US 2092042 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
` Sept. 7, 1937. A. L. ABMENTROUT ET Al.
WELL SCREEN Filed July 5, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet. 1
.y w l lill/01' 1/ Il 13.1.74 u
Sept. 7, 1937. A. ARMENTROUT ET AL 2,092,042
WELL SCREEN Filed July 5,' 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 www? m m| fm l Patented Sept. .7, 1937 WELL SCREEN Arthur L. Armentrout, Bakersfield, and Elwin B. Hall, Los Angeles, Calif., assignors, by direct and mesne assignments, to Security Engineering C0., Inc., Whittie California r, Calif., a corporation of Application July 5, 1935, Serial No. 29,990
' 1 Claim.
This invention relates to well apparatus and relates more particularly to la liner or screen for an oil Well or gas well. A general object of the present invention is to provide a practical,
y effective liner or screen for a Well.
When a productive stratum has been encoun'- tered or found in an oil 'well or gaswell it is the usual practice to set a liner or screen in the productive zone to prevent/the sanding up and caving in of -the productive portion of the Well. The usual or typical liners or screens are made vup of lengths of steel pipe provided With perforations, perforated inserts and/or Wrappings of wire to prevent the entrance of sand, gravel, etc., to the liner and the well. It has been found that the salt water, mineralvacids, etc.,often encountered in the Wells corrode and quickly destroy the metal screen pipe and the wire wrappings, etc., necessitating the early replacement of the liner or screen. After a relatively short period of use the sand and gravel of the formation tightly pack about a liner or screen due to the caving of the formation andthe influx of the gas and oil. The packing of the rsand and gravel about the liner or screen usually makes it extremely dificultv to remove the liner or screen for the purpose of replacement or for deepening the well and in many cases expensive fishing operations must be resorted to to remove the metal liner or screen from the Well.
Another object of `the present invention is to provide a liner or screen for a Well that does not require withdrawal from the well when it is desired to ,deepen the well or replace the liner.
Another object of the invention is to provide a liner or screen that is vformed of frangible or friable material so that it may be easily broken and drilled up when it requires replacement or when it is desired to deepen the well.
Another object of the invention is to provide a. liner or screen of the character mentioned that is formed of a material that is substantially unaffected by the salt water, acids and the lik that may be present in the well.
Another object of the invention is to provide a frangible or friable liner or screen of the char- 'acter mentioned that is effective in admitting the well fluids while excluding or screening out the sand, etc.
l Another object of this invention is to provide tlie novel combination of a screen or liner and a means for locating or setting the same in a well that insures the safe easy positioning of the friable liner in the desired position in the well.
(ol. 16s- 5) Another object of this invention is to provide a means or device for setting a liner or screen in a well that is operable. to flush and wash' the Wall of the well bore as the liner is being set to 4remove mud, etc., from the wall of the well and 5 thus permit the free flow or inux of the oil,
gas, etc. v
Another object of this invention is to provide a frangible or friable liner or screen of the character mentioned that is capable of depend- 10 ably withstanding the 110W and pressure conditions to which it may be subjected when in use.
'I'he liner or screen of the present invention may be reinforced so that it may be handled and run into thewell without danger of breaking or failing and so that it is adapted to dependably withstand the conditions to which it may be subjected in the well bore. v
A further object of this invention is to provide a well liner or screen of the character mentioned that is simple and inexpensive of manufacture.
The various objects and features of our invention will be fully understood from the following detailed description of typical preferred forms and applications of the invention, throughout which description reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
a joint between two body sections, illustrating the connection betweenthe reinforcing wires.' Fig. 4
is an enlarged fragmentary exteriorview of the liner taken as indicated by line 4-4 on Fig. 1 illustrating one form of screen band. Fig.v 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 illustrating another form vof screen band. Fig. 6 is an-enlarged fragmentary vertical detailed sectional view illustrating an insert arranged in an opening of the liner. Fig. '7 is a sectional view of the lower portion of a well bore illustrating the liner of the present invention entering the same, and showing the manner in which the fluid is discharged to wash the wall of the bore. Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 1 with the setting and ushing string removed` and Fig. 9 is a central longitudinal detailed sectional view of another form of the invention showin g the setting .and flushing element connected therewith and extending therethrough.
The form of the present invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 8, inclusive, of the drawings, includes,
. openings 24.-in theirlrwalls generally, a tubular friable body Ill, a shoe II on the lower end of the body I0, and means I2 for positioning orsetting the liner body I0 in the well and for ushing and washing the wall of the well bore B.
)The liner or screen body I0 is an important feature of the present invention. The body I0 is an elongate tubular member or structure adapted tobe run into the well to a position in the open productive portion of the well bore B. The length of the body III depends upon the extent of the productive stratum or zone of the well in which the liner is to be used. Accordingly, the body III is. preferably sectional comprising as many sections I3 as may be needed. The body sections I3 are preferably connected by flush threaded connections I4 and are preferably of uniform internal and external diameter. A head section or cap I5 lis threaded to the upper end of the uppermost body section I3. The cap I5 is tubular having a central longitudinal opening I6 which is of less diameter than the central longitudinalopening I1 of the body I0. The upper vend I8 of the cap I5 is preferably tapered downwardly and inwardly for the purpose to be hereinafter described.
In accordance with the invention the body I0 is drillable orffriable so that it may be readily drilled up by a drilling tool when it is desired toA remove the, liner or screen from the well. The
body IU, that is the sections I3 and thecap I5,-.
may be formed of cement, a' composition of cementitious materials, bakelite, ceramic material, glass or any other material having the required strength and resistance to the action of the fluids in the well and that is drillable or capable of being broken up and drilled up by a well drilling tool. The body I0 of the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 8, inclusive, of the drawings, is .shown as formed of cement or the like, while the body of the liner illustrated in Fig. 9 is shown as formed of glass, it being understood that the body may be formed of any of the materials mentioned above or any equivalent materials. Where the well contains iiuids destructive to cement and the like it is preferred to make the body I0 of bakelite or other material that is not affected by the fluids. l
It may be preferred or desired to reinforce the drillable or friable liner body I0. In the particular case illustrated in the drawings longitudinally extending rods or wires I9 are molded or cast in the body sections I3 to form reinforcements. The end portions of the reinforcing wires I9 extend into'recesses 20 in the adjacent or connected end portionsof the'bodysections I3. The
exposed end portions of the wires I9 of the connected sections may be twisted or linked together as shown at 2I. The linked portions of the reinforcing wires I9 may be welded as at 22 or the .ly reinforce the body sections andr as the wires l .ISffthe several sections are tied or welded to getlie hey strengthen and reinforce the entire f 'ellineror screen body I0 is perforated, the sections I3 being-fprovided with multiplicities of `The openings 24 are spaced longitudinally and circumferentially of the body sections I3 to admit fluid from the well bore B to the body opening I1. It is to be understood that the upper end portion of the body III which may extend into the well casing C may be imperforate or devoid of openings. In the particular structure shown in the drawings the openings 24 areround or cylindrical, itbeing understood that vthe openings may be of any desired conguration. It is preferred to provide the openings 24 with screens or screen means for preventing the entrance? of gravel, sand, and the like into the body opening I1. The present invention broadly contemplates the employment of various forms of means for screening the openings 24. Where the character of the material of which the body sections I0 are formed permits the open? ings 24 may be of such size and shape that they do not require additional means for preventing the-entrance of sand and gravel into the openings I1. In the drawings we have illustrated several typical means for screening the openings 24, it being understood that the invention in its broader aspect is not to be construed as limited to the particular screen means shown.
In Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 of the drawings the openings 24 are in circumferential series and bands 25 surround the body sections I3 and extend across the outer ends of the openings 24. The bands 25 are preferably embedded or countersunk in the exteriors of the body sections I3 and may be provided on the sections I3 when they are formed or cast. The bands 25 are rigid or fixed against movement and are preferably formed of hard material. \The bands being in effect screens it is preferred that they be made of a hard wear resisting material. In practice any hard material suchas screen parts of this nature are ordinarily made of vcan beused. In any particular case the conditions may determine the material used. Metal. glass and like hard materials are known in the art for this sort of use. Series of openings or slots 26 are provided in the bands 25 to communicate with the openings 24. The size or width of the slots 26 depends upon the conditions prevailing in the well. In Figs. 1 2, 4; '7 and 8 of the drawings the slots 26 extend vertically while in Fig. 5 of the drawings the slots 26 extend-horizontally it being understood that the fluid admitting slots 26 maybe vertical, horizontal or inclined as desired. The slots 26 are proportioned to exclude or screen out the sand or gravel and admit oil,
the sand and gravel from the openings 24 and i protect the body sections I3 against the excessive erosion or cutting away action of the uids.
Fig. 6 of the drawings illustrates a form, of the invention in which inserts 21 of hard material are threaded in the openings 24. The inserts 21 are preferably substantially flush with-the internal and external surfaces of the body sections I3 and are fixed or immovable in the openings. Pluralities of slots 28 are provided in the inserts 21 to pass or admit uid into the openings 24 and the body opening I1 from the productive stratum. The openings 28 are preferably ofinwardly increasing width so that their relatively narrow outer ends may effectively exclude the sand, while their wider inner portions may provide for the maximum flow of fluid into the body opening I1. It is to be understood that inserts may be employed in connectionlwith any forms of the present invention and may be used in substitutionfor or in addition to the bands 25 described above.
The shoe II is'provided on the lower end of the body III to guide the body through the well and to support the body on the bottom of the well bore B. The shoe I I also discharges uid to clean the wall of the well bore B as will be hereinafter described. The shoe II is frangible or friable and may be formed of the same mate` rial as the body I0. It may be preferred, however, to form the shoe II of somewhat harder material than the body I0. For example, it may be preferred to form the shoe II of marble or the like. The shoe II is threaded -or otherwise secured to the lower end of the lowermost body section I3. In the particular case illustrated in f the drawings the shoe II has a threaded socket ed in a socket 33 in the shoe II.
30 in its upper end receivinga threaded pin 3| on the lower end of the lowermost body section l a multiplicity of lengths of tubing or pipe in the well known manner. The lower parts or sections 32 of the string S extend longitudinally through the opening I1 of the liner body I0. The lower end of the string S is removably connected with the shoe II which may be considered an element of the means I2 if desired. In the preferred construction illustrated the lower end of the lowermost section 32 of the string S is thread- The threads on the lower end of the section 32 and on the wall of the socket 33 are preferablyk left-hand threads so` that they may be easily disengaged by turning the string S without loosening the other threaded connections of the string. In the particular form of the invention being described the sections 32 of the stri-ng Sextend through the body opening I1 with considerable clearance so that they do not contact thwall of the open' ing I1.
'Ihe cap I5 may carry a ring 34 of rubber or the like to engage` about the string S to form a shock absorber and guard. The threaded joints or connections 35 between the sections 32 located within the opening I1 are internal joints or flush joints so that the portion of the string S which extends into the opening I1 does not present any shoulders which might interfere with the cap I5. The liner body IIJ supported at its lower end on the string S through the medium of the shoe II is not subjected to tensile strains as it is run into the well. The cement or material of which the body IIJ is formed is capable of withstanding considerable compression strain without failure and as the body I is only under the compression strain imposed by its own weight there is little or no danger of the body I0 breaking or failing when it is run into the well bore on the string S.
"I"l'1us.thev body,.|0 supported from its lower end on. the string S when being run into the well and; setiis not namen) fail or break.
accordance with the invention the means I2,
togethervwith thejshoe I I is adapted to discharge the wall of the bore B to wash the same as the liner body I0 is being run through the bore and is being set. The invention provides a plurality of circumferentially spaced lateral discharge ports 36 in the shoe II. A chamber 31 is provided in the lower end of the socket 33 and the ports 3B Acommunicate with the chamber to discharge the fluid outwardly. Water or other suitable uid is adapted to be passed or pumped through the string S to discharge from the ports 3'6 and wash the wall of the bore B.
It is believed thatthe use and operation of the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 8 of the drawings will be understood from the foregoing detailed description. The body Ill constructed and made up as described above, is provided with the shoe II and is run into the well bore on the string S which is connected with the shoe II. The body I0 supported on the shoe II which in turn is connected with the lower end of the string I3 is n ot under tension as t is run into the Well and, therefore, is not liable to fail or break. The lower end of the friable body I0 is rigidly connected with the string S by the shoe I I while the upper end of the body bears or rests .on the string through the medium of the cap I5 and the ring 34. In being associated with the string lS in this manner the body I0 does not move or vibrate relative to the string. The wires I9 effectively reinforce the body I0 and connect its several sections I3 against unthreading or detachment one from the other.
When the string S has been lowered to a point where the liner or screen is entering or is about to enter the open bore B water or other fluid is passed through the string S\to discharge from the ports 36. This fluid or Water is preferably under pressure so that it discharges from the ports 36 at a comparatively high velocity. The fluid or water discharging from the ports 36 as the liner enters and passes through the bore B washes the Wall of the bore free of mud and the ,like leaving the sands or formation clean so that the oil, gas and other fluid may freely flow into the well bore. This washing of the bore B is important as it insures a greater and freer production of the oil and gas. When the shoe II reaches or rests on the bottom of the well bore the discharge of the uid from the shoe II may be discontinued and the string S may be detached from the shoe II. The string S may be easily vdisconnected from the shoe II by rotating it to unthread the lower end of its lowermost section 32 fromthe socket 33. The string S is then removed from the well leaving the liner or screen in its operative position in the 'bore B. h
The oil, gas and -other fluid from the sands or formation ows through the. slots 26 or 28 and the openings 24 into the body opening I1 and is free to pass upwardly from the Aopening I1 into the casing C. As described above, the bands 25 or the inserts 21 effectively exclude the sand and gravel from the liner opening I1 and allow the free entrance of the well uids into the opening. When it becomes necessary or desirable to remove the liner or screen for the purpose of replacing the same or for cleaning the well or for deepening the well a suitable drilling tool, preferably a y v'per end I8 of the cap I5 is adapted to guide the advancing part of the drill into the body opening I1. The body IIl'and the shoe II being friable or frangible as described above are readily drilled up and destroyed by the drill. The metal parts Aspecial strainers or screens.. stood of course that screening means similar to i that may be embodied in the liner or screen are small and quickly drilled up by the drill. The `drill which is employed to Ydrill up the liner may be employed to deepen the well if this is necessary or desired. As the liner of the present invention is formed principally of frangible or friable material it may be quickly drilled up by a drilling tool and, therefore, dores not require -removal from the well under any circumstances. As described above, the body I and the shoe l I may be formed of material or materials that are substantially unaiected by the uids in the Well so that they are Very long wearing,
Fig. 9 of the drawings illustrates an embodiment of the invention including a body Il)E formed of glass and a slightly modified form of means |211 for setting or positioning the liner in the well and for flushing the well bore. v
The body I0a may be of the same shape and construction as the body I0 being an elongate tubular structure formed of a plurality of threadedly connected sections |38. As the body il]a is formed of glass it may not be necessary to reinforce it although it may be reinforced with rods or wires if desired. The body HIB is provided with a pluralityof circumferentially and longitudinally spaced openings 24a for admitting'the oil, gas, etc., from the well bore into the central. longitudinal openings 30. The openings 24a may be in the form of slots proportioned to exclude the sand or gravel without the addition or use of those described above may be embodied in this form of the invention'if desired. A head section or cap 4I is providedzbn the upper endjiof the body Illa. A shoe I I8L isfprovided on the lower end of the body lila. The shoe lla may be substantially identical with the shoe H.'-
The means I2EL incl desa-a string P of tubing or pipe and a tubular el ment 42 on the lower end ofthestring P extending longitudinally through the body I 0a. The tubular elemertA 42 yfit-s the body'opening 40 rather closely or accurately and in the event that it is made up of a plurality of sections its threaded4 connections are ush so that it does not present external shoulders. The element 42 extends longitudinally through the body l0a from one end to the other and continues threads on the element 42 and the wall of thel f socket 44 are preferably lefthand threads so that the element may be disconnected from the shoe by rotation of the string P without loosening the It is to be underthreaded connections in the string.. A chamber 45 is provided in the shoe Il at the lower end of the socket 44 and a plurality of lateral discharge lports 46 extend outwardly from the chambei` for the discharge of fluid into the well bore.
The use and operation ofthe liner and setting means illustrated in Fig. 9 of the drawings are substantially the same as those of the previously described form of the invention. The liner is run into the well on'the string P and positioned in the open portionof the well bore. The element 42 in closely or accurately tting the body opening 40 effectively braces the body Illa against any jars or blows to which it may be subjected and, therefore, prevents breakage of the body as it is being run into the well. As the liner enters the open portion of the well bore fluid under pressure is pumped through the string P to discharge from the ports 46 and wash the wall ofthe bore. The element 42 in closely fitting the body openingl 40 closes the inner ends of the openings 24a and thus prevents the entrance of mud, sand, etc., into the liner body. When the liner has been set in the desired position the stringP is rotated to disconnect theY element 42 from the shoe Ila and th'e string with the element 42 is withdrawn from the well leaving the liner body I0 open to receive the oil, gas, etc. from the formation. The body Ill@L in being formed of glass is substantially unaffected by the uids in the well and is very long wearing. When it is desired to replacey the liner or deepen the well a drilling tool is run into the well and is operated to break up and drill up the friable body l0# and the friable shoe Ila leaving the well bore entirely clear.
Having described only-typical preferred forms andapplications of our invention, we do not wish to be limited or restricted to the specific-details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to ourselves any variations or modications that may appear to "those skilled in the art or fall within the scope of thefollowing claim: 'e
Having described our invention, we claim:
A liner of the character described for use in a well comprising a tubular body including a plurality of drillable tubular sections having cooperatively engaged end portions coupling ad joining sections together end to end, there being iluid admitting openings in the walls of the sections, reinforcing members in the sections accessible vat the ends of the sections when the sections are joined, the reinforcing members of the adjacent connected sections being engageable with each other to further couple the/sections together.
ARTHUR L. ARMENIROUT. ELWIN B. HALL.