US 2092484 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 7, 1937. F. M. 'roMLlNsoN CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR Filed July 1l, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 u N Si N Q N u e0 N A n go 2\ Q 2Q@ R QR R g w w- R Q w 'D QQ O-a5 Q Mw w N mb n :n i I N 3 QQ "a l; w Q
O h I :e N N n H Q mi Ssz u w m f- K Rza w Si Qlf N "N N gg G5 v nml H n G5 i l N INV'ENTOR. Fgyj. Tamil 175022,
ATTORNEY Patented sept. 7,' 1931 PATENT .OFFICE i i faosam cEN'mIFUGAx. sumaron Fay M. Tomlinson, Lebanon, Ind., asaignor to Arthur M. Hood, trustee Application July 11, 1932, Serial No. 621,777
My invention relatesN to certain improvements in details oi construction of a centrifugal separator comprising a rotary bowl and a plurality of Y nested stratification disks so arranged that sepa- 5 rating flow therebetween is only outwardly through higher pressure regions.
In order to adapt such an apparatus for acting upon a wide range of liquids and liquid mixtures, modifications, substitutions and rearrangements of parts are desirable and necessary and one ob- :lect of my present invention is toprovide readily changeable parts by means of which the structure may act efliciently to accurately separate different constituent mixtures of `two liquids of different specific gravities, and at the same time to clarify said two liquids by retention of solids having speciiic gravities greater than those of the two constituent liquids.
A further object of my invention is to provide 90 readily placeable means whereby the fundamental elements of the structure may be caused to efiiciently function merely\as a clarifier.
A further object of my invention is to provide improvements in details of construction of the receiving pans whereby convenience of manipulation is obtained. t
The accompanying drawings illustrate my invention.
Fig. 1 is an elevation in half axial section of an an embodiment of my invention when the parts are arranged for simultaneous clarification and twoliquid separation.
Fig. 2 is a similar view of a bowl and contained parts, where the parts are arranged for simple clarification; and
Fig. 3 a similar view of a bowl to be used merely as a clariiier.
'I'he apparatus consists, primarily, of a rotary bowl B within which are nested a plurality of axially-separated stratiiication disks D, subtended by a guard disk D' and supertended by a guard flange D".
Bowl B comprises', primarily, the bottom plate 5 which is conveniently integral with the hollow u stem 6, and the annular side wall 1 removably attached to the periphery of bottom plate 5 by nut 8.
The side wall 1 comprises a main vertical lower portion, an inwardly extending annular ange Il, a short annular vertical wall I5 rising from the inner edge of flange Il, an inwardly extending annular ange I5 perforated at I1 and surmgunted by an annular discharge lip I8 for the l5 heavier liquid, and an annular discharge neck I9,
` annular ring dam 4I which ts neck I0" and the upper edge I9 of which forms a discharge lip for the lighter liquid.
An inlet passage 25 leads downwardly through the upper part of stem 6l to the upper ends of downwardly extending inlet passages 25 which 5 lead to the bottom of the bowl. These passages 25 are formed in part by a sleeve 26. Arranged above the elivery ends of passages 25' and extending out ardly substantially parallel with the bottom plate 5. is the bottom 21 of a supplemental 10 bowl SB which also comprises the upwardly and outwardly inclined annularV wall 28 perforated at 29 and formed at its upper edge as a seat for the lguard disk D. Bowl SB carries a plurality vof radial vanes 30 (inside and outside) to reduce 1- circumferential slippage of liquid relative thereto. Guard disk D' has an eye 3| of less diameter than bottom 21 and greater diameter than the adjacent part of stem 6 and its outer edge is spaced inwardly from wall 1 as shown. This 20 disk is most conveniently outwardly and upwardly dished, as shown, and is preferably imperi'orate. In any event it should be of such character as to insure a substantial ilow of liquid inwardly between it and bottom 21 and thence 25 upwardly through its eye 3i.
Nested within and above disk D are a number of identical annular stratification disks D each of which has an eye,3l and a plurality of intermediate perforations132 each of which is prefers0 ably guarded, on the upper face of the disk, by a guard lip 33, the height of which is less than the distance to the under surface of theimmediately superposed disk. The disks carry isolated spacer blocks 34 (Fig. 2) which serve to maintain 35 proper spacing of the disks.
The disks are held in a unit within and above the supplemental bowl SB by the guard flange D which blocks outflow through eye 3| of the uppermost disk D and directs iiow between the 40 two top disks to the perforations 32 of the top disk and to the peripheral space betweenthe two top disks. l
Overlying the top disk and contacting the upper surface of its outer edge is a collecting bell 4U the outer edge .40 of which is spaced from wall 1. Bell 40 has a neck 40" which extends up into and fits neck I9. l
Within neck 40,", near its upper end, is an is held against upward displacemenu by the depending lugs l2' of a ring 52 held in place Vby nut 43 threaded on stem 5. The outer edge of ring r 42 is serrated, as indicated at l2" to afford out- In order that the device may be successfully used to separate any two liquids having a difierence of specific gravities within the range of the device, and in order that minute adjustments may be readily made, it is necessary to provide radially differential dams between the interior of the bowl and the two discharge lips I9 and I9. The ring dam 4| is therefore readily removable and replaceable by any one of a number having different internal diameters differing but slightly from their adjacent fellows. I also provide a similar group of ring dams 45, any one of which may be seated on the shoulder 49 at the root of wall I5 by the ring nut 41. 'I'his ring nut 41 is serrated onits lower edge, as shown at 41' so as to support the main plate of bell 40 against the pressure created beneath the bell.
At times it is desirable to use a device of this kind solely as a clarifier to abstract undesirable solids (or comparatively small volumes of a heavier liquid or sludge) from a simple liquid, (or a mixture of several liquids of different specific gravities separation of which is not desired).
In order that this end may be attained a ring dam 6| (Fig. 2) is inserted to block the annular space between wall 1 and the upper edge of bowl SB. 'I'he ring dam 6| may be imperforate or, as shown, may be lightly perforated, as indicated at 62.
When ring dam 6| is used the ring dams 4| and 45 and bell 40 are removed and in place of dam 45 I insert a thimble T (Fig. 2) comprising a horizontal flange 65 and a neck 96. 'I'he outer edge of flange 65 is clamped against shoulder 46 by nut 41 and neck 96 fits neck i9, thus blocking any outflow to and through perforations |1 and over lip I9.
If only clarification is ever desired the modification shown in Fig. 3 (where similar parts are similarly designated), is used.
In this construction flange |6 is not perforated and there is no need for dams 4| and 45 or for bell 40 or thimble T. Here, instead of the dam 6| shown in Fig. 2, I provide a plain ring dam 6 la (slightly perforated at 62 if desired) which is held in place between a downwardly-presented shoulder 10 on wall 1 and the extended tips of vanes 30.
Devices of the character which have been described are often used for treating lubricating oils and other similar fluids which rapidly deteriorate rubber packings and in prior devices frequent necessary replacements of rubber packing rings, at junctions of bowl parts, has been and is a considerable item of expense of maintenance.
I have overcome this difiiculty in the following manner:
The upper surface of the bottom plate 5 of bowl B at its outer rim is provided with a narrow annular depressed surface flanked at the inner periphery by the outwardly-presented shoulder 16 and provided with an intermediate upwardlyextending wedge rib 11 having an outwardly-ilaring inner surface 18. Wall 1, at its inner corner is provided with a rabbet 19 which receives and closely fits shoulder 16. The lower edge of wall 1 is provided with an annular groove 499 which is nearly circular in cross-section to provide a throat somewhat narrower than the cross-sectional diameter of the groove and compressed into this groove is a rubber packing strip Il of corresponding cross-section. 'Ihe parts are so proportioned, as shown, that the upper edge of rib 11 may enter the throat of groove 69 and the inclined face 19 engage strip Il to compress strip 9| inwardly and upwardly as wall1 is drawn down to operative position by nut 9. Strip 9| is thus most firmly compressed in the only region which oil under any considerable pressure may possibly reach it and, as rubber is non-absorbent of oil when it is under substantial compression, the strip 9| is thoroughly protected against deterioration.
When wall 1 is separated from bottom l to permit discharge of accumulated solids and sludge, the outflow but lightly touches the packing strip and can be easily and promptly wiped away before the bowl parts are reassembled. I have found in actual practice that, with the above described construction, the life of the packing 9| is increased very many times over packings of the same material heretofore used in centrifuges. a
Basin W and the separator bowl therein, are covered by a sheet-metal collecting pan C, comprising an annular outer wall 95 subtended by an inwardly-extending flange 90 adapted to rest upon the mouth of basin W and secured to the exterior of an inverted bell-like annulus 91 the outer depending edge 99 of which nts within the mouth of basin W. The annulus 91 arches over the bowl B and has a central eye dened by an upwardly-extending flange 99 through which neck |9 protrudes. Sleeved frictionally upon, and rotating with, neck i9 is a guard sleeve 90 provided with a depending lip 9| which overlaps flange 99.
Frictionally sleeved upon sleeve 90 is `a second guard sleeve 92 having a flange 99 which underlies the eye of annulus 81. By this arrangement communication between basin W and pan C is prevented.
The outflow over lip i9' is directed into the annular chamber of cover C by a supplemental cover C which fits within wall 95. Cover C' is centrally perforated andcarries a depending tube 95, which projects .down into the inlet passage 25 of stem 6, and at the upper end of this perforation is a packing gland 96 upon which may be seated downwardly-presented asupply nipple 91.
Nipple 91 is carried by a goose-neck pipe 99, the depending vertical receiving end of which is axially and rotatably sleeved in the packing gland 99 carried by a bracket |00 secured to basin W and to which is connected supply pipe |0|. 'I'he upper end of bracket |00 is threaded to receive the sleeve'nut |02 between which and gland 99 is interposed a compression spring |09.
Within *nipple 91 is a sleeve I 05 circumferentially slotted at |06 to afford passage from pipe 99 to the mouth of nipple 91. 'I'he upper end of sleeve |05 is secured to nut |01. Journaled within sleeve |05 is a valve |08 having a segmental portion |09 which may be moved to more or less block slot |06. Journaled on the stem of valve |09 is a gauge head I0 which may be angularly adjusted upon and secured to the stem by means of screw which takes into circumferential groove H2.
Head I0 and an adjacent portion of the nipple body are provided with coordinated graduations (not shown) and head H may be held in adlusted position by screw |I3 the inner end of which may be moved into frictional engagementr with nut |01. `Relative angular adjustments vof head I|0 and valve |08 permit accurate coordina.- tion of valve |08,with slot |06 and of `head ||0 for position indication so that inflow of fluid to `the bowl I3 may be accurately adjusted.
Collecting pan C is provided with a discharge orifice for lighter liquid and this will be the primary dischargewhen the device is used solely for clarification.
Compression of gland 99 will serve to hold nipple 01 in vertical position so as to hold supplemental cover C' and collecting pan C in operative position. By slightly loosening nut |02 nipple 01 may be shifted slightly upwardly and swung `to one side, whereupon the iight parts C and C maybe easily handled for removal andreplacement. The nipple 91 will always be downwardly presented so that, if the supply pump (not shown) should be inadvertently started when the nipple is moved from operative position (as is not at all unusual) the discharge will be downwardly and the operator will not be sprayed with disagreeable fluid.
In order to facilitate removal of bowl B from shaft S without sacrificing proper balance of the bowl in high speed operation, the upper end S' of shaft S fits the lower end of the bore of stem 5 with an easy sliding fit and positive driving connection is established between shaft S and bowl by the transverse pin IIB which extends across the bore of stem 6 and is placed approximately at the operative center of the bowl B and lies loosely in the transverse slot ||1 formed across the upper end of shaft S.
Shaft S is provided with a relatively largediameter conical collar over which is nested the conical pocket |2| formed in the lower face of the bottom 5 of bowl B.
By this arrangement the bowl is readily removable and replaceable, is positively driven, and
permits minor relative aberations between the bowl and shaft.
Referring now to Fig. 1. Fluid passing through nipplesl and bowl B being rotated at high speed, the fluid passes down through passages and 25 and outwardly between bottoms 5 and 2l into high-pressure regions of the bowl. An annular [layer of heavier liquid is thus established in the bowl to a line submerging the outer edges of disks D and D and heavier solids will accumulate in the outer lower corner of the bowl.
'I'he lighter liquid, and such heavier particles and heavier liquid as may still be entrained in the lighter liquid, will then be forced inwardly beneath disk D' and through the eye 3| thereof and thence upwardly and outwardly through the several eyes 3| of disks D and between the disks. 'Ihe heavier liquidand particles, still entrained in the larger volume of lighter liquid, pass with the lighter liquid into higher-pressure regions of the bowl and into the heavy-liquid space of the bowl while the lighter liquid passes upwardly through perforations 32 of disks D, thence inwardly beneath bell 40, upwardly through neck 40" pass dam 4| and out over lip I9 into pan C.
The degree of separation of the two liquids may depend upon the pressure difference between the bowl regions at the eyes of the two dams 4| and 45 and the pressures at these regions are dependent upon bowl speed and the radii of these two eyes. Consequently, by selecting and placing the dams 4| and 45 with eyesfpf proper diameters,
relative to bowl speed, accurate demarcation of any two liquids, within a wide range of variation, can be obtained. Proper dam-eye diameters can be accurately determined by methods of mathematical calculation well known to engineers ordinarily skilled in this art.
'I'he valve |08 will be set so as to permit a. rate of inflow of mixture such that substantially equal films of heavy and light liquids will flow over the two dams 45 and 4| respectively.
When accumulation of heavy particles and sludge nears the outer edge of the supplemental bowl SB, the cover, comprising parts C and C'. is removed, nut 8 is retracted from bottom 5 and the wall part of bowl B withdrawn,vwhereupon the contents' of the bowl flows through the waste Rotation of the bowl bottom, and parts remaining therewith. will serve to cleanse the disks. The disks may be readily withdrawn and arranged with different spacings if desired, larger spacing being desirable for more viscous liquids than for less viscous liquids.
As previously pointed out, the placing of the vpacking gasket 8| in the under edge `of wall 1 thoroughly protects it from submergence at all times except when it is under compression.
Referring now to Figs. 2 and 3:-Ring dam 6| or 6|a blocks or obstructs free passage from the high pressure region in the lower part of bowl B to the similar high pressure region of the bowl in the zone. occupied by the disks. Considerable volumes of heavy particles and sludge may therefore accumulate in the lower high pressure region before cleansing becomes necessary. In the meantime, finer heavy particles and sludge may accumulate in the high pressure region in the disk zone until shortly before the passages between the outer edges of the disks become blocked thereby.
I claim as my invention:
1. A centrifuge bowl having two discharge necks of different radii, and a removable annular obstructor comprising a tubular portion sleevable within the smaller neck and a flange mounted in said bowl in position to block outflow from the interior of the bowl to the larger-radius neck and to direct all normal outflow from the intelrior of the bowl to the smaller-diameter nec 2. A centrifugal bowl comprising a main body, a plurality of superposed stratifier disks mounted therein, each of said disks having a diameter substantially less than the Vadjacent interior of the bowl, an axial eye affording passage from below to above said disk, and an intermediate perforation affording passage from below to above said disk, means below the lower-most disk to divert flow from lower regions of the bowl respectiveli to the highest pressure region and to the eye.- of the disks, means to direct inflow to the interior of the bowl below said last-mentioned means, means to block flow through the upper disk except through its intermediate perforation, an annular dam substantially obstructing direct axial flow in the high pressure region of the bowl from the zone below the disks to the disk zone, said bowl having an inlet passage leading to the high pressure region of the bowl below the disk zone.
3. Acentrifugal bowl comprising a main body, a plurality of superposed stratier disks mounted therein, each of said disks having a diameter substantially less than the adjacent interior of the bowl, an axial eye affording passage from below to above said disk, and an intermediate perforation affording passage from below to above said disk. means below the lower-most disk to divert flow from lower regions of the bowl respectively to the highest pressure region and to the eyes of the disks, means to direct inflow to the interior of the bowl below said lastmentioned means, means to block flow through the upper disk except through its intermediate perforation, a removable annular dam substantially obstructing direct axial flow in the high pressure region of the bowl from the zone below the disks to the disk zone, said bowl having an inlet passage leading to the high pressure region of the bowl below the disk zone.
4. In a centrifugal bowl, a bottom plate, a cylindrical wall surmounting the outer periphery of said plate, an inwardly projecting annular upper wall supplementing the upper end of the cylindrical wall and axially separable relative to the bottom plate, and perforated to form a heavy-liquid outlet, an upwardly extending neck supplementing the inner periphery of said upper wall, an annular dam removably interposed between said outlet and the large-diameter lower region of the bowl, a removable annular separator bell arranged below and spaced from the said upper wall with its outer rim extended toward the outer regions of the bowl beyond the inner rim of the dam but not to the cylindrical wall and coordinated with the neck to block outflow therethrough from outer regions of they bowl, an axial tubular stem lying within said neck and communicating with the interior of the bowl below the separator bell, an upwardly removable inwardly-projecting annular dam arranged in said neck and around said stem and a nut threaded on said stem and retaining said lastmentioned dam against upward displacement.
5. A centrifuge comprising a bowl, a stationary housing therefor, an annular -collecting pan supported by the housing and having a central neck sleeved around the upper end of the bowl between the heavy-liquid and light-liquid discharge outlets of the bowl, a guard sleeve structure carried by the upper end of the bowl and forming an annular pocket enveloping the inner periphery of the collecting pan, a cover separably associated with the collecting pan and provided with a feed inlet'removably associable with the inlet of the bowl, a Aprimary feed pipe having its discharge end anchored upon the housing, a supplemental feed pipe associated with the discharge end of the primary feed pipe and having a discharge end separably associable with the feed inlet of the cover, said supplemental supply pipe being slidably associable with the primary feed pipe by a liquid-tight connection, and a flow-controlling valve carried by said supplemental supply pipe.
FAY M. TOMLINSON.