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Publication numberUS2094167 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 28, 1937
Filing dateAug 14, 1936
Priority dateAug 14, 1936
Publication numberUS 2094167 A, US 2094167A, US-A-2094167, US2094167 A, US2094167A
InventorsEvers William H
Original AssigneePreplan Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Revetment
US 2094167 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 28, 1937. W` H EVERS 2,094,167

REVETMENT Filed Aug. 14, 1956 3 Shee'tS--Sheet 2 v Afro/autre' Sept. 28;"1937. w. H, EVERS 2,094,167

REVETMENT Filed Aug. 14, 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 @WQ Wil/M0@ Patented Sept. 28, 1937 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE REVETMENT Ohio Application August 14, 1936, Serial No. 96,002

14 Claims.

My invention particularly relates to revetments which, when assembled from units, cast in interlocking form and shape, all as herein described in detail, and shown in the accompanying drawings, have the necessary flexibility to accommodate the varying stresses and strains without the degradation of the facing walls and without the concentration of resultant, loads and pressure upon insufficiently large footing areas. The flexible interlocking of the units assembled in the improved revetment structure is obtained by forming opposite sides of the units, either throughout their length or throughout their width, with a plurality of corrugations all of I5 which, preferably, run parallel to the revetment facing in the assembled revetment structure, the respective crests and troughs of which corrugations mate with troughs and crests of the corrugations of other units, this mating preferably .30 being of so loose or flexible a nature as, according to the calculated conditions, to permit automatic adjustments for earth settlement or other usually adverse contingencies without impairment of the revetment facing.

5 Various expedients have been utilized to protect the facings of revetments and retaining walls and sufciently distribute the loads and pressuresl at the footings, but they all, insofar as I am lnformed, have failed to be satisfactorily effective,

30 particularly from the standpoint of providing satisfactory flexibility. Some of these expedients have consisted in the utilization of cribs in bin formation, comprised of various materials, but the common weakness therein is infiexibility of the joints and the rigidity of the assembly. Torsion is created in the crib members, resulting in the cracking and splitting of the facial units, by reason of the varying stresses and strains created by the settlements of retained earth. Furtherll more, the dead load of the crib superstructure and the earth pressure of the embankment, which concentrate between the footings, and in an area. approximately one-third of the wall height above the footings, crush the lower units of the crib, re-

45 sulting in a failure of the wall. Where it has been attempted to remedy these defects by the use of dowels, wedges, and bolts, the result has been only to add to the rigidity of the structure without counteracting the strains and stresses and varying pressures arising from earth settlement.

My instant invention discards the various exily and conveniently positional so as to provide a flexible construction at all joints.

I utilize in the revetment assembly herewith presented a wall consisting of spaced triangular three-way pillars having surfaces lying in the 5 plane of the facing wall and other surfaces lying in the body of the embankment, and, preferably,

I utilize a triangular formation having a double size triangular portion forming a part of the facial wall and a normal size triangular portion 10 extending at right angles to the double size face portion, both portions being Widest at the base and progressively tapering in width to the top of the facing wall. These triangular pillars have their bases in the plane of the bottom of the revetment and, by reason of the increasing width from top to bottom, they resist the torsion stresses and strains in the embankment and sprea-d the loads bearing on the foundation soil. The pillars also spread and distribute the outward and down- 2O ward earth pressure which exists in the adjacent embankment, so that this total pressure is not concentrated at the joints.

My flexible interlocking assembly of corrugated units is erected so that the faces of the units are '25 positioned by transverse counterforts, and the whole face wall, together with all the counterforts, are supported by spaced units interlocked to both the face wall and the counterforts at intervals, so that the whole assembly forms a pillaring revetment which serves as a stabilized facing to hold an earth embankment.

The annexed drawings and the following description set forth in detail certain means embodying my invention, such means disclosing, however, but one of the various forms in which the principle of the invention may be applied.

In said annexed drawings:

Figure 1 is a front elevation of a portion of a. revetment embodying my improvements;

Figure 2 is a plan View, taken from the plane indicated by the line 2-2, Figure 1, showing facing units and a. counterfort interlocked therewith and extending at right angles thereto back into the new earth fill a distance far enough to serve as a land-tie bond;

Figure 3 is a plan section| taken from the plane indicated by the line 3-3, Figure 1, showing facing units, as also certain studding units between adjacent facing units, and other studding units between adjacent counterforts;

Figure 4 is a vertical transverse section, upon an enlarged scale, taken from the plane indicated by the line 4 4, Figure 1, the top surface 0f the earth ll to the rear of the facing wall of 55 the revetment being suggested, as also, the angle of repose of the earth ll laterally of the counterforts and studding;

Figure 5 is a vertical transverse section, upon an enlarged scale, of tle facing of the revetment, taken in the plane indicated by the line 5-5, Figure 1;

Figures 6 and 'fare a side elevation and an end face view, respectively, of a counterfort unit;

Figures 8 and 9 are a broken front view and an end view, respectively, of a facing/unit;

Figures 10 and 11 are a side"'view and a face view, respectively, of a studding unit adapted for flexible interlocking with the facing and counterfort units and serving as a supporting unit;

Figure 12 is a view, upon a greatly enlarged scale, of a fragmentary portion of Figure 5 indicated by A;

Figure 13 is a view, upon a greatly enlarged scale, of a fragmentary portion of Figure 4 indicated by B; and

Figure 14 is a broken plan view, showing how the interlocking facing and studding units may be cast in a mold having adjacent chambers formed by the use of corrugated separating plates, all as hereinafter fully described;

Figure 15 is a vertical section, taken in the plane indicated by the line I5-I5, Figure 14;

Figure 16 is a plan view, showing how the interlocking counterforts and studdings may be cast in the mold having adjacent chambers formed by the use of corrugated separating plates, differently arranged than the plates shown in Figure 14;

Figure 1'7 is a vertical section of the elements shown in Figure 16, taken in the plane indicated by the line Il|1, Figure 16; and

Figure 18 is an enlarged sectional view of a portion of Figure 16.

Referring to the annexed drawings in which the same parts are indicated by the same respective numbers in the several views, a reinforcing pillar I of a revetment, Figures 1 and 4, is'formed of three classes of units, viz., longitudinal facing units 4, transverse counterforts 5, and studding or supporting units 6, Figures 6 to 11. These units are all formed with corrugated faces which are of male and female formation so as to permit the interlocking of the units, in proper assembly, to form a exible structure. The corrugated faces extend throughout the length of the facing units 4, upon opposite sides thereof, as also, throughout the width of the counterforts 5, upon opposite sides thereof, and throughout two opposite sides of the studding or supporting units 6, these corrugated faces preferably consisting, in every instance, of a plurality of parallel corrugated surface portions. The revetment as a whole comprises a plurality of longitudinally-spaced reinforcing pillars I, alternating with connecting skeleton facing portions. The pillars I are of multiple triangular formation, with the bases of the triangles lying in the plane of the base of the revetment. Preferably, the triangular portions of the pillar I are two in number, one of them indicated by the lines 3, 1, and I0, Figure 4, extending rearwardly into the revetment at right angles to the facing wall and the other triangle, indicated by the numbers 2, 8, and 9, Figure 1, forming part of the facing wall, this facing triangular portion of the pillar I being of twice the size of the rearwardly extending triangle 3-1-I0, and symmetrically disposed upon both sides of a vertical plane bisecting the transverse counterforts 5. Therefore, the

whole pillar I is in reality a symmetrical threeway structure, of triangular formation, having its base in the base of the revetment and extending in each of three directions from a vertical line bisecting the lfront face surfaces of the transverse counterforts 5.

The triangular pillar I is of the following detail construction: symmetrically overlapping the vertical abutting ends of horizontal facing units 4 and intermediate vertically-spaced facing units 4 are positioned transverse counterforts 5, the facing units 4 and the counterforts 5 having upper and lower corrugated formations 41 and 51, respectively, which are substantially complementary, Figure 13, whereby the facing units 4 and counterforts 5 are flexibly interlocked together. Studding or supporting units 6 having upper and lower corrugated faces 6 substantially complementary to the corrugations 41 of the facing units 4, Figure l2, are disposed between and interlocked with vertically adjacent facing units 4, and other such studding units 6 are disposed between and interlocked with vertically adjacent counterforts 5 to the rear of the respective facing units 4. All of the units are thus flexibly interlocked. The studding or supporting units 6 are progressively decreased in number at each successive upward course of the units 6, both in the facing portion of the column I and in the depth thereof, as clearly indicated in Figures 1 and 4, so that the pillar formed of the units 4, 5, and 6, is substantially triangular faced on all sides, with the bases of the respective triangles lying in the plane of the base of the pillar, the triangular front portion being substantially an isosceles triangle and the embedded portion being a substantially rectilinear triangle.

Referring particularly to Figure 4, it will be noted that the counterforts 5 are of varying lengths, and thus extend into the earth fill different distances. These counterfort lengths depend upon the varying calculated conditions. Where the overhang of the counterforts extending from the pillar I is considerable, additional studding units 62 may be utilized between adjacent counterforts 5, as indicated in Figure 4.

The above-described triangular pillars I are formed at spaced intervals in the front portion of the revetment, as needed for the calculated burden, the adjacent pillars I being connected by the extending end portions 4z of the verticallyspaced facing units 4. Separate counterforts 53 are extended back from the facing unit portions 411 into the earth ll, between adjacent pillars I, according to the need for reinforcing these portions 42 of the facing wall, the counterforts 53 extending back into the earth' fill as far as is suitable and serving as tie beams into the embankment, as shown in Figures 2 and 3.

The facing units 4 and studding units 6 of my improved assembly are cast by using corrugated plates I4 in a mold I I to form the top and bottom corrugated surfaces of the several units, as hereinafter described. The gauge of the separating plates I4 may be varied for all of the units in order to increase or decrease the flexibility of the structure. In any event, ample play for interlocking is provided. Preferably, the facing units 4 and the studding units 6 are equal in weight and strength and cross-section for equal lengths thereof. Preferably, they are cast on opposite sides of the corrugated plates I4 arranged as shown in plan and section in Figures 14 and l5, so as freely to interlock along the plane of contact when assembled, whereby the facingr unit 4 is properly pillowed and seated in the studding unit 6. A suitable length of studding 6 is obtained by providing spacing plates I5 in the mold II. l

The counterforts 5 and studding 6 are cast upon opposite sides of corrugated /plates I4 which are arranged in the mold IIN/with the corrugations arranged at right angles to those of the plates I4 for casting facing and studding units. A method of molding complementary counterforts 5 and studding 6 in the mold II is shown in Figures 16, 17, and 18, In casting the counterforts 5, the same are formed with flat front and rear end portions 52, Figure 6, and for forming these end portions 52, I provide transverse end plates I 42, Figure 16, formed with thickened end portions |43. The thickened end portions I43 prevent the formation of sharp weak projecting edges at the ends of the counterforts and provide adjustment areas I2, Figure 13, between the facing units 4 and the counterforts 5 in the front revetment wall. The plate portions |42 combined with the end portions I43 form the at counterfort end portions 52, thus bringing the front faces of the counterforts 5 somewhat rearwardly of the plane containing the front faces of the units 4 and 6, as clearly indicated in Figure 13. The counterforts 5 are molded of a depth slightly less than the depth of the studding units 6 so as to provide additional adjustment possibility at the interlocking joints for the counterforts 5, as illustrated by I3, Figure 13. Such molding of the counterforts is effected by using separating plates I4', Figures 16, 17, and 18, of slightly greater gauge than the separating plates I4 or by spacing the corrugated separating plates I4 closer together. Except for its depth, the counterfort 5 has the same characteristics above-mentioned as the facing unit 4 and the studding unit 6. The method of casting engaging units with interposed corrugated plates produces spaces between the sides of engaging corrugations, as clearly shown at I3a. in Figures 12 and 13, whereby wedging side thrust on the sides of the corrugations is prevented. Greater width of spaces I3a may be produced by using thicker interposed corrugated plates. I

In the assembly, the corrugations of all the units run parallel to the face line of the complete pillared revetment.

The additional adjustment of flexibility affordedI v ment and is subject to unexpected indeterminable torsion strains and pressures existing or arising in the settlement of the embankment and which tend to cause the embedded ends of the Acounterforts to settle. Inasmuch as these settlements of the embedded ends of the counterforts must not disturb the facing units in the plane of the front revetment wall and must not overstrain the interlocking joints between the facing units 4 and the counterforts 5, the latter are given the additional flexibility and adjustment possibilities mentioned.

I desire to point out that the weight of the facing is sustained by the studding, and that the counterfort flexibly interlocks with the facing to position it in the facial plane of the revetment, the counterfort extending far enough into the embankment to act as a land anchor for the facing and utilizing in large measure the frictional resistance developed along the planes of its corrugations to neutralize the bursting pressure of the retained earth at the revetment facial wall. The counterfort also acts as a stabilizer of the revetment, its design, its position in the assembly, and its deep embedding in the embankment strengthening the structure so as to neutralize in large measure the stresses and strains existing in the new earth fill.

What I claim is:

1. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced counterforts arranged relatively right angularly and alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, all of said members having complementary corrugations for flexible interlocking, the structure progressively tapering upwardly, both in width and depth.

2. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced counterforts arranged relatively right angularly and alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, opposite sides of all of said members being each formed with parallel corrugated surface portions throughout which are complementary to the corrugations of opposed members for flexible interlocking.

3. A revetment consisting of spaced pillars each having a comparatively wide facing base and a comparatively wide rearwardly-extending landtie base, said pillars each progressively tapering in width upwardly from said faces, facing members longitudinally connecting adjacent pillars, and transverse counterforts flexibly interlocked with said facing members and serving as land ties.

4. A revetment consisting of spaced pillars each of triangular formation in two dimensions, the base of each triangle lying in the upper horizontal plane of the revetment foundation, one face of the pillar forming a portion of the face of the revetment, facing members longitudinally connecting adjacent pillars, and transverse counterforts flexibly interlocked with said facing members and serving as land ties.

5. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced transverse counterforts arranged alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, all of said members having complementary corrugations for flexible interlocking, the width of the studding courses between adjacent facing units progressively tapering upwardly, and the depth of the studding courses between adjacent counterforts progressively tapering upwardly.

6. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced transverse counterforts arranged alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, all of said members having complementary corrugations for flexibly interlocking, the width of the studding courses between adjacent facing units progressively tapering upwardly, and the depth of the studding courses between adjacent counterforts progressively tapering upwardly, the respective counterforts having portions of varying lengths extended beyond the studding courses and serving as land-ties.

'7. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced counterforts arranged relatively right angularly and alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, opposite sides of all of said members being each formed with parallel corrugated surface portions throughout which are complementary to the corrugations of opposed members for flexible interlocking, the structure progressively tapering up- 5 wardly, both in width and depth. g

8. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units having their upper and lower sides each formed with a plurality of parallel corrugated surface portions extended throughout the lo lengths of the units, spaced transverse counterforts arranged alternately to the facing units and formed with aplurality of parallel corrugated surface portions extended throughout the widths of the units and upon each of the upper and lower i l5 sides thereof, the corrugations adjacent one end of the counterforts being interlocked with the corrugations of the facing units, and studding units having opposite faces thereof each formed with parallel corrugated surface portions, the

corrugations of the studding units being interlocked with the corrugations of adjacent facing units, and other similar studding units having their corrugations interlocked with adjacent counterforts.

9. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units having their upper and lower sides each formed with a plurality of parallel corrugated surface portions extended throughout the lengths of the units, spaced transverse counterforts arranged alternately to the facing units and formed with a plurality of parallel corrugated surface portions extended throughout the widths of the units and upon each of the upper and lower sides thereof, the corrugations adjacent o-ne end corrugations of the facing units, and studding units having opposite faces thereof each formed with parallel corrugated surface portions, the ccrrugations of the studding units being interlocked with the corrugations of adjacent facing units, and other similar studding units having their corrugations interlocked with adjacent` counterforts, the interlocking of the respective counterforts with the respectively adjacent facing units being of a loose nature to permit adjustment of the counterfort throughout its length without impairment of the positions of the facing units.

10. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units having their upper and lower sides each formed with a plurality of parallel corrugated surface portions extended throughout the lengths of the units, spaced counterforts arranged relatively right angularly and alternately to the facing units and formed with a plurality of parallel corrugated surface portions extended throughout the widths of the units and upon each of the upper and lower sides thereof, the corrugations adjacent one end of the counterforts being interlocked with the corrugations of the facing units, and studding units having opposite faces thereof each formed with parallel corrugated surface portions, the corrugations of the studding units being interlocked with the corrugations of adjacent facing units, and other similar of the counterforts being interlocked with thel studding units having their corrugations interlocked with adjacent counterforts, the width of the studding courses between adjacent facing units progressively tapering upwardly and the depthof the studding courses between adjacent counterforts progressively tapering upwardly.

11. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced counterforts arranged relatively right angularly and alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, all of said members having complementary corrugations for exble interlocking, the structure being substantially T-shaped in horizontal cross-section, with the cross-arm of the T lying in the face of the structure, said face having the formation of an isosceles triangle with its base lying in the plane of the bottom surface of the structure.

12. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced counterforts arranged relatively right angularly and alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, all of said members having complementary corrugations for flexible interlocking, the structure being substantially T-shaped in horizontal cross-section, with the cross-arm of the T lying in the face of the structure, said face having the formation of an isosceles triangle with its base lying in the plane of the bottom surface of the structure, the counterforts and their interposed studding units being arranged to provide a structure progressively tapering upwardly in depth.

13. A revetment structure comprising spaced facing units, spaced counterforts arranged relatively right angularly and alternately to the facing units, and studding units interposed between adjacent facing units and between adjacent counterforts, all of said members having complementary corrugations for flexible interlocking, the respective units being arranged to provide a structure triangular in vertical cross-section, both in planes parallel to the face of the structure and intersecting the facing units and in planes at right angles to the face of the structure, and intersecting the counterforts, the faces of the triangles lying in the plane of the bottom surface of the structure.

14. A revetment consisting of spaced pillars each having a facing portion and a rearwardlyextending land-tie portion, both of triangular formation in vertical cross-section, the facing o-f each pillar consisting of spaced facing units and intermediate studding units supporting the facing units, and the land-tie consisting of transverse counterforts anchoring the facing portion in the embankment and units supporting the counterforts, the facing units being longitudinally elongated to connect adjacent pillars, and rearwardlyextending land-tie counterforts secured to the elongated portions of the facing units.

WILLIAM H. EVERS.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification405/273
International ClassificationE02D29/02
Cooperative ClassificationE02D29/0266
European ClassificationE02D29/02F1