US 2094265 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
i sept.2s,1937. Hs. CURREN 2,094,265
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed oct. 28, 1936 1N VENT OR.
H, ...wam T.
Patented Sept. 28, 1937 UNITED STATES BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Harold S. Curren, Rochester, N. Y., assigner, by
mesne assignments, to' Curren Fabrihome Corporation, Willoughby, hio, a corporation of Delaware Application October 28,
'I'his invention relates to a building construc-l tion and the general object is to provide a method and arrangement vby which essential building elements, partitions and other parts may be erected economically and quickly without requiring the exercise of any considerable skill or craftsmanship on part of the Workmen.
Further objects include the provision of a new unit partition structure, and a new method and arrangement for insulating dwelling housesand other buildings against ingress of weather elements, heat loss, etc. 4
A more comprehensive'object is to provide a. sectional wall which, when in place, will be one homogeneous whole, securely locked in position, which Will rest on or be suspended on a cushion which will take up any lcontraction or expansion of the materials from whichthe wall may be 30 relating to the accompanying drawing, which shows a preferred embodiment and the preferred f procedure in carrying out the method.
In the-drawing, Fig. 1 is alsectional view, showing portions of two floor slabs and a wall unit in 35 place therebetween; Fig. 2 is a relatively enlarged vertical sectional view, through such wall or partion unit and its upper and lower supports; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional broad-face view fof portions of two wall or partition units; Fig. 4 is 40 a relatively enlarged detail sectional view, taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3, of a yielding wall-supporting device; Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a spring wedge; Fig. 6 is a broad-face View of a wall 'or partition with a doorframe therein; Fig. 45 7 is a`horizontal sectional view taken on a line corresponding to the line 1-1 on Fig. 3, but showing the right hand end of the assemblage which is broken away in Fig. 3, and Figs. 8 and 9 are detail sectional views, as indicated by the lines 1936, Serial No. 107,931
as in the concrete, the seats comprising channels each having elective floor" portions v5 which slope gradually outwardly from abrupt walls 6 which are to abut and definitely locate the wall sections or panels as will be described below. The building parts and channels referred 'to in this j paragraph may be made of any suitable constructional materials,-Wood, metal, concrete, etc. In
the event the channels -or seats are formed in concrete, `wire beads .1` (Fig. 2) preferably reinforce the upper c orner portions of the channel; such beads being held during and after setting of the concrete by leg members I5 which may be l The drawing illustrates a procedure using con- 1 crete for the oor structure and other portions of the building, but, the invention is inl no way con- -iined to such construction. Fixedchannels 22 and 32 may be formed in such concrete as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, these having gradually sloping bottom lsurfaces 5 (bottominverted in upper channel) and abrupt walls 6, preferably at one side only of each channel.v l l 'Ihe wall or partition units or sections P may lbe .made of any convenient width (say four feet) and of a. height which is sufficiently less .than the distance from the bottoms of the channels 22 to the tops of the channels 32 to allow for their insertion into V said channels. The upper and lower ends of the sections may be'sloped or beveled substantially complementary to the respective sloping surfaces of the channels. If the lower channels are 11,41 inches maximum depth and the upper channels inch, the Wall units may easily be inserted if made 1 inch longer than the dis-v tance between floor and ceiling.
The units or sections are hollow, for lightness in weight, for insulation, and to provide adequate space for any ducts for heating, lighting, sanita- 1 tion, ventilation, etc., that may be desired.
In Figs. 2 and 3, four studs 40 and 4I are shown as connected togetherby cross-pieces 42 inset into the edge faces of the studs, and also by inclined top and bottom closure pieces I3 and 44 (fastening not shown). 'I'he inclination of th top and bottom edges is substantially the same as the slope of the respective channels 22 and 32. 'I'he pieces 43 and may be set into indentations in the adjacent cross-pieces ancl the studs. as shown or suggested in Fig. I2.
'I'he unit framework may be faced on one or both sides by panels which comprise preferably (in case of an outer wall section) laminated paneling 45 on the outside and wall board, such as plaster board orber board 45a on the inside. In case the paneling 45 is plywood this preferably has moistureproof adhesive between the layers. In case of an inner wall or partition, the same facing would usually be used on both sides, say plasterboard or plaster lath. Hand holes 40a may be made in the edge studs 40 to facilitate erection. These are offset vertically on opposite edges of the units, so they will not align on edge-` wise adjacent units.
Attention is called to Fig. 4 in which it is seen that the facing (45, 45a) projects a short distance beyond the studs 40 at the vertical edges of the units. This provides spaces for spline strips 41, between adjacent sections, which splines are attached to the studs 40 by a suitable adhesive;
preferably a high water-resistant glue, such as casein or soybean base glues.
An insulation lining is shown in Fig. 2, comprising a ller of rock-wool 48 (or equivalent insulation mass or ll), held in place by sheets 49, substantially of moisture-impervious material, such askraft paper impregnated with asphalt or the like. Such sheets may be marg1nally stapled as indicated at 49a., to the framework of the unit; the framework, preferably including a horizontal cross-strip 46. This leaves plenty of room for ducts, plumbing, etc.
The units or sections P are set into the lower channels, as indicated in broken lines in Fig. 1, and then swung up into place as shown in full lines. When one end of a section (or group of sections) is temporarily seated in one channel (as suggested in Fig. 1), the beveled opposite end can then be swung across the sloping surface 5 of the opposite channel against but not past the abrupt wall 6 thereof. Thus, e. g. the sections or units are retained against falling inwardly until secured, for example, as described below, and when so secured the sections cannot mov'e either inwardly or outwardly.
After erection of the sections, as above described, wedges 50 (see Fig. 5), preferably made as bent strips of sheet metal are driven in at one horizontaledge of each section, as below the studs 40 and 4l, far enough to shift the sections into seated position in the opposite channel. Preferably, the upper edges of the units are sealed by applying thereto strips of material, such as impregnated felt or roofing paper 52, the margins of which may project beyond the portions of the units which are embraced by the upper channels, as shown in Fig. 2.
When a complete line of sections has been erected with intervening, splines, as above described, these are bound into one integral unit by tie wires 55 which may be guided, for insertion, by tubes 56, say of paper or metal inset into aligned bores in the studs. Since the tie Wires are free to shift lengthwise across the joints between adjacent sections, tightening of all the joints may" be effected at one edge of an assembled unit comprising any desired number'of sections. The wires may be headed at one lateral edge of the partition structure and tightened as by a yoke-type clamp at the other edge. A suitable tightening device is illustrated in Fig. 7 comprising a yoke 51 carrying a threaded draw-bolt 58, the inner end of which is adapted to engage a loop 55al of the tie wire 55 and draw it tight.4
Such tightening devices may readily be operated by a socket wrench engaging nuts 59 on the draw bolts.
After the sections P are clamped together, as described, forming rigid units, the ends of the wires may be electrically welded to retaining washers 60, Fig. '1; the projecting loops 55a then cut off, and the yokes 51 removed.v Where columns occur at both ends ofthe composite partition or wall units, the last section is pulled tight while one or more sections is or are in outwardly swung position, and the tie wires secured at the far edge of the last section before it and adjacent sections are fully seated into the channels.
After clamping of the composite unit as above described, and seating all sections in the channels 22 and 32, the spring wedges 5|] are then driven in as far as they will go and the gap below the unit is lled in by caulking compound or the like to keep out moisture. Springs of various weights and designs may be used, according to theload to be carried. The wedge springs may be reinforced by rubber blocks 6I, Fig. 2, if desired. Each entire line of partition sections is now one rigid composite unit, sealed and inset above and below with relation to the channels 22 and 32, and yieldingly supported on the springs. Sealing and joining of the vertical edges of the composite units may be accomplished by caulking or in any other suitable manner.
While not claimed herein, it is deemed advisable to show how the necessary door or window openings may be iinished,-(novel features to be claimed in a separate case). Such door or window passages 'through the walls. and partitions provided as above described, may be finished as shown in Figs. 6, 8 and 9. In Fig. 6,-P is a short partition unit made up by cutting a regular length section and inserting a stud section horizontally near the lower edge as at 65 leaving the facings 45 and 45a projecting beyond it as shown in Fig. 9. The facings project beyond the' studs 40, as already described. Lintels 10 and lamb members 1| are movably mounted between the projecting facings, as by screws 13 and 14, which enter the members 65 and 40 respectively. The screws do not hold the lintel and jambs tight against the partition unit framework, but instead compress stiff leaf springs 15 theretoward (see Fig. 6), which springs lie in appropriate sockets 16 in the lintel and jambs 10 and 1 I, as shown in Fig. 8 and 9.-
v The door trim may' comprise special spring metal channel shapes 16 and 19, made to fit the jambs and lintels and yieldingly to embrace the facings as at 80 (snapped over). The upper trim member is coped to slide into place between and fit the trim members 19, the side trim being moved outwardly suiiciently to clear the coped top trim and avoid scratching the nish on the side trim. This is done by means .of the screws 14. Afterward the screws 14 may be unscrewed allowing the spring 15 to force the side members 19 inwardly whatever amount is necessary to fit the doors. Thus, the doors and windows are made to fit their openings exactly or with a'great or as little clearance as desired without having to go through the tedious procedure of making extremely accurate measurements and without having to cut and try.
1. A building wall, made of edgewisel aligned sections operatively interlocked at their top and bottom edges with upper and lower xed `seats and. resting on springs associated with the lower seats, said springs being insertable beneath the sections after the same are erected and renderaoeaeo ing the upper seats effective to retain the sec:l
2. A building wall, made of edgewise aligned and interlockingly abutting sections sealed Aat their top and bottom edges in upper and lower fixed seats, the sealing means including plastic material on one of the seats and springs associated with such seat. embedded in the plastic sealing rneans and forcing' the sections toward the other seat.
3. A building wall comprising longitudinally aligned and operatively interlocking sectionsof edgewise adjacent sections adapted to occupyl upper and lower recesses in spaced fixed building parts, each section having a bevelled surface at one end, the recess for engaging such end being substantially complementarily bevelled, and
means cooperating with the opposite end and the adjacent recess to shift the section in its own plane in a manner to force the bevelled end tightly into engagement with lthe complementary recess.
5. y In building construction, pre-fabricated unit sections having bevelled edges at their tops and bottoms, means forming upper and lower channels with sloping top and bottom surfaces spaced wider than the length of the sections and adapt# ed to receive the sections when the vsame are seated in a lower channel and tilted toward the upper channel, and wedging meansl adapted to be driven between the sections and one of said channel surfaces to retain the sections lin place.
6. A sectional building construction, wherein edgewise aligned upright wall or partition .sections are interlocked with each other and clamped together, the upper and lower edges of which sections are bevelled in'opposite directions, and means including similarly bevelled channels in the upper and lower fixed building structures operatively receiving and retaining the bevelled ends of the sections.
7. A composite building wall -unit comprising Aa plurality of sections which operatively interlock with each other edgewise, said sections being adapted to be erected intofretaining means above and lbelow them, and elongated means the hollow framework of the sections from one section to another and shitable freely across the joints between sections after assembly thereof, and means for retaining the tie-wires.
9. A composite building wall unit, made up of edgewise aligned sections, each having a core frame and a facing, the margins of which facing entend beyond the core frames, splines seated between said sections, and clamping means extending from section to section through the splines and shiftable freely transversely thereof after the splines and sections are assembled, to hold the aforesaid elements of the units rigidly together. Y
10. In sectional building construction, a plurality of hollow building sections, having studs, facing covering the studs, means to secure one edge of such section on one supporting building wall structure, and spring wedges adjacent an opposite supporting wall 'structure and located in Vertical alignment with the studs for operative engagement with the sections in the individual vertical planes of such studs, for securing the section to such opposite supporting wall structure and maintaining the section forced against the first named securing means.
11,'In sectional building construction, a plurality .of hollow building sections, each having a hollow framework and facings covering the framework, means tosecure opposite edges of the sections on upper and lower xed supporting members, insulation means within the framework adjacent one facing, and retaining webs of moisture impervious material retaining the insulation means in place and dividing the section to form a duct reception space inwardly from the other facing.
12."The method of constructing building elements comprising erecting wall sections by temporarily locating the edges in recesses of spaced adapted to retain one horizontal edge of such section against movement lnormal to its principal plane inwardly and outwardly, fixed means including a channel adapted. for initially receiving and locating the opposite horizontaledge of thel section, and wedge'means adapted to be driven between the latter horizontaledge and the veffective oor portion of the channel' to cause the section to be shifted relative tothe first namedilxed means in a manner to render the same effective to retain the section as stated.
i4. In a building construction wherein wall sections are operatively seated in fixed retainers spaced wider apart than the sections arelong, the combination wherein one retainer comprises a channel having a gradually sloping surface and, adjacentthereto, an abrupt wall; and the end of such. section -which operatively seats in the channel is beveled substantially complementary to the sloping surface; said sectionwhen placed with an end seated in, the retainer opposite-the channel being capable of having its beveled end swung across the sloping surface and against the abrupt wall,l but not past it.
15. The method of constructing building ele- .ments comprising erecting wall sections by tems porarily locatingthe edges in recesses of spaced l parts of the building, then clamping the sections together into edgewise relationship, and finallyl driving wedges between one horizontal edge of each section and an adjacent building recess to hold the section in rm contact with the oppo.
HAROLD S'. CURREN.