the operation of the gun. The vibrator 2I1 is formed to receive the rotary bolt 2 I 2 and threaded with the usual vibratory threads 2l8 adapted to cooperate with threads US of the receiver 228. The vibrator has the usual piston 22I adapted to work in a corresponding recess formed in barrel 222. When a cartridge is fired, the gases expand against the face 223 of piston 22I, driving the same with great violence the distance allowed oy the thread relationship. The vibrat r movement is predetermined by having the distance between threads 2I 9 greater than the width of thevibrator threads 2I8. The bolt carrier 2I8 attains the speed set up by the vibrator by virtue of the fact that it rests directly against the rear face of the vibrator 2I1, the bolt carrier having imparted thereto momentum necessary to properly function the gun. The slots 2| 3 provide means for delaying the unlocking of the bolt 2I2 for a period of time until the bullet has left the barrel and the pressure has been substantially reduced, this period of time being technically known as bar The unlocking time mayof course be varied to suit the particular circumstances. Unlocking begins when the means carried by carrier 2I6 engages with unlocking slot 2I4, which rotates and unlocks lugs 2I5 from the vibrator 2I1. Bolt carrier 2I6 and bolt 2I2 and other mechanism continue open and function the mechanism. In the structure shown, the firing means which are necessary to cause the gun to fire and operate are, of course, provided. From the above it is clear that the vibrator 2I1 only initiates movement of the bolt 2I2 and does not move for a period of time corresponding to the barrel time and unlocking or'locking time. This same relationship is inherent in the structure set forth in Figures 18 and 23.

Fig. 17 shows a sub-caliber unit adapted to be assembled in a large caliber pistol to cause the large caliber mechanism to function with small caliber ammunition, as satisfactory as it would function with large caliber ammunition. The unit is shown assembled in the unit mount 228 having a barrel 23I, the latter having a small 238 and a swell 231. The mount 228 is secured to the v barrel 23Iv by means of threads 232. A retaining plunger 233 cooperating with a spring 234 is seated in barrel 23I and serves to prevent the mount 228 from unscrewing from locating lug 235 having a hole 236, the purpose of the latter being to engage retaining means not shown. The vibrator 224 is provided with the usual threads 221 which cooperate with threads 229 of the mount 228. The vibrator is provided with the usual piston member 238 adapted to engage the barrel 23I. The vibra tor is also provided with a ramp 225 for the purpose of guiding the noses of cartridges into vibrator chamber 226. The lug 225 also serves to prevent rotation of the vibrator when the latter is assembled within the gun.

In action, the powder case of the cartridge is located in the vibrator chamber 226, and the bullet in barrel 23I. Upon firing of the gun. the bullet emerges from the powder case and the gases enter against the vibrator face at the The bolt carrier 2I6 constitutes The mount 228 is provided with a 221 and 229.

point 239, imparting to vibrator 224 a violent impulse rearwardly. The movement of the vibrator is restricted within the limits of the threads Suitable bolt mechanism is held in contact with the face of the vibrator at the point 248. The bolt mechanism receives the impulse speed of vibrator 224 and thereby attains the momentum necessary to function and in turn operate the gun. Swell 231 when in firing position engages a bearing located in the slide, receiver, or other usual gun mechanism. As the slide moves rearwardly or opens, swell 231 projects from the gun mechanism and the mechanism slides around the small 238 of the barrel, which permits a very much freer action than would be the case if "the barrel was of the same continuous diameter throughout. Swell 231 is capable of a tight fit in a gun at the time of firing which promotes accuracy. The unit shown in Fig. 17 is readily used in the army .45 caliber automatic which has the usual slide and frame. The vibrator unit functions the large caliber gun mechanism when using small caliber ammunition just as well as the large caliber ammunition heretofore usually employed operated the gun.

Fig. 22 shows a modified vibrator unit. The vibrator unit is inserted in a gun having a receiver 24l attached to a barrel 243 by means of threads 242. The receiver has threads 244 adapted to cooperate with the vibrator threads 245. The vibrator 246a. is formed at 241 to receive bolt 248, and carries a locking extension member 246 apertured at 249 to receive the powder case 250. The vibrator locking extension member 246 carries threads 25! to engage threads 252 on member 253, positioned within the barrel 243. The member 253 also carries threads 255 which are adapted to engage threads 256. The member 253 is provided with a central aperture 251 to receive a portion of powder case 258. The member 258 is provided with threads250 and has a central aperture 259 to receive a portion of the powder case 258. The member 258 is provided with threads 269 to engage threads 26 I. The member 262 has a central aperture 263 to receive a portion of the powder case 258 and carries threads 264 adapted to engage threads 265 of member 266. This member has a central aperture 261 to receive a portion of the powder case 250, the mouth or neck of the powder case being identified by the numeral 268. A clearance cut 269 is provided. The mouth end 268 of the powder case 258 engages the barrel 243, the bore of the barrel 243 serving in the capacity of a part chamber for the powder case 258.

In action, the recoil of powder case 250, due to the firing of the cartridge, pushes the head of the powder case 250 rearwardly. This head carries the bolt 248. When the bolt 248 =moves rearwardly, it carries with it the vibrator extension member 246. This functions to take up the play or tolerance between threads 25! and 252. When this occurs, member 253 is moved rearwardly by the contact of the above mentioned threads. Member 253 continues moving rearwardly, caus ing the threads 255 to slide in contact with threads 256, which takes the play or tolerance out of the threads. Member 253 then pulls member 258 rearwardly, causing threads 260 to move to a new position and to engage with threads 26I When the threads 260 reach the limit of the movement prepared in thread tolerance, the member 262 is pulled rearwardly by member 258. Member 262 continues moving rearwardly, causing the threads 264 to slide and contact with or engage threads 265, the amount of slide prepared in the thread construction determining the amount of movement. Member 266 is then pulled rearwardly by member 262, causing member 266 to slightly disconnect with barrel 243 at point 218. The total amount of the sliding movement pre pared in the threads of members 246, 253, 258,

262 and 266, plus a very slight distance at 219,

may not exceed the distance vibrator extension member 246 may travel rearwardly as prepared in threads 244 and 245.

The motion of vibrating extension member 246 can be used to actuate any suitable gun mechanism. This unit serves in one instance to compensate for excessive head space and to cause the powder case to have a-series of stretches instead of one single stretch that will ordinarily separate shell or powder case. r

Fig. 23 shows a vibrator unit positioned eccentrically of the bore of the barrel o f the gun. The gun is provided with the usual receiver 212, adapted to receive at its rear end a gun mechanism. The receiver is provided with lugs 213 for the purpose of carrying means whereby the bolt mechanism may be securely locked thereto. The receiver 21.2 is provided with a hood 214 threaded to engage gun barrel 215. Receiver 212 carries a slot 216, this slot allowing a portion of the bolt mechanism to ride therein. The bolt body 211 is provided with lugs 218 which function as means for causing the bolt to be locked against lugs 213 carried by the receiver 212. The bolt carrier 219 carries any suitable means for causing the bolt 211 to unlock from the receiver 212. The bolt 211 is provided with a straight or neutral slot 280 and continuous therewith a spiral or sloping cam formation 282 for the purpose of imparting an unlocking motion to bolt 211 with respect to receiver 212. A powder case 283 is seated in the barrel 215. The revolving bolt handle 284 has positioned therein a bolt carrier spindle 285 about which the bolt handle 284 is adapted to operate. The bolt handle has a lightening cut 286. The belt carrier 219 has formed thereon a hook member 281 for the purpose of retaining handle 284. The bolt handle 284 is provided with a lug 288 adapted to engage hook 281 of bolt carrier 219. The bolt handle 284 is provided with a contact face 289 serving as a seat for vibrator head 290 of the vibrator 294. Projecting from the head 299 of the vibrator is a vibrator stem 29I carrying vibrator threads 292 which are adapted to engage threads 293 carried by the barrel 215 or the like. The cooperating threads have the usual vibratory fit or tolerance. As indicated on the drawings, the distance between the threads 298 is greater than the width of threads 292. The vibrator 294 is provided with a lightening cut 295. A vent 291 is provided, the outer end of the vent being indicated at 296. The vibrator 294 is provided with a hollow extension member 298 having a gas intake port 299, the latter being in alinement and in operative communication with the vent 291. The member 298 is made hollow so as to be capable of expanding under the high gas pressure developed therein. This high gas pressure also functions to push this member rearwardly and cause the vibrator to operate against bolt handle which in turn causes the gun mechanism to open. Suitable means are provided to close the gun. The purpose of revolving bolt handle 284 is to cause the gun to be inoperative automatically when face 289 is revolved from contact position with respect to vibrator head 298. The gun can then be operated manually by manipulating the bolt handle 284.

Fig. 2 shows the gun in its closed position. In order to fire the gun, the trigger 38 is pulled, re-. tracting p'oppet |4| which in turn compresses spring I42. Trigger plunger 4| then moves forwardly, carrying pawl 42 forwardly against the resistance of pawl plunger 10 and pawl spring gers 35 downwardly. This carries the free end of the sear 3'I downwardly, causing the sear notch 33 to disengage from contact with striker notch 34. Then striker spring I8 drivesstriker I3 forwardly, causing the striker pin I4 to prime or fire cartridge I5.

When the cartridge I5 is fired, the recoil generated by the cartridge begins to function and 5 the head of the cartn'dgebegins to push against the bolt 5. When the bullet emerges from the mouth of the shell, the gases impinge against the forward face of the vibrator piston member I05 of the vibrator 8. The gas pressure generated causes the vibrator piston member I and the vibrator 8 to move rearwardly to the extent permitted by the engagement of the external vibrator threads III] and the internal threads I89 of the receiver hood I08. This movement is one 5 of great violence sufficient to cause the vibrator 8 to be securely locked against bolt 5 during the travel of the vibrator, and the bolt 6 having received the necessary momentum to open the gun mechanism effects the necessary movements. Vi- 0 brator 8 moves rearwardly, its threads IIB contacting with the threads I09. After it is moved the distance permitted by the thread contact, the vibrator 8 rebounds forwardly, continuing its vibrating movement until its vibrating enc rgy 5 has exhausted itself. Bo t 6 continues moving rearwardly, revolving cocking lever 28 on its pin 29. The top portion of the lever 28 contacts with the striker cam lug 38, camming the striker I3 rearwardly and compressing striker spring I8. 0 Bolt 6 continues moving rearwardly and the cocking lever v28 continues to revolve because of its free end sliding on receiver cam Ia. Sear lever 31 continues moving rearwardly with the bolt 6, and due to its inclined or sloping position causes 5 set lever lug 45 to fall or be depressed, depressing with it set lever 43. On bolt 6 continuing its movement rearwardly, striker I3 is caused to ,be cammed rearwardly by cocking lever 28v to the extent that the striker notch 34 meshes with the 0 sear notch 33. The free end of the sear 3| rises to its cocked position, causing sear lever 31 to assume a position shown in Fig. 5. During the movement of the bolt 5 rearwardly, the bolt spring 23 is continually being compressed in proportion to the amount the bolt travels.

The continued rearward movement of bolt 5 causes sear lever 31 and sear 3| to depress lug 45 to its lowest position, thus causing set lever 43 to assume a corresponding depressed position. During this stage of depression, set lever spring .8I and plunger 62 are also depressed. During this stage of. depression, the set lever stirrup I4 of set lever 43 moves downwardly, encircling the {5 pawl 42. The set lever 43 is shown in Figs. 1,

2 and 5 in assembled relationship with its other cooperating elements and in Fig. 13 in detail.

Fig. 14 shows a detail of the pawl 42. The lug 91 of the stirrup I4, as shown in Fig. 13, contacts with the upper surface 96 of the plunger head 93, which forms a portion of the trigger plunger member 4|, as shown in Fig. 10. This causes the plunger 4| to be depressed, as shown in Fig. 5. When this occurs, cam surface 94 of trigger plunger 4| disengages with its corresponding cam 99 formed on pawl 42, and causes trigger 39 to get out of mesh or gear with pawl 42. When the trigger 39 is out of mesh with the pawl 42, the plunger and spring II move the pawl 42 rearwardly, causing it to position itself so as to permit the engagement of its hook 12 with the set lever notch I3 when the gun is closed. This out of gear or mesh position with respect to pawl 42 and trigger 39 is shown in Fig. 5.

The bolt 6 continues to move rearwardly, causing automatic extractor II9, as shown in Fig. 6, to release the head I511. of the fired cartridge I5. Extractor cam lug I contacts with the receiver I at the shoulder |2|, causing the lug I20 tobe cammed inwardly, thus forcing extractor hook I23 to move away from the rim I5a of the shell of the cartridge I5, allowing the empty cartridge shell to be free to leave the gun. Since the ejector 22 remains stationary with respect to its seating plug 2|, the ejector point I24 is projected through and out of ejector conduit I25, shown in Fig. 4. When the automatic extractor H9 is cammed inwardly, it revolves on its pin I 26 and compresses extractor spring I21. At this stage the ejector point I24 projects through ejector conduit I and strikes the shell centrally. The right hand extractor I29 retains its position shown in Fig. 6 under the action of extractor spring I30. The hook I3I is then in engagement with the rim I5a of the empty shell of the original cartridge I5. The continued protrusion of the ejector finger I36 functions to allow the ejector point I 24 to eject the shell. The bolt 6 abuts or comes to a stop at about this time by contacting with the receiver plug I2 I.

The scar lever 31 is held under tension at all times by any suitable means that may function in cooperation with the lug I32, shown in Fig. 5. One form of suitable means not shown in the drawings is a plunger and spring arrangement.

When the cycle of operations above set forth is completed, the gun is in the full open position as shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the latter also showing the position or the extractors in the full open position of the gun. Atthis time the gun is in position to close and reload.

The vibrator principle and construction herein set forth may be used in an automatic pistol including small calibenhigh caliber, small caliber rifle, a high power 'rifle, an automatic shotgun,

a machine rifle, a machine gun, a machine gun of sub-caliber, light machine guns, heavy machine guns, and in anti-aircraft guns. The advantages obtained from the use of the vibrator in firearms of the type set forth will now be discussed;

Use of the vibrator in an automatic pistol of small caliber 1. It is a well known fact that an automatic pistol that functions by the recoil of small caliber ammunition is very unreliable as compared with large caliber pistols. The vibrator overcomes this difliculty completely by receiving from the gases generated the equivalent of several times the recoil generated by the explosion of the cartridge, this magnification of force plus the re- I coil of the cartridge operating the pistol.

2. When it is desired to design a pistol capable of operating with both small caliber and large caliber ammunition, it is desirable that the large caliber mechanism remain unchanged with reference to the strong bolt spring, the heavy firing mechanism and the heavy bolt mechanism. The

vibrator herein shown functions perfectly to accomplish this purpose. The only change necessary to be made is to replace the large caliber barrel unit with a sub-caliber vibrator unit, one

form of which is shown in Fig. 17. It is of course obvious that this structure shown may be greatly changed and still come within the spirit of the present invention.

3. When it is desired to design a stationary 2o barreled locked breech pistol, it is admirably accomplished by using the vibrator in a design as herein previously set forth to effect what is herein termed a gas locked breech.

4. When it is desired to have a small caliber pistol with a mechanical lock breech, it is easily designed by utilizing the principle herein set forth.

5. A pistol with accuracy of the very highest order may be constructed by using a gas lock or mechanical lock substantially as herein described.

6. Another advantage when using a vibrator as herein described is that when the vibrator is in the preferred form, it holds or positions the powder case only. The bullet extending into the barrel is seated in the rifling at the time of firing. A slight protrusion of the powder case at the piston end of the vibrator is ideal for some small caliber firearms.

7. The vibrator, in view of its construction, is of such compactness that it readily adapts itself to substantially any pistol construction.

. 8. The extremely short vibratory movement of the vibrator eliminates the necessity of returning or repositioning devices to cause the vibrator Advantages of use of vibrator in small caliber rifles 1. When the vibrator is used in small caliber rifles of the automatic form, the combination of high power rifle mechanisms of the automatic ype may be easily constructed to cooperate with small caliber ammunition, thereby producing a high power, high tension automatic action in a small caliber rifle; the small caliber ammunition operating the high power action with perfection. 2. The vibrator enables the gun mechanism to 5 have the much desired high-speed firing'mech anism; also an automatic set trigger mecha nism. I An automatic extractor or any other mechanism that, requires, force for its operation may be used.

3. In the rifle the gas lock is easily eflected, due to the inertia of the bolt mechanism and other members.

4. The mechanical locked breech ay be used, the vibrator serving as an actuate 75 mechanism and bolt mechanism.

or: the lock 5. Accuracy of the highest order may be obt'ained.

6. The vibrator does not require any relocating or repositioning means to be returned to the reloading position, its vibratory movement being of such a small order that the feeding of ammunition is not aiiected by any position the vibrator may take. J

"I. In small caliber rifles, in the preferred con struction, the vibrator positions the powder case only, or a portion of the powder case as may be desired. The bullet is seated in the barrel at the time of firing.

Advantages of using the vibrator in a high power rifle 1. When the vibrator is used in a high power automatic rifle, the rifle may have a locked breech and a stationary barrel, and the locked breech may be of the mechanical type.

2. With certain combinations herein previously described, the gas locked breech may be used.

3. The threaded vibrator will not assemble in the gun mechanism in an incorrect or unsafe manner.

4. The vibrator principle reduces the number of parts required for a locked breech gun. It also reduces' the number of cycles required for its opening and closing movements.

5. The barrel may be of a heavy or stationary type without adding any extra weight to the rifle due to the elimination of barrel jacks and barrel jack mechanisms.

'. .6. The great energy the vibrator receives from the high breech pressure insures the proper functioning of the rifle.

7. The proper utilization of the vibratior principle reduces the recoil or at least apparently reduces its efiect on the gun operator.

Advantages inherent in the use of the vibrator in an automatic shot gun ,Advantages of using the vibrator in a machine rifle 1. There is an elimination of the usual gas tubes, gas regulators, and the gas operated system in general.

2. There is a better balance and therefore a corresponding reduction in weight and size.

3. The mechanism functions with great reliability due to the vibrators violent movement.

Advantages of using the vibrator in a machine gun of sub-caliber type 1. The vibrator may be used in a machine gun of sub-caliber type to advantage, due to the fact that the sub-caliber ammunition has a comparatively low recoiling/energy.

2. The vibrator causes the sub-caliber ammunition to operate with greater reliability and therefore operates the gun mechanism more reliably.

3, The operation of the gun mechanism does not require any oil or other lubricating elements for the successful operation of the gun.

4. The gas lock principle adapts itself readily to the sub-caliber machine gun. This may eliminate the mechanical lock. However, the mechanical lock may be used to advantage.

Advantages of using the vibrator in a machine un I 1. It eliminates the regular gas operating mechanism if the gun is of the gas operated type. 2. It eliminates the heavy recoiling barrel, its mounts or slide ways and the accompanying mechanism.

3. The mechanism operates with greater speed due to the vibrators violent movement and the great reduction of the weight of the recoiling parts.

4. There is less strain, wear and tear or pounding of the mechanism at corresponding firing speeds.

5. A machine gun embodying the vibrator. is capable of a tremendous firing speed when used for aircraft purposes. This is due to the fact that the weight of the recoiling parts is cut to a substantial minimum and further to the unlimited power of the vibrator.

6. The vibrator enables a heavy barrel to be used on a machine gun which adapts itself more readily to be air cooled, the heavy barrel dissipating heat as fast as generated. This will totally eliminate the use of artificial cooling means.

'7. The heavy stationary barrel will give better accuracy than the light floating barrel; also the chance of the hot barrel sticking in the barrel casing is absolutely eliminated.

8. Aluminum or other heat .radiating material may be used on the barrel for cooling purposes.

} Advantages of use of vibrator in a heavy machine gun Advantages of using the vibrator in artillery 1. The vibrator may be used in artillery to cause the gun to eject the empty powder case more quickly.

2. In the case of self-loading or automatic loading artillery, the vibrator may serve as a mechanism actuator or mover.

Construction of gas pressure end of vibrator and vibrator piston The gas pressure end of the vibrator, and more ;specifically of the vibrator piston I may be convex, concave, of disk contour, or of a coun tersunk shape. It may have a pointed shape, a round nose shape, it may have varying diameters, it may'have a single or multiple number of recesses drilled longitudinally of the piston member, functioning as pockets or clearance spaces so that elements of combustion, powder grains, lead or other foreign elements may fall into the recesses. This will insure (that the vi- 5 brator piston or nose seats close to the" bore of the barrel. An expansible ring may be fitted around'the piston member I05 for the purpose of sealing the piston against the escape of the gases. .This ring may be capable of expanding by slots cut thereon, or be completely cut in half or separated in one side or by other separations. It

may be thin enough to expand. Instead of using a single expansible ring, several such rings may be used or multi rings may be used. The face l05a may be countersunk or. shaped so as to have a scraping action to loosen directly or indirectly elements of combustion, and in this manner in- .sure their non-interference with the operation of the gun. The cylindrical surface l05b of the piston member I05 mayhave a radial out thereon adapted to receive a split skirt or otherwise expansible sleeve fitted therein. The sleeve will then be in contact with the piston and the barrel thereby removing the danger of the piston expanding out of the desired proportions due to the continual pounding of the gases.

The face I05a of the piston member I05 may have a radial out therein, this cut being located in the gas pressure area. The radial cut may have a shell type plunger located therein upon which the gases may act, expanding and sealing the piston against. the'escape of gas. The piston member I05 may be split one or several ways to provide for expansion. The face I051) of the piston I05 may be drilled with a series of holes in itsside. The gas pressure end 15a of the piston member I05 may have a valve face formation to fit in a corresponding face in the barrel 2. Several such valve face formations may be provided and there will be a series of corresponding faces in the barrel to receive them.

Contour, form, or appearance of piston member of vibrator provided or a series of step cuts used in circular or radial order. The vibrator piston may not be of the usual piston shape but be of a tapered formation similar to the taper employed in the use and manufacture of tapers or machine arbors, lathe centers and the like. The taper may be constant or otherwise. The outer surface of the vibrator piston may be of the varying tapered shape or may have an ever changing degree of diameter.

Shape of means holding and positioning vibrator, including threads, lugs, or other equivalents The threads H0 of the vibrator may have the usual square thread shapes. The threads may be cut at such an angle so as not to look as in an ordinary nut and bolt, but as a special worm which will unscrew under pressure. In this case, it may be provided with locking means to prevent unscrewing. The threads may be of the usual continuous circle type thread, or may have in addition a set of interrupted type threads, this combination of threads being located on one vibrator. The threads may be of the interrupted type exclusively, that is not combined with the continuous type of thread. The threads may be brator may be controlled by the number of turns of the multi-thread type The threads may be of such a type that two complete sets are employed on one surface, one set of threads starting 5 at the forward end and one set of threads starting at the rear end and checking and crossing each-other. The vibrator may have threads of the type and shape set forth above, and any type of threads now in use 'on bolts, screws, worm drives, and all screw drive members. The threads may be'cut so as to hang over each other or interlock with each other with respect tothe receiving threads of the male or female type, as the case may be. The threads may be substituted by convenient lugs, projections, ears,

flanges and thelike which will function to operate in a manner similar to the threads.

The vibrator may be slotted or slitted to receive pins or other locating members. these elements are used, companionate recesses are cut in convenient locations in the receiver or elsewhere. These locating means may be formed directly upon the vibrator or indirectly. The vibrator may be held in place by the use of the '25 regular complete turn type threads, and in addition to such a set of threads a set of interrupted threads may be employed. This combination may be combined to give any desired eifect. One effect, for example, is that the continuous threads serve to force the vibrator from its seat, the

interrupted threads disengaging at the first opportunity. This permits quick dismounting and mounting. The vibrator may be of any usual shape but may be provided with an ejector means .to mechanically eject the same from the gun.

The ejector means may comprise levers, handles,

sleeves, springs, slide means, or any convenient-- 5 Advantages of devising a vibrator with vibratory threads The vibrator threads insure strength of construction causing the gun to stand-up under. the '55 pounding or shock of the vibrator, yibrating at high speed without special heat treatment. When using high pressure ammunition, the vibrator having threads set forth has the required strength to withstand any pressure that the bare0 rel is subject to, therebyeliminating weak parts in the firearm. The. use of the threads makes it impossible to assemble and fire the gun when the vibrator is not 'fully closed and therefore locked, making it impossible to fire the gun in a dangerous position which may destroy or otherwise wreck'the gun and be fatal to the operator. This may happen to a great extent if the threads are not used.

The threads act also in a measure as a gas check, aiding considerably in the check of the escape of the gases. The use of a threaded vibrator lends itself to easy and accurate manufacture. The threads may be accurately made, so they bear or contact their entire length or limit with ease and accuracy. The strength of the vi- When The dead center of this thereon, and this without enlarging the gun proportions necessary to produce the required strength in the gun. The threads, being capable of being formed on round members, as is well understood, have a round contour similar to the barrel which is highly desirable, giving the firearm grace and balance, which is of great importance. The threads give a high degree of strength, considering the amount of metal used in the construction of the threads, thereby eliminating certain dead weight. The threads have a large contact area which is desirable, considering the problem of deformation of the vibrator due to shock and pressure; the large area of contact is gained symmetrically. A vibrator provided with threads permits easy forced removal of the vibrator by simply unscrewing the same from its holding mechanism, thereby preventing damage to the vibrator due to misdirected efiorts to remove the samevwhen the vibrator is stuck or otherwise bound in the gun. Further, the breaking, bending, shearing, and deforming by swelling or battering of lugs or contact members other than threads are eliminated. All tension and pressure is absorbed radially and evenly distributed so that the vibrator piston member has no side slap or pounding action during the violent vibration set up on firing.

Another advantage is that when just one complete thread turn is used in the construction of the vibrator, in some cases it gives an ample margin of strength. For example, this is true when a .45 Colt government automatic is modified to turn it into a sub-caliber unit. As shown, in Fig. 17, here only one thread turn is used. As shown in Fig. 1'7, the usual barrel mechanism is removed and the units assembled therein in the place formerly occupied by the regular .45 caliber barrel and its attendant parts. The chief advantage of the single thread used in the unit set forth in Fig. 1'? is in part only one thread on the vibrator is necessary, causing the same to be short and compact. Further, it gives great symmetry and small size necessary in a modification of this type.

How the length of the vibrator chamber or bore may vary 1) The vibrator bore may be long enough to hold the entire powder case.

(2) The vibrator bore may be of an inch less than the length of the powder case, this leaving a small portion of the powder case protruding from the vibrator bore. "Under these circumstances, the front end of the shell never deforms.

(3) The vibrator bore may be longer than the shell, for example, it may be of an inch longer.

(4) The vibrator bore maybe as long as the entire cartridge chamber which, in some cases, is as long as the powder case plus a part of the length of the bullet.

(5) The vibrator bore may comprise a length of usual shaped bore which may be smooth or rifled to correspond to the bore of the barrel, this giving the vibrator a chamber part and a rifled part. i

(6) The length of the bore of the piston member of the vibrator may be such that a portion of the powder case may be positioned or stationed or rest in the barrel bore with the shell or powder case bridging or covering the slight gap between the front end of the piston and the rear end of the barrel.

(7) The vibrator bore maybe, for example, so short as to only hold that portion of the shell or powder case that constitutes the head meas- 'urements such as the rim or the cut recessed for the extractor or the formation for the extractor or shell remover, or the portion which locates the priming means.

Further advantages of threads It may be pointed out that the employment of a multi-sectioned vibrator serves to automatically provide for head space developments, such as result from wear and tear of mechanism. The multi-sectioned vibrator provides this adjust- 15 ment. automatically as head space develops.

A single piece vibrator may be employed to provide for head space development. The bolt lock holding the vibrator in its forward position secures powder case. The power for causing the 20 vibrator to function as a head space adjuster is attained through the aid of the gases acting on the forward end of the vibrator'an'd' forcing the shell and vibrator against the gun mechanism in unison, and as a unit and improper relationship.

5 The advantage resulting fr/om employing the vibrator having vibrator threads is self-evident and in that type of gun that is operated by the movement of the primer, the latter moving rearwardly and operating the gun. Fine adjust- 30 ments are desirable for the member that contacts with the primer, and the threads admirably perform this function, inasmuch as they permit the desired movement and maintain indefinitely a positive adjustment. This arrangement 5 may be termed a vibrating tappet. The threads withstand the severe pounding set up at firing admirably without special heat treatment.

Such threads also make it impossible to assemble the tappet member in an unsafe position which would allow the gun to be destroyed at the time of firing. The threads on the tappet arrangement set forth withstand the tremendous strain caused in the vibrator mechanism when the primer is pierced or otherwise permits gases to enter the mechanism under a tremendously high breech pressure.

Fit relationship between the forward end of the vibrator or vibrator piston member The piston memberdoes not of absolute necessity fit as hereinbefore described and shown in the drawings, but may be so fitted that the piston effect is omitted. In such a case, the forward end of the vibrator and the rear end of the barrel and its bore come in contact in a manner similar to that in which a revolver cylinder contacts with the barrel of a revolver, the gases generated upon explosion of the cartridge having free access to escape at right angles or other angles as the case may be. A clearance or other out is provided in thereceiver for such gas escapa'ge. The receiver may be provided with screw or other locating means, as has been hereinbefore described, and a may also be-formed so as to locate and position the vibrator with respect to the barrel so as to aline the vibrator bor'e with the barrel bore, provision also being made at the forward end of the receiver for securing the barrel to the same,.

whether permanently or otherwise.

The front end of the vibrator piston of the vibrator may be counter-sunk or funnel-shape and when of this shape can cooperate with a coneshaped barrel portion. The aforesaid vibrator means may have a chambered portion as usual, 75 and communicating with the chamber and concentric therewith a funnel-shaped portion. A cylindrical portion communicates with the funnel and is adapted to cooperate with a cone formed on the barrel member and the cylindrical portion is adapted to cooperate with a cylindrical portion formed on the barrel. The funnel, cylinder and cones may be formed radially and concentrically with the barrel bore and vibrator chamber and have a seating engagement with respect to each other. This functions to cause the elements of combustion to exhaust from the gun as desired. Further, if it is desired that the explosion gases escape in a reverse direction, the cones, cylinders and funnels may be located either on the vibrator or the barrel in a reverse order or other order. The front end of the vibrator piston may have the several shapes herein described and engage corresponding faces in the barrel member, substantially as hereinbefore described.

- Advantages of a trigger mechanism constructed as herein set forth anism employs cams at all points that go into and out of gear with their respective members. The cams cause the trigger mechanism to have the one-piece trigger pull effect, such as would 'be the case in hand operated guns where the trigger and hammer have direct connection.

The trigger mechanism described is capable of a pull known as the crisp or icicle release, the operator not being able to detect the movement that is required to pull the trigger the distance required to fire the gun. Adjustments are made for trigger pull by means of an adjusting screw.

By proximal position as used in the appended claims is meant the position of the parts when the gun is loaded and ready to fire and by spaced position as used therein is meant the position of the parts when the parts are in their extreme open or loading position.

The term bolt means, as used in some of the appended claims, includes the usual gun bolt and, further, is intended to cover the latter together with such associated members as may be directly or indirectly acted upon by the movable member to indirectly cause the bolt to operate, it being pointed out that the bolt, in accordance with the structure disclosed in Fig. 23 of the drawings, is indirectly functioned by operation of the movable member, and the term bolt means" is intended to cover such an arrangement of the 'bolt and its associated cooperating elements.

The term barreltime" is used in the claims in its well known general significance to mean the time required for the projectile after the firing of the ammunition to pass through the bore of the gun barrel.

The term unlocking time as used in the claims is the time required for the bolt means to become unlocked from the ammunition chamber of the gun.

Certain modifications herein disclosed are claimed in applicants oopending application, Serial No. 686,932.

What I claim is:

1. In a gun of the class described, barrel means, bolt means, a chambered threaded vibrator pro-

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U.S. Classification89/156, 89/185, 42/16, 89/191.1, 89/188, 89/161, 42/69.2
International ClassificationF41A5/00, F41A5/24
Cooperative ClassificationF41A5/24
European ClassificationF41A5/24