US 2093261 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 14, 1937. L. E. wlLLsoN BUILDING WALL STRUCTURE Filed June 13, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheetl Ww A l l L. E. WILLSON BUILDING WALL STRUCTURE Sept. 14, 1937.
V 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 13, 1956 gama-@ 1 M72 en Patented Sept. 14, 1937 UNITED STATES PATENToFFlcE BUILDING WALL STRUCTURE Lester E. Willson, Streator, Ill.,.assgnor to Brick- V-Neer Sales Company, 'Streator, Ill., a. corporation of Illinois Appiic'atiqn Julie 13, 1936, serial-N0. 85,101 5 claims. (o1. l:fz-19) 5 buildings to improve their external appearance as well as their heat and water resistingproperties. One object of the invention is to provide a wall structurel whichwhen Ycompleted has the appearance of a standard brickv wall but which employs surfacingelements in the form of relatively thin slabs or tiles whose faces are of substantially the same dimensions as standard bricks. Another object is to provide a wall of this character which may be built up rapidly and accurately by relatively unskilled mechanics;
another object is to provide a wall surface structure which may be applied to basic wall structure in a manner insuring close and rm securement thereto of ay permanent nature.` Other objects will appear from the description which follows. The invention thus consists in certain features andelements of construction incombination as herein shown and described and as indicated'by the claims. i
In the drawings: l
Figure 1 is a fragmentary vside elevation of a wall structure embodying this; inventionY with parts broken away to show the several layers of the structure. Y
Figure 2 is a vertical section taken substantially as indicated at line 2-2 on Figure 1 and on a larger scale.
Figure 3 is a vertical section similar to Figure 2 showing a slightly modied form of tile or facing slab.
Figures 4, 5 and 6 are perspective detail views respectively, of three alternative forms of fastening elements or nails for holding the tiles in place.
Figure l is a fragmentary side elevation cfa .wall structure with a further modiiicationof the fasteningmeans applied thereto..
Figure 8 is a perspective view of the fastener shown in Figure 7. i
Figure 9 is a vertical section of a typical -wall employing retaining wiresas fastening means for the tiles.
Figure' 10'is a perspective View of a fragment of one ofthe wires with special 'supporting nails assembled thereon.
Figure 11 is a sectional viewsimilar to Figure 9, but showing a different form? of tile in which the'edge is grooved instead of beveled.
My improved wall structure is intended primarily for Vapplication to so-called frame or wooden buildings in place of shingles, siding,
stucco or other external surface finish, and is applicable both to new structures and to `old buildings. The tiles or slabs which constitute the exterior surfacing material may be secured directly against sheathing or any fiat surface that will receive nails, but when the surface is too uneven it may be covered first with sheet material such as composition board;. if heat` insulation is wanted, a board such as C'elotex or some similar material may be employed. My wall structure may also be used as an interior wall treatment where desired. By way of illustration, the drawingsshow the basic wall as consisting ofjthe usual framing members, I, covered by sheathing boards, 2. I apply directly over the sheathing boards, Y2, a, sheet or panel of any suitable, composition board ysuch as Celotex which is indicated at 3, and at the lowest point of the wall to be thus treated I'may provide a supporting metallic molding, 4, having a vertical leg,:4a, which maybe nailed against the sheathing, 3, adjacent Vits bottom edge, and a horizontally projecting leg, 4b, forming a ledge on which `the -vplower` edge of-the wallboard panel may rest.` Preferably the outer edge, 4C, of the molding is bent-obliquely upward to engage closelythe lower edges of the first course of facing tiles or,.;slabs,y 5,L whichform the outer surface ofthe finished wall. However, this particulanform ofsupportfor the first course is not` essential; Vthe foundation may already afforda: shoulder ormay be altered to include suchrafsupporting ledge, made of concrete; or a wooden strip may beused as a temporary support, being removed after tuck-pointing of the tiles and replaced by a permanent ledge such as a concrete Vbevel base.
Eachgof the slabs, 5, has substantially the same external dimensions as the exposed face of a standard brick, but the thickness vof the slab is muchlless andjneed not exceed one-half inch. The slabs may be made of the same material as' regular face brick cut to the desired thickness `and burned in accordance with methodsr already perfected, or they maybemade of other suitablel 'material` suchas concrete or asphalt, for example. Preferably the longer edges, 5a, of eachi tile, 5, -which'form the horizontal edges in the usualarr'angement of the tilesfin a wall as in .Figure l, are beveled or otherwise shaped to extendobliquely with respect to the outer face, 5.,of the tile, instead of at right angles thereto. YThis affords oblique surfaces which may be en.
Vgaged by .fastening means such as nailsfS, driven into the board, 3, andv preferably through it'into the sheathing, 2, in the spaces between the adjacent courses of the tiles for holding them firmly in place. The back surface of each tile, 5, is substantially flat so that it may fit flatly and. closely against the outer surface of thewbacking when applied directly to the sheathing or to the board, 3, and secured in position by the nails, 6; and being disposed between adjacent courses of the tiles the head of each nail, 6, engages the inclined edges of two adjacent tiles, thus spacing them apart and keeping this spacing substantially uniform ready to be lled in with mortar applied after the manner of tuck-pointing. The mortar, which is omitted from the sectional views, Figures 2 and 3, appears at 1., in the finished portion of the wall structure shown in Figure 1, and being applied flush with the outer surfaces of the tiles, 5, or almost flush, in accordance with l standard practice, this mortar will entirely conceal the heads of the nails, 6, or other equivalent fastening means by which the tiles are closely secured to the board,v3. The mortar,.1, filling the grooves between the Yadjacent tiles except for the small spaces occupied by the nails, 6, will bond with the backing, 3, exposed at the bottoms of these grooves, as well as with the edgesurfaces of the tiles themselves and will thus vform the tiles and the board into a substantially unitary and rigid wall structure which is firmly held by the nails, 6, to thek sheathin 2,or other basic structure.
yAs shown in Figure 2, the inclined portions of the horizontal edges of each tile do not extend from the inner to the outer face of the tile but are disposed intermediate these faces at 5, where they are joined by narrow perpendicular surfaces, 5@l and 5e, extending respectively to the back and front faces of the tile. This stepped formation affords: the desirable inclined surface, 5c, for engagement with the heads of the nails, 6, without unnecessarily widening the grooves or channels between adjacent tiles at their outer surfaces and without unduly narrowing the bottom portions of these grooves adjacent the backing element, 3. Thus the tuck-pointing is given ample surface for bonding with the backing board, 3,V but does not become too prominent a feature of the wall-pat its outer surface.` However, if preferred, the tiles may be made as shown at I5 in Figure 3 with plainly beveled edges, I5,`but with this continuous straight bevel if the tiles are spaced apart so as to afford the same width of the groove at the bottom, the groove at the outer surface will be considerably wider than that which results when tilesof the form shown in Figure 2 are used', unless the angle of Vthe beveled edges, |51, more nearly approaches the perpendicular, as in fact it does in the design illustrated in Figure 3.
Whichever form of tile is employed, each individual tile is held firmly in contact with the outer surface of the backing member, 3,' so that no cement or adhesive need be employed between the outer surface of the'member, 3, and the inner or back surface of the tile; and the securing means which holds the tile in place is therefore disposed wholly in the spaces between adjacent tiles.
Instead of employing a unitary headed nail, 6, I may secure a fastener with a sufficiently large head by adding to an ordinary nail, 6, a washer, I'I, as shown in Figure 5. Or, if preferred, a special fastener may be made in the form shown in Figure 6 in which the pointed shank, I8, is rigidly secured in an oblong head, I9, which, if desired, may be made with beveled edges to assist it in seatingA more'snugly against the inclined edges of adjacent tiles. When thev nails of Figure 4 or Figure 5 are used I prefer to apply two nails to each horizontal edge of the tile, and since each nail will engage the adjacent edges of two tiles this results in the arrangement shown in the left-hand portion of Figure 1. Near the righthand end of the figure, I have indicated a preferred arrangement of the fastening means shown in Figure 6. One of these devices is suiiicient in the length of each tile and may be disposed substantially at the middle of this length engaging'the upper edge of the tile; at the opposite side of the groove each fastener will thus engage the extreme vend portions of the two adjacent tiles with Vthe result that Veach tile is thus held in position by three fasteners, one engaging the middle of one horizontal edge'k and the other two engaging opposite ends of the other horizontal edge of the tile.
Asa modification of -thev elongated fastener, I9, I haveshown in Figures 7 and 8a two-part fastener consisting of a standard' nail, 20, and a member which may be formed as a casting, but, preferably, as a sheet metal stamping, and which consists of a fiat central body portion, 2|, with obliquely projecting wings, 22, extending laterally therefrom at lboth ends. The wings are. omitted at the middle of the fastener'so as not to interfere with the mortar or tuck-pointing of the vertical joints which, as indicatedin Figure 7, will.`
intersect the horizontal joints at the points at which these fasteners are applied. The nail extends through an aperture at the middle of the length of the flat body portion, 2|, so that its shank may be driven through the backing, 3, and into the sheathing, 2, with its head serving to draw the fastener wings, 22, into firm contact with the sloping or beveled edges'of adjacent tiles. `The distance of thewings from the securing nail, 20, and also their ability to yield somewhat in their angular relation to the. middle portion, 2|, particularly if Vthe device is made of sheet metal, will avoid any possibility of cracking or chipping of the tile in the process of applying the fastener.
Figures 9, 10 and 11 illustrate still another form of fastening means which consists of a series of parallel wires, 30, extending horizontally over the backing, 3, in spaced relation to its outer surface and parallel to each other. For thus mountingv these Wires they may be provided with specially formed nails, 3|, preferably bent at right angles at 32 and then curved around the wire, 3|), each nail thus having aneyeby which it is permanently attached to the wire with capacity for sliding along it to any convenient position. Preferably, these nails will be driven into the backing, 3, and sheathing, 2, at the vertical joints between the tiles, though not necessarily at eachvertical joint, and two parallel Wires, 30, will be mounted in each horizontal joint with one wire engaging the lower edge of the tile above it and the other wire engaging the upper edge of the tile below it. Figure 9 being a section taken at one of the vertical joints, shows one of the tiles, 35, in end eleclosed joints, 45X, between the tiles, if desired, though it will be evident that the tiles may be spaced apart at any preferred distance. With this type of tile the supporting molding, 4, at the lower edge of the wall, may be of the form heretofore described, and as shown in Figure 9, or it may be shaped as shown in Figure 11 to conform more nearly to the grooves in the edges of the bottom curve of the tiles, 45.
It will be recognized that various further modifications in the form of the fastening means may be made without departing from the spirit and principle of the invention, and it will be understood that in any event the fastening means will be disposed Wholly below or back of the plane of the outer surface of the tiles so as to be entirely concealed by the filling of mortar at 1 when this is applied to complete the wall surface.
1. A wall structure which includes a backing and a layer of separate individual facing tiles disposed flatly in close 'contact with the outer surface of said backing, said tiles being arranged in rows and spaced from each other, two opposite edges of each tile being formed with outwardly facing surfaces inclined with respect to the face of the tile and securing means each comprising a flat, sheet metal body with flaring wings oppositely inclined to said body to engage the said inclined surfaces of adjacent tiles, and a headed shank penetrating the body to secure it tothe backing.
2. A wall structure which includes a backing and a layer of separate individual facing tiles disposed atly in close contact with the outer surface of said backing, said tiles being arranged in rows and spaced from each other, two opposite edges of each tile being beveled converging outwardly, and securing means each comprising a flat body with yieldably flaring wings formed to engage the oppositely beveled edges of adjacent tiles, and a headed shank penetrating the body portion to secure it to the backing.
3. In the 'combination defined in claim 1, said wings being disposed adjacent the end portions of the body and interrupted at its middle portion.
4. A wall structure which includes a backing and a layer of separate individual facing tiles disposed flatly in close contact with the outer surface of said backing, said tiles being arranged in rows with spaces between the tiles and between the rows, the spaces between the tiles of one row being staggered with respect to those in the next row, and securing devices each comprising a shank adapted to penetrate the backing and an oblong head dimensioned to fit the space between two rows of tiles, the shank being placed adjacent the space between two tiles of a row so that the oblong head engages three tiles simultaneously, and the tile edges being formed to afford lodgement for the edges of said head whereby the head will press the tiles against the backing.
5. A wall structure which includes a backing and a layer of separate individual facing tiles disposed flatly in close contact with the outer surface of said backing, said tiles being arranged in rows with spaces between the tiles and between the rows, the spaces between the tiles of one row being staggered with respect tothose in the next row, and securing devices ea'ch comprising a shank adapted to penetrate the backing, and an oblong head having a flat body portion with yieldably aring wings dimensioned to fit the space between two rows of tiles and engage the edges of adjacent tiles, said wings being disposed adjacent the end portions of the body and interrupted at its middle portion and the shank being placed adjacent the space between two tiles of a row so that the wings of the head engage three tiles simultaneously, the tile edges being formed to afford lodgment for the wings of said head whereby the head will press the tiles against the backing.
LESTER E. WILLSON.