US 2094688 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 5, 1937. s. N. WALLAcE'E-r AL ,0
COVERING FOR SURFACES EXPOSED TO THE WEATHER Filed Feb. 18, 1932 asheets-shept 1 INVENTORS 650w: Alwumcf 6 F2070 C/"l'tAM/LEV BY THEIR ATTORNEYS Oct. 5, 1937'- e. N. WALLACE ET AL 9 I COVERING FOR SURFACES EXPOSED TO THE WEATHER Filed Feb. 18, 1932 j s Sheets-Sheet 2 G. N. WALLACE Er AL COVERING FOR SURFAOE$ EXPOSED TO WEATHER Oct. 5, 1937.
3" Sheets Filed Feb. 18, 1932 INVENTORS' GEORGE/V. VVALLA c5 c6 Hora CT/YcK/NLEY Q uh R Patented Oct. 1937 PATENT oFFlcE COVERING FOR summons nxrosnn TO ,THE WEATHER George N. Wallace, New Rochelle, and Floyd C. McKinley, Buffalo, N. Y., asslgnors to Certain- Teed Products Corporation, New York, N. Y a corporation of Maryland Application February 18, 1932, Serial No. 593,778
T 10 Claims.
This invention relates to a covering forlaying upon a surface, and more especially upon the surf face of-walls, to simulate a structure of masonry. The invention relates more particularly to a 5 weatherproof covering in the form of an element or a sheet intended for laying in complementary relation to, and preferably in overlapping arrangement with, similar elements or sheets. Coverings having for their purpose the simu- "l lation of the surface ofmasonry structures have heretofore been proposed in the form of strips or sheets upon which have been simulated, by
. grooves or channels in the surface of the sheet or by; cut-outs in the edge of the strip or by combi 5 nations of these expedients, the longitudinal and transverse Joints'of masonry demarking thema-f Isonryunlts and presenting the appearance of such masonry 'units laid up with mortar joints Y 'therebetween. We are also aware that it has been heretofore proposed to simulate the longitudinal joints: of the masonry by forming a channel lengthwise .of a strip of covering material. such as prepared roofing, at a distance from the edge of the strip correspondingrto the depth of the masonry unit, such as the depth of a brick, and cutting out the material of the base of the roofing transversely of said groovetoform the transverse joints between the masonry units in a, course. Such strips have been provided with a 3 'portion adjacent to the groove on. the opposite v side thereof from the simulated masonry unit,-
which portion is intended to be overlapped by a .similar strip, leaving exposed the groove and the course of simulated masonry units or bricks.
. Moreover, it hasbeen proposed that the surface character. of said overlapped portiomshallbe that of the surface of the joints between the masonry units so that'when portions of this overlapped surface are seen through the cut-outs in the 40 overlapping strip the character of the surface of the masonry joints will be simulated not only in the horizontal or longitudinal joints by the groove but also in the vertical of transverse joints by said surface appearing through the cut-outs. thereby the better to represent the whole character of the surface oil-the masonry structure.-
imiilesuch covering "strips, particularly those I made by scraping the groove or channel above referred to inaccordance with the process proposed by Outman in the Patent uneasy, form a considerable improvement over the units previously sonry units.
the strips upon the wallfand thehandling of a large number of strips, as well as the fact that the number of'edges which are exposed and subjected to the action of wind tending to lift said edges from the overlapping strips is greater than is necessary. Moreover, when sheets are used which as heretofore proposed simulate a plurality of courses of masonry units and when said sheets are cut transversely straight across the simulated courses as has been the'practice heretofore, a long vertical joint is necessary between'the sheets laid endwise toeach other, which joint must cut across at some point one or more of the simulated ma- The joint is therefore conspicuous and interferes. with and spoils the proper uniformity ofthe simulation of the masonry structure. Also, in cutting the strips or sheets in the roofing machine, if slippage of the sheet at the cutters shortens slightly the distance between cuts and therefore the length of the sheet or ele- Broadly the object of the present invention,
therefore, is to provide a covering which willproduce the effect of masonry, especially of -brlcks laid up in mortar joints.
More specifically the object of the invention is to provide an element of suitable base material upon. which are simulated, courses of masonry units with mortar joints therebetween and, in the preferred embodiment, an element having a portion thereof to be overlapped by a similar covering unit and a portion thereof to be exposed, said portion to be exposed having thereon the simulation of the courses of masonry units, the form and extent of thetw'o portions being in such relation that a weatherproof covering is provided.
In suchcoverings and elements, it is a further object of the invention to provide the simulation of vertical joints of a plurality of courses of masonry by cut-outs inthe base in such arrangement that, while a-weatherproof covering is provided, the character of the mortar'of the vertical joint of the masonry is simulated.
Another object of the invention is to provide an elementinthe'form of a sheet having a shape suchjthat; when laid adjacent to similar elements upon'the'wallto simulat'ea masonry structure the elements will be complementary to each other while providing for the simulation of the masonry Joints.
.ment, the'joint between the elements is of neces-' 1 A further object of the invention is to provide a covering element having on the surface thereof a simulation of a plurality of courses of masonry units with mortar joints. therebetween, which element has a shape such that when laid adjacent to a similar element upon thesurface it will form an inconspicuous joint between the elements. A further particular object of the invention is to form such an inconspicuous joint between the elements without forming a joint which crosses a simulated masonry unit.
A further object of the invention is to provide an element in sheet form having its end edges in stepped shape and with portions of the base of the sheet upon which are simulated the mortar joints or portions thereof in certain advantageous relations to the portions of the base upon which are simulated the masonry units.
An additional object of the invention is to provide a form of element which will avoid the noticeable effect of irregularities in the size of the elements when the elements are laid in adjacent relation upon a surface.
A further object of the invention is to provide a method of manufacture of such elements in sheet form by which said elements may be produced continuously with a minimum waste of material and without trimming or other extra operations.
The invention, therefore, broadly comprises the provision of a sheet or an element of covering material uponthe surface of which are simulated masonry units laid in a plurality of courses with mortar joints therebetween, said joints extending generally longitudinally and transversely of the courses as is usual in masonry structures. In one phase of the invention the sheet or element is cut or otherwise formed so that in general the edges of the sheet or element are coincident with or extend within the area of the simulated longitudinal or transverse joints of the masonry. In general, also, particularly in such masonry structures as brickwork, the longitudinal edges of the sheet or element may coincide with or lie within the simulated longitudinal joint of the masonry or brickwork; The transverse edges of the element may similarly coincide with or lie within the vertical joints of the masonry. It will be understood, particularly from .the more detailed description to follow, that in the simulation of usual masonry structures, especially brickwork, due to the offset arrangement of the vertical joints of the structure the end edges of the sheet or element will be in "stepped form because of cutting or forming these edges of the sheet or element along the linesof the vertical joints and also ialong the lines of the horizontal joints connecting the vertical joints at the ends of those masonry units which are positioned at the ends of the courses simulated upon the sheet or element.
Upon the surface of such a sheet or element there will always be provideda full representation of the masonry unit and the edges of the sheet will at no place out across the masonry unit. Inasmuch as the exposed areas of the masonry units are much greater than the exposed areas of the masonry joints, the edges of the sheet or element and the joints beween two elements from the" simulation ofthe masonry joint, especially in certain embodiments of the invention to be hereafter more particularly described, and
in the cutting-of the sheet in the manufacture thereof, which has been referred to above, will be less noticeable when the joints between the elements are made along the lines of the simulated masonry joints, as has been set forth above. Any variation in the width of the joint betweenthe elements when they are properly alined relative to each other to simulate. the masonry will not detract from the uniform appearance of the masonry units andof the masonry structure simulated upon the element as only a slightly thicker mortar joint is produced. Such variations of joint thickness frequently occur in actual brick work while the alinementof the joints is maintained.
The stepped form provides certain other features of the invention, including the proper spacing of the elements when laid adjacent to each other and also provides marks for laying'the elements in the courses in overlapping arrangement. Moreover,an extension of the stepped form, especially in the elements whichare arranged in overlapping arrangement in courses, particularly in the embodiment of the invention which utilizes cut-outs to simulate the transverse or vertical joints of the masonry or brick- The sheets or elements of our invention may be produced by a simple, continuous method with out unnecessary waste of material and by the formation of simple short cuts, especially the longitudinal cuts, as will.be hereafterv described,
which not only may produce the stepped form but also may complete the severing'of' the indi! vidual sheet or element from the ,Sheet material from which it isvmade.
Other features of the invention will be understood from a consideration of the following description when taken in connection with the ac- I companying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 shows an assembly upon a surface to be covered of elements embodying the features of the invention; A
Fig. 2 is a face view of one of said elements; Fig. 3 is a section taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 2; Fig. 4 shows a modified form of the element; Fig. 5 shows the end of an element of modified form complementary to that shown in Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 shows'a. sheet from which said elements -may be-produced and illustrates the steps in the process of producing said elements;
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic cross section of a cutting roll over which the sheet illustrated in Fig. 6
is passed and in one of its positions in the cutting Y of the sheet on line AA of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is a face view of a single element of said modified form; and
Fig. 9 is an assembly'of another modified form of the covering element of the invention.
In Figs. 1 and 2 is shown one embodiment of the invention to simulate brickwork in which courses of bricks are laid in the so-called stretcher arrangement, that is, with the bricks laid flat lengthwise of the' course, the exposed face of the brick being'th'at presented by the length of the brick and the thickness thereof.
The bricks are laid in each course separated by mortar joints and the courses are separated by layers of mortar, the mortar of the joints separating the bricks in the courses usually in actual brickwork construction being pointed up to insure the complete filling of the space between the bricks and the continuity and joining of the horizontal and vertical joints. In the so-called "stretcher arrangement, the bricks all being of header construction of brickwork, as well as other types-such as the Flemish bond, headers on end, and other well known types of brickwork in which in general the vertical joint in one course is offset a distance from a vertical joint in an adjacent course above or below.
Moreover, the invention is applicable to the simulation of masonry construction utilizing other masonry units, such as stone of regular or irregular size alone or in combination with brickwork in which there are Joints between the masonry units extending generally longitudinally or horizontally of the construction and also joints between the masonry units transverse to said ion.- gitudinal joints. In the simulation of such constructions according to the invention a sheet of covering material preferably of a felt base impregnated with asphalt or other waterproofing material such as is commonly, used in the manufacture of roofing and roofing strips or units may be utilized. Upon the face of said sheet or element there is provided a simulation of the masonry units with their longitudinal and transverse mortar joints. While the invention in certain features thereof may be applied to covering elementswhich are merely laid adjacent to each other without overlapping one element or one row of elementsupon another, especially when the covering material is not subjected to the weather, there may also be provided according to the invention such overlapping arrangei a sheet of roofing material having a portion comprising a base upon the surface of which are formed stripes 2 extending lengthwise of the .element and parallel to the lengthwise edge thereof.- The stripes '2 areseparated from each other and from'the lengthwise edge of the sheet distances equivalent to the depth of a brick when laid flat in a course of bricks in the usual manner to produce the so-called "stretcher construction. There are thus demarked upon the portion of the surface of the element to be exposed areas which, when suitably divided to simulate vertical. joints of brickwork, will. represent bricks 3 with joints I therebetween laid in courses with the a vertical joints 4 in the staggered arrangement of there is provided a portion I of a width preferably greater than that of the exposed portion and having a character of surface to simulate the character of the mortar in the joints of the brickwork. Preferably the height of this portion 5 ina direction transverse to the longitudinal or horizontal joints of the brickwork is greater than the sum of the depths of the bricks in the courses with a joint for each course. In the embodiment shown in Figs. 1 and 2 this height is greater than the depth of the three brick courses with the two horizontal joints therebetween and including the width of a joint above the uppermost of the three courses of brick'. In other words, the height ofthe' portioniv exceeds three times the depth of a brick plus the thickness or width of a mortar Joint.
To provide for the so-called "head lap which is customarily used in overlapping arrangements of covering units the height of the-portions I shouldfurther exceed that of the exposed portion by an amount equivalent to this "head lap.-
It will be clear from the figures that in the element illustrated in Fig. 2 and in the assembly of such elements in Fig. 1 this "head lap" has been provided for whileleaving exposed a portion of the area i subjacent to the lower edge of an overlapping element, said exposed-portion of the area 5 being of a widthrin the vertical direction equal to the thickness-of a mortar joint. Thus in the assembly of the elements upon the surface to be covered thereis provided the simulation of the longitudinal or horizontal jointsof the masonry or brickwork by leaving uncovered a portion of the area 5 while at the same time providing for the desired head lap".
If desired, marks may be placed upon the por-' tion 5 of the element to provide a gauge for vertically spacing the lower edge of a superimposed element from the upper edge of the uppermost bricks of the three courses of brick. Such a laying mark or gauge may be provided by a longitudinal line upon the area 5 parallel to the courses of the brickwork and at a'distance above the upper edge of the uppermost course substantially equal to the thickness of a horizontal joint of the brickwork. The lower edge of a superimsimulation of horizontal masonry joint above said 50 uppermost course of bricks and below the lowermost course of bricks upon the superimposed element. It will be seen that thereby the two elements will be properly spaced and that a repetition of such gauging in the other elements upon the surface to be covered will produce an' orderly and uniform arrangement of the elements upon said surface. It will be understood, however, from a study of Fig. 1 that a gauge mark may be placed upon the area 5 so thatthere may be laid in register therewith the upper edges 8' v of the element or the edge It of the element. Similarly a laying mark may be-placed upon the area 5 of the superimposed element at the edges it so as to register with the upper edge of'the Other posiis accomplished by cuts through the base of the 4 sheet at 4, through which cuts may be seen the surface of the area 5 upon which is overlapped the exposed portion of the element in which said simulation of the vertical joints of the brickwork cuts are formed. Thus by suitably providing the cut-out of about inch is found to produce the surface of the mortar joint and similarly providing the area 5 with a surface of saidcharacter, there is simulated for all of the joints equal to the depth of the masonry unit or brick.
The cut-outs 4 formed in the lengthwise edge of the sheet or element extend from the lower side of the first horizontal stripe to said lengthwise edge of the sheet and thecut-outs 4 in the third course of bricks upon the sheet extend from the upper side of the second stripe to the lower boundary of the area 5 described above. The cut-outs'in the second course are shown extending between the two stripes. However, the cuts 4 may be made of greater or less length within such limits as will provide a proper simulation of the transverse or vertical joint in suitable combination with the simulation of the longitudinal or horizontal joint of the masonry or brickwork, and the invention is not limited to the particular extent and/or position of the cut-outs 4 in relation to each other nor to the,
simulation of the longitudinal joints as shown in the figures. In practice it is found desirable to make the length of the cut-outs slightly longer than the depth of. the masonry unit in order to assure removal of the slate between the horizontal stripes. An extra length at each end of good results.
As shown in Fig. 2, the end of the element is cut inja stepped or'oifset shape. In the preferred embodiment of the invention this stepped shape is of the same .or complementary form at the two ends of the elements. As illustrated in Fig. 2, the right hand end of the elements is of the same form as the left hand except asmodified by the cut-outs 4 or the spaces equivalent to these cutouts provided at the ends of each course of the bricks. As illustrated, the transverse cuts through the sheets are coincident with the end edges of the bricks at both ends of the three courses simulated upon the portion of the sheet to be exposed and said transverse cuts are continued across the simulated horizontal joints of the brickwork which are subjacent to the courses. The longitudinal or horizontal edges of the stepped form of the ends of the sheet as illustrated are out along the upper edges 8 of the end bricks of the two lower courses or, what is equivalent. are out along the bottom lines I] of the longitudinal joint lying above said two lower courses.
' It will be noted-however, that a short longitudinal edge I0 ,is formed. on the upper side of said two simulated longitudinal joints at the right hand end of the element coincident with the lower end edge of the cut-out at said right hand end of the second and third courses. Thus it will be clear that in the particular embodiment being described except for the longitudinal cuts ill and the cuts 9 transversely of the longitudinal joints the stepped form of the exposed portion ofthe sheet is made by transverse and longitudinal cuts along the edges of the'bricks. Moreover, it will be noted that the portion l I of the two simulated longitudinal joints which depend from the left hand end of bricks 3 of the second and third courses of bricks are formed by a cut correspondingly exactly to the cuts 8 mentioned above which are made'along the upper edge of the two lower courses of brick at the right hand end of the the portion of the base cut away by the cut.-'
outs 4 at 'the'ends of the sheetthe ends of the exposed portion of the sheet are exactly complementary. As will be further described in connection with Figs. 6 and '7, these longitudinal cuts, therefore, may be made at the same time and simultaneously with. severing the element from the sheet.
It will be noted that the position of the transverse cuts 9 has been selected in the form of element illustrated in Fig. 2 so as to coincide with the right hand side of the vertical joint simulating spaces or cut-outs 4 at said end of the sheet. While this is an advantageous position for these cuts 9, they need notbe limited to this position and may be made at any point between the position shown which is coincident with the right hand edge of a space 4 and the left hand edge of such, a space, longitudinal cuts 8 being suitably extended to meet and intersect the cuts 9. However, it will be noted that if the cut 9 at the right hand edge is moved to the left and if said out produces also, in a succeeding element as cut from a sheet of roofing, the corresponding end edge of the portion of the horizontal joint as shown at H, such portion ll would have a piece '9 and I0 is preferably equal to the width of the cut-out's4 and the height of said step is equal to the width of the horizontal joint.
The steps formed by the edges 9 and I0, therefore, provide an abutment against which may abut the end of the portion ll of the horizontal joint at the left hand of a similar element when laid adjacent to the right hand end of the first element. Thus there is insured a proper spacing for'the second and third courses of the adjacent element relative to the first. element so as to insure the equivalent of the space or cut-out 4 being formed by the joint between two elements laid endwise to each other. Moreover, in view or the steppedform' of the sheet and of the two abutments formed by the edges 9 and Ill, spacing is also provided between the end bricks oi the lowest or first course of bricks upon the two sheets. This will be clear from the above description taken in connection with Figs. 1 and 2. It also will be noted that the length of the simulated horizontal joints 2 is as much greater than the -length of each of the three courses of brick as the width of a vertical joint. This is true whether ornot the transverse edge 9 is cut at the right hand or at the left hand edge of the cutouts 4 or at a point therebetween as described above. Thus there is provided in the sheet or element itself a gauge for laying the sheets endwise to each. other to produce a proper spacing of the elements in a direction lengthwise of the courses of masonry or brickwork to insure a uniformity of vertical joint simulation and to provide an inconspicuous joint where one sheet abuts or lies endwise to another.
It will be noted that the combination of the cut-out for simulation of the vertical joint with the use of the short transverse cuts across the simulated horizontal joints but avoiding cuts ace-aces across the brick simulating'areas, as afforded by L simulate the masonry units or bricks may be so the stepped shape of the ends of the sheet, contributes to make inconspicuous and unnoticeable the joint across the exposed portion of the covering. Moreover, the longitudinal cuts 8 extending in the same or generally same direction as the longitudinal joints of the masonry are not readily seen because they do not arrest the eye in any manner different from that of the simulated longitudinal joints. 1
While we-have shown in the embodiment illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 cut-outs in the body of the sheet to represent the intermediate vertical joints of the brickwork, our invention is not limited to the use of cut-outs for simulationof these.
intermediate joints. which simulation may be provided in any convenient way to properly accomplish in combination with the simulation of the longitudinal joints the desired representationof the masonry or brickwork. Moreover, we may also substitute for the portions 4, cut out at the endof the sheet to simulate the vertical joints-between bricks at said ends of the sheet, a simulation of the same type as that adopted for the body of the sheet. In such case if no material of the body of the base of the sheet is removed to form these simulations, the longitudinal cuts 8 in combination with transverse cuts along said vertical joints nevertheless provide and make possible the stepped arrangement with the advantages described above as to forming the inconspicuous joint. It will be clear also that if no material of the base is removed,
I jacent to another element endwise thereof. .The
dot and dash line's shown in this figure illustrate the position of the element I when laid in said adjacent position upon the surface to be covered. It'will be'seen that the edges of the portion II, when the sheet is in position, coincide with and fit against the upper edges 8 of the two end bricks 'of the two lower courses simulated at the right hand of the adjacent element at the left. It will also be seen that the ends I2 of the three brick courses of the lifted element will fall into positions which are spaced from the right hand ends of the end bricks of the three courses upon the adjacent element at distances therefrom equal to the width of the vertical joints. Moreover, it
will be clear that the element I when folded down into position against the adjacent element is spaced therefrom by the abutments formed by the edges 8 and III as above described.
It will also be apparent from a study of Fig. 1 that when the element I is folded down and abutted against the element adjacent endwise thereto the joint betweenthe exposed portions of the two elements falls upon the overlapped portion I of a subjacent element upon whichsaid folded down element and its adjacent element are lapped. Said joint made in the stepped arrangement of the present invention may-be so located longitudinally of the courses of masonry, i., e.,
lengthwise of the elements with respect to simi-' lar joints between elements, that the two joints are not superimposed. The vertical joints simulated by the spaces betweenthe areas -3 which covering is prevented.
positioned, and in the brickwork simulation will be so positioned. as to carry out the staggered arrangement of the vertical joints of masonry or of brickwork. In general the joint between two adjacent elements including the spaces or cutouts at the ends of said elements, therefore, must lie superimposed upon a portionof the 'area 8, thereby. providing a water tight covering, the
1 area 5 underlying the joint being continuous.
When the sheet or element is provided with a suitable head lap as described above, the. passage of any water which may enter the joint over said area 5 and outfromunder the overlappin elements is thus insured and leakage through the Also, any water entering through the cut-outs used for simulation of the vertical joints in the body of the element passes over the area 5- and out from under the element.
In order to guard against the possibilitythat the joint between two adjacent elements may fall upon the joint between two adjacent areas 5 in two subjacent elements l'aid adjacent to each other, in another feature of our invention we have provided the area 5 with an end edge in stepped shape, that is, having its edge offset in relation to the end edges of the exposed portion. In forming the step or offset for the area 5 as v shown in Figs. 1 and 2, we have formed a transverse. edge I5 extending across the main portion of the area 5 to meet a longitudinal edge It of said area I, which edge I8 connects said transverse edge I6 to a transverse edge or cut 4 upon the exposed portion of the sheet. In orderto prevent the joint between two exposed portions of adjacent elements overlappingupon said area I from falling in superimposed position upon said transverse edge I5 of the area 5, we preferably form the edge I5 of said area 6 at a point or on a line which will lie between transverse or vertical joints of the masonry or brickwork atthe ends thereof'. In the embodiment shown in Figs. -1 and 2 the transverse edge I5 is formed on. a line which, if extended, will pass between brickwork. This position for the edge IS in the brickwork construction illustrated insures said edge lying underneath a part of the exposed portion of an overlapping element in which there is no cut-out forsimulation of a vertical joint nor a cut to form the end of said element. .The reason for this will be evident from a study of theflgures since in the brickwork construction which is simulated the regularity of ofl'setting of the vertical joints insures that no end edge of an element or sheet-will coincide with an overlying cut-out because'the offset or stagger of the vertical joints is always equal to one-half the length of. the brick whereas the offset provided by the edge I5 is less than one-half of a brick. Howwhether simulated in the body of the element or v two vertical joints 4 in. adjacent rows of the I ever, in other modifications of the invention the edge I! while in stepped relation to the end edge of the exposed portion may be positioned in such relation to the said end edges of the exposed portion 0'! theelement and to any cut-outs there.-
in that it will lie under a solid portion of thebody of the sheet, that is, a portion having no cut-outs therein which are in linewith the edge I5 whether or not the stagger of the vertical joints'as simulated is regular or irregular.
than the width of a horizontal joint. Thus when an overlapping element is laid with its exposed edge a distance above said top course of bricks equal to the width of a horizontal joint, the longitudinal edge I6, as may be seen in Fig. 1, will be covered by the lower edge of said overlapping unit. It will be plain from the explanation just given in regard to therelation of the edge l5 of the overlapped portion to the end edges of the .exposed portion and to the cut-outs simulating the vertical joints that the edge IE will also fall under a solid portion of the sheet. Thus there is insured a greater protection against seepage of water through the joint in the overlapped portion and assistance is given to the means used for holding the sheets in position upon the surface by having the corner I8 caught underneath said bottom edge of the exposed portion of the overlapping element. I
The edge l9 at the left hand of the element 1 in the illustrated embodiment of the invention is also cut longitudinally at a distance above the top of the top course of bricks greater than the width of a joint. Preferably in the manner to be described in connection with Figs. 6 and 7 as mentioned above, the edge l9 and the edge l6 are cut simultaneously and the edge IQ of the lifted element, which, as shown in Fig. 1, when folded down lies adjacent to a similar element upon the surface, coincides with and abuts against the edgel6 of said adjacent element. Also the edge 20 may be cut at the same time as the edge l5 of an adjacent unit and when the element is folded down said edge 20 will abut the edge l5 of an adjacent element upon 'the surface to be covered. Thus it will be seen that the form of the end edges of the portion of the element to be overlapped are also of complementary form at one end of the sheet relative to the other end thereof. Moreover, the abutment of the edge 20 against the edge l5 assists in carrying out the spacing of the elements one relative to the other to insure the simulation of the vertical joints of the masonry or brickwork in a manner similar to that described in connection with the abutments formed by the edges 9 and Mas described above. It will be understood from the explanation given above in connection with the abutments 9 and I and the portions II that similarly the length of the area between the edges l5 and 20 may be as much greater than the length of the courses of brick simulated upon the element as the width of thevertical joint. Also the length of said area 5 and the length of the portions of the element upon which are simulated the horizontal joints between the courses of brick may be the same, thus insuring not only the proper spacing as described above, between the elements, but proper alinement and squaring of the elements to insure alinement of. the courses of bricks so as to carry out a realistic simulation of the brickwork construction.
A modification of the element may be made so as to utilize the edges l6 and I!) as -laying marks for spacing and alinement of the element. The edge I6 may be cut at "such a distance from the upper edge of theupper course of bricks simulated upon the element that, when the lower edge of said element is separated from a similar upper edge of the upper course of bricks upon an underlying element by the space necessary to provide the simulation of the horizontal 'joint'of brickwork as has been described above, said edge I6 of the overlying element will coincide with the upper edge of the area 5 of Said underlying sheet.
element. The element to besuperimposed, therefore, may be laid by registering said edge IS with said upper edge of thearea 5' of the underlying element. Similarly the edge ,IS'may be brought into register with said upper edge of the underlying element if said edge I9 is at the proper distance from the. upper edge of the upp rmost course of bricks simulated upon the element. In forming complementary elements said edge l9 would be formed at such distance when edge I6- is formed as will be hereafter described.
While in the embodiment illustrated in and 2 we have shown the stepped or offset arrangement at one end .complementary to the other end with the stepped shape rising in the same direction, that is, toward the left end of the sheet as shown in the figures, nevertheless it is within the scope of our invention to provide this stepped or offset shape or form with the steps in opposite directions as shown in Fig. 4. Complementary-elements may be made by forming alternate elements with stepped edges in reverse The-sheet as indicated in Fig. 4 has the steps progressing toward the center ofits directions.
length as they rise from the bottom edge of the Upon the element complementary thereto as shown in Fig. 5, the stepped formof edge may be providedfwith the right hand stepped edge of the complementary sheet diverging from the center of the length, the left band edge (not shown) diverging in the opposite direction. The functions performed by the various parts of the stepped form and portions of the sheet to simulate the joints and to provide'the spaced relation of the elements and to produce a covering which will be weatherproof and water tight will be the same as those of the element described in connection with Figs. 1 and 2. Other modifications are also possible within the spirit of the invention.
In Fig. 6 is shown a sheet from which an element such as is illustrated in Fig. 2 may be cut by a continuous operation. This figure also il-- lustrates the method of producing a sheet the ends of which are of complementary form and as well shows the method of producing a sheet having the cut-outs to simulate the vertical joints. From a roll of. sheet roofing or from any other supply, sheet 25 may be delivered so as to be fed over a cutting roll in the direction of the arrow as shown diagrammatically in Fig. '7. The sheet as fed to the roll may be conveniently of the width required to provide a surface upon which may be represented, in the case illustrated, three courses of bricks with two longitudinal joints therebetween and including a portion of the element intended to be overlapped as represented by thearea 5 described in connection with Fig. 2, said area 5 allowing also for a longitudinal joint above the uppermost course of brick .as well as for a head lap at'the upper edge of the overlapped portion.
By suitable means not shown and which form no part of the present invention, stripes may be formed upon the sheet either inra previous proc-' Figs. l
I the surface thereof, sometimes with the assistance of a fine dust of .slate' thereon, is usually of a character to prevent the adhesion of the granular slatemate'rial used for surfacing thesheet, said granular material adhering. however,
- to the portions between the grooves. This,
granular slate or other granular material may be chosen so as to present upon the finished element the surface character of a masonryunit,
such as a brick in different colors and size of 15 grain to simulate different finishes of the ma:
The area 5 also may be scraped by the method of the Outman process to produce a surface to which the granular material simulating the sur- 20 face of the masonry unit will not adhere: Moreover, upon the surface 5 and the grooves'2 may be applied in any suitable manner a surfacing material which will have the character or appearance of the surface of the mortar of the mortar 25 joints of masonry or brickwork. The applicationof these materials, whether of the slate for surfacing the area simulating the masonry units,
or the bricks or for surfacing the area 5 and the grooves 2, may be applied subsequently to the 30 scraping of the grooves and the area 5, and advantageously the application of the material to simulate the mortar joints may be made prior to the application of the surfacing material to simulatethe masonry units, thus serving the double 5 use of preventing the-adhesion of the granular material or slate simulating the masonry'units to those portions which are intended to simulate the mortar joint. However, the stripes may be made in any suitable-manner to simulate the '40 longitudinal Joints of masonry, and one other .method of producing a stripe is shown in the patent to Overbury 1,154,334. The area 5 also may beproduced by the application of a granular material of different character than that of the 45 granular material used to surface the area and "-simulating the masonry units without scraping the surface in accordance withthe method of Outman which method, however, we consider preferable for producing both the area 5 and the 7 5o simulation-oi the longitudinal joints 2. t
' By whatever method the sheet 25 is preparedfor delivery to the cutting roll 26, according to the particular method disclosed in Figs. 6 and '7 we deliver to this cutting roll a sheet having 55 longitudinally thereon stripes 2 to simulate the longitudinal joints of the masonry and demarking the areas 21 which in the finished elementwill present the simulation of the exposed surface of the masonry units. Preferably, as
- 60 above described, the sheet also has an area 5 in-- tended to be overlapped in the finished element. In so far as the method of producing the element of the present invention broadly is concerned,
this .area 5 may or may not be provided for' in 5 the sheet as it is fed to the cutting roll.
The position of the cutting roll is represented in Fig. 6, by the line 1-1 which may be considered to be the axis of the cutting roll 26. As-
shown in Fig. 6, an element I has been cut from 7 the sheet upon the line A-A. The end edge of the sheet which has already passed under the cutting 'roll is formed in the stepped form with corners at 3|l,-3l, 32, 33, 34,35, 36, 31, 38, 39 and 43. It will also be clear from Figs. 6 and '7 that 75 the 'edge A-A has passed under the cutting roll are successively made the cuts in the sheet producing the cut-outs 40, 4|, 4:, 4s and is before the cuts which bring about the severing of the element from. the sheet are started. After-the cut-out 44 is finished the sheet passing over the revolving roll 26 reaches a point over the cutter which is 'on the line 30-3l; Upon the roll 26 the cutting edges are so' arranged that as the sheet passes thereunder continuously and consecutively the edges 3l-32, 32-33 will be cut.
The edge 32-33 meets the cut-out 4 (45) which is next formed by a further fractional 'revolution of the roll 26. As the right band edge of the cut-out 4 (45) is formed the edge 34-35 is cut and with further turning of the roll 26 the longitudinal-edge 35-36 is cut. Upon reaching the point 36 there will also have been out another cut-out 4 (46), and when the cutting roll has reached the point 36 the transverse edge 31-38 will be out. By further turning, the longitudinal edge 38-39 will be cut and upon reaching the point 39 there will have been cut the cut-out- 4 (41) which intersects the edge of the sheet 25.
At the time of cutting thecutut'4 (41) at the edge of the sheet 25 there will also have been cut the cut-out 4 (41) in line therewith in the second course removed therefrom above the sheet, that is, the third simulated course of bricks. Thus it .will be seen that'upon the end of the sheet 25, the sheet having passed under the roll from the end edge 30-3! to the end edge 33-49, the stepped form of the sheet which has been described will have been made and the staggered vertical joints of the brickwork of the end bricks of the three courses ,will have been produced. By further turnin 'gof the roll 26 and delivery of the sheet thereunder, the cuts 40, u,.
42, 43 and 44' will be made in the body of the sheet or intersecting the edge of the sheet as the' case may be, as above mentioned. The cuts 43. 45
these cuts are not yet formedin the sheet as the sheet has not yet passed underthe roll 26 placed at line I. When the sheet has passed the position of the cut-out 44 and intermediate said cut-out 44 and the cut-outs 45, the severing cut 30-3l will be repeated and the separation of the element from the main portion of the sheet being delivered to the roll willbe started. The subsequent steps for cutting the edges 3l-32, 32-33 and the successive cuts to produce thecut-outs 4 and the stepped ,edges ofv the sheet, as has been described, will be repeated. 7
Thus it will be seen that the process of producing the element 1 of our inventionmay be continuous and may be carried out without waste of any of the material of the sheet 25 except that removed in forming the cut-outs. '4. If the representation of the vertical joints of the brickwork or of the masonry upon the surface of the sheet is accomplished by other means,even\ such waste is avoided and all the material of thesheet 25 is utilized to produce the element L, It will also be clear from the description given above and from Figs. 6 and 7, that when cut-outs are -provided in the sheet the severing of the element from the sheet is accomplished substantially by longitudinal cuts connecting said cut-outs. In some cases, as in the form illustrated, the short transverse cuts'32-33, 34-35, 31-38 are used to connect respectively the longitudinal cuts 3l-32, 35-36, 38-39 with the cut-outs 4. However, our invention is not limited to the use of the short transverse cuts 32-33, 34-35, 31-38, and as will now be apparent, we may connect the edge 30-3l with the cut-out 4 at position 45 by a out which would slope from the corner 3i to the corner 33 and similarly the longitudinal cut 35-36 may be made from the corner 34 to a corner of the cutout 4 at position 46. Moreover, while we have shown the cut-outs 4 extending between the stripes 2 and of a length equal to the end edge of a brick, it is within the-scope of .vour invention that the cut-outs 4 shall be made of such lengths as to span the depth of a brick plus the depth or width of one or more mortar joints. Thus it will be clear that the longitudinal cuts made for severing the sheet and for producing the stepped form of the end of the sheet may be made without the assistance of transverse cuts such as 32-33,
34-35, 31-38 to connect the longitudinal cuts with the cut-outs, and that the longitudinal'cut may be made along any line within the width of a longitudinal joint of the masonry to connect the cut-outs with each other or with the end edge of the sheet. In thus cutting the sheet and forming the cut-outs 4 at the positions 45 and 46 the outs 3l-32 and 32-33 produce the edges J6 and I9 as shown in Fig. 2'and also the abutment l3 adjacent the edge IS. The cuts 34-35 and 31-38 produce the abutmehts shown and described in Fig. 2 in connection with the edges 9 and N. If the longitudinal cuts' are made without these transverse cuts, as has been described, as for example by a diagonal cut from the corner 3| to the corner 33, reliance may be placed upon the abutment of the edges 20 and i5 as shown in Fig. 1 which are produced by the transverse severing cut 30-3! for proper spacing of the -,units to simulate the vertical joints or thesheets may be spaced by laying marks upon the area 5 or elsewhere upon the element. However, such a diagonal cut, since no material is removed from the sheet, may also produce complementary outvlines upon the two elements which will fit together and assist in maintaining the spacing and proper relation of adjacent elements. Moreover, such a diagonal cut would serve such a purpose if instead of the cut-outs other means were used for simulating the vertical joints. It also will be understood that if said vertical joints are simulated without the cut-outs, nevertheless the 1st ped form of the end of the sheet may be produ edby the severing of the sheet by successive transverse and longitudinal cuts and also that in this manner complementary elements may be produced.
. The method and steps which have been described in connection with Figs. 6 and 7 for producing the elements having the stepped shape of the end of the element may be utilized to produce the form of element shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
. In addition to the cutting edges which produce i simulation of the longitudinal and vertical joints the 'end edge A-A of the, sheetit will be necessary to mount upon the roll 26 a set of cutting edges in reverse arrangement to the first mentioned set so that first a severing cut will be made and these figures as well as the other figures of the drawings taken in connection with the explanatlon given will make clear that the stepped or oflset form of the end of the sheet may be produced in various ways and that the elements may be provided with complementary ends without wastage of material and with a simple and continuous process of manufacture, and that elements of this type will make possible the covering of a surface, such as a wall, with a covering the J'oints between the elements of which are not conspicuous and do not detract from the appearance of the covering and from the simulation of the masonry construction. By our invention when such elements are laid in overlapping arra'hgement, a water tight construction of the covering is provided while maintaining as to appearance the advantages which are afforded by the stepped arrangement of the joint between the elements.
Although we have described this method of continuous cutting of the sheet for severing the element therefrom in the stepped form as a method .of producing elements to simulate brickceeds and the steps utilized are equally applicable to the production of elements which may simulate other types of masonry construction. When the simulation of such structures provides for longitudinal joints of greater'or less extent and transverse joints intersecting or meeting said longitudinal joints, there is provided the opportunity to cut the sheet in stepped form in order to obtain the edges which have been described in connection with Figs. 1 and 2.
If desired, the sheet as it is delivered to the cutting roll 26 maybe provided without-outs 4 previously cut therein and suitably combined and cooperating with longitudinal stripes on the sheet to simulate the masonry structure and the severing of the sheet may be accomplished merely by making the longitudinal cuts connecting the cut-outs. If no area 5 to be overlapped is provided upon the sheet, then the longitudinal cuts will suflice to sever completely the element from the sheet and to produce the stepped form. However, we prefer, as has been described above, to form the cut-outs successively and in a continuous operation with the making of the severstruction of the element while maintaining the form embodying the features of the invention as described in connection with Figs. land 2. In the form shown in Fig. 8 the longitudinal joints 2 may be simulated in the manner described in connection with Fig. 2 or in any other desired manner, and also the simulation of the vertical joints may-be provided by the cut-outs 4, which cut-outs,- to provide the simulation desired in this embodiment, are of greater or less length in'conformance with the depth of the masonry units between which they are placed. For example, the large masonry units 50 as shown are of such depth as to cover the depth of two courses of brickwork'and the cut-outs 5| in the body of the sheet extend along the vertical edges of these units. At the left of the elements 50 is shown, by way of variation of the structure, a unit 52 which may, for example, correspond in dimension to a brick header. This unit has at its left side a joint simulated by a cut-out 4 of the same type as shown in Fig. 2. At the right hand 2,094,688 r of the masonry units 50 is shown a similar brick most course not less than thewidth of a simuheader 53 with the mortar joint simulated by a cut-out 4 of the type shown in Fig. 2. Below this header 53 is shown a stretcher brick 54 with a vertical joint at its left simulated by a cut-out 4. The horizontal simulated joint is shown as carried through to meet the unit 50, thus sepmating the two vertical joints 4 by a portion of the base material of the element. The cutouts :3 along the edge of the sheet are made in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 2. It will be apparent from this description and from Fig. 8, as well as from the assembly of units of the type shown-in Fig. 8-as illustrated in Fig. 9, that variations of the simulation of masonry structures may be accomplished within the scope of our invention and a variety of applications of the stepped form of end edge of the element may be made while obtaining-the advantages which have been more particularly set forth in connection with the simulation of brickwork. It is also apparent that by suitable design modifications f the element shown in Fig. 8 may be made, such as by cutting the element along the line DD, whereby, in a manner similar to that described in connection with Figs. 4 and 5, complementary elements may be obtained with a variation of the stepped form of the end of the element to suit different conditions.
While our invention has been described more particularly in connection with covering units-of so-called slate surfaced roofing material, it may V shape of the edges of the elements of stepped or ness and water tightness; and while our invention includes modifications adaptable to such uses, nevertheless it is equally applicable to coverings'to simulate interior masonry walls which therefore need not be water tight, thestepped form nevertheless providing the' inconspicuous joint and the continuity of the simulation of the masonry structure.
What is claimed as new is:
1. A covering sheet for laying on a surface in overlapping arrangement with similar sheets comprising a base having at least a part of the surface thereof demarked by at least one stripe upon the sheet and by cuts in the base extending.
transversely to the stripe into areas simulating bricks laid in a plurality of courses with mortar joints therebetween, the ends of said sheet transverse to said stripe being in stepped form corresponding to that of the joints of brickwork so that the cuts in the brick simulating areas 'are avoided, the longitudinal edges of the stepped form joining end edges of the stepped form being along the lines simulating the top edges of the bricks for all the courses of bricks except the topmost course simulated upon the sheet, said sheet having a longitudinal edge joining the extension of the end edge of said topmost course with the end edge of that portion of the sheet intended to be overlapped and formed-along a line at a distance above the top edge of said toplated mortar joint.
2. A covering sheet for laying upon the surface of a wall in overlapping arrangement with similar covering sheets which comprises a base of impervious material and having extending across the portion of the sheet to be exposed a plurality of parallel stripes and having cuts in the base betweenthe stripes in staggered arrangement simulatively to demark the bricks and 'to simulate respectively the horizontal and the vertical joints of brickwork laid in courses, the ends of the sheet being cut in stepped form along said simulated joints, the end of the portion of the sheet to be overlapped being in stepped relation to the cuts simulating the vertical joints of the brickwork, the horizontal edge of said step in the overlapped portion being on a line at a distance from the top of the topmost simulated course of bricks greater than the width of a horizontal joint of the brickwork.
3. A covering sheet for laying upon the surface of a wall in overlapping arrangement with similar covering sheets which comprises a base of impervious material having at least one stripe,
upon the sheet parallel to and spaced from the edge of the sheet to be exposed and from any other similar stripes upon the'sheet distances equal to the distances between horizontal joints of brickwork and separating at least two sets of areas having a dimension transversely to the stripes equal to the depth of bricks as laid in courses, said base having therein a set of.cut-outs for each course extending transversely to the stripes and in staggered arrangement to each other in the successive courses to demark with 4 said stripes and'with said exposed edge individual bricks in the courses, said sheet'being cut in steppedform at its ends alonglines of the simulated joints, the vertical end edges of the simulated brick courses being made at the end edges of the end bricks of each course upon the sheet, the horizontal bottom edge of the sheet being coincident with the bottom edge of the lowermost course of the simulated bricks, the horizontal edges of the stepped form of the ends of the ex- 1 posed portion of the sheet being coincident with the bottom edge of the simulated horizontal joints, the vertical edges of each of said simulated horizontal joints at the two ends of the sheet being' spaced apart a distance greater than the length of the courses of bricks upon the sheet by an amount equal to the width of a vertical brickwork joint, the ends of the portion of the sheet to be overlapped being so formed in stepped relation and so placed in offset'relation to the vertical and longitudinal end edges of the exposed portion and to the cut-outs therein that when upon said portion to be overlapped is lapped the portion to be exposed of a similar sheet so that its cut-outs continue the staggered relation of those of the overlapped sheet said cut-outs do not behaving demarked thereon a plurality of courses of simulated masonry units with mortar joints therebetween, said sheet having an end edge extending generally transversely of the courses in offset form along the end edges ofthe simulated.
masonry units at said end of the sheet and along edges in line with the bottom line of the simulated longitudinal joints of the masonry and connecting to the end edges or extensions thereof 5 of the masonry units in two adjacent courses.
5. A covering sheet which comprises a base having a stripethereon simulating a longitudinal joint of masonry and having spaced along-said stripe at either side thereof and positioned transl0lversely thereof cut-outs in the base simulating transverse jointsof the masonry, said stripe and said cut-outs demarking simulated masonry units,
said sh'e'et having an end edge extending generally g transversely of said stripe in ofi-set form along the end edges of the simulated masonry units at the ends of the sheet and along edges in line with the bottom line of said simulated longitudinal joint and connecting to the end edges or extensions thereof of the masonry units in two adjacent courses.
6. A covering sheet which comprises a base having a stripe thereon simulating a longitudinal joint of masonry and having spaced along said stripe at either side thereof and positioned transversely thereof cut-outs in the base simulating transverse joints of the masonry, said stripe and 7 said cut-outs demarking simulated masonry units, said sheet having an end edge extending generally transversely of said stripe in offset form along the end edges of the simulated masonry units at the ends of the sheet and along edges in line with the bottom line of said simulated longitudinal joint and connecting to the end edges or extensions thereof of the masonry units in two adjacent courses, said end of the sheet being formed with successive edges thereof ofiset progressively in the same direction longitudinally of the stripe.
7. A covering sheet which comprises a base having demarked thereon a plurality of courses 40 of simulated masonry units with mortar joints therebetween, said sheet having an end edge extending generally transversely of the courses in oifset form along the end edges of the simulated masonry units at said end of the sheet and along edges in linewith the bottom line of the simulated longitudinal joints of the masonry and connecting to said end edges of the masonry units, the dimension of the simulated longitudinal joint longitudinally thereof being greater than the lo'ngitudinal dimension of said course between said end edges of the end units thereof by an amount equal to the width of a transverse joint, the end of that portion of said longitudinal joint which provides a longitudinal edge of an ofiset being in line with the end of the end unit of the course above said joint.
8. A 'covering' sheet for laying upon a surface in overlapping arrangement with similar covering sheets which comprises a base havi'ng demarked upon the portion thereof to be exposed in the overlapping arrangement a course of simulated masonry units, said sheet having an end edge extending generally transversely of the course, said end edge being formed with the portion thereof to be overlapped by a superimposed elementofiset with respect to the pbiffiloiilthereof to be exposed, said end edge havingfajportion like-extending with said course to form the offset and connecting said two transverse portions and positioned at a distance from the upper boundary of the simulated units in said course greater than the width of a longitudinal mortar joint.
9. A covering sheet for laying upon a surface in overlapping arrangement with similar covering sheets which comprises a base having demarked upon the portion to be exposed in the overlapping arrangement a course of simulated masonry units with transverse mortar joints therebetween, said portion of the sheet having edges transverse to the course at the ends of the end masonry units of the course, sald sheet hav-- ing in the portion thereof to be overlapped by a superimposed sheet end edges extending transversely of the course and respectively offset in relation to the adjacent transverse end of the course, said sheet at each end having edges generally like-extending with saidcourse to form the offsets and connecting the respective adjacent transverse edges of the portion to be exposed and theportion to be overlapped, said edges generally like-extending with the course being at a distance from the line of the upper boundary of the units .of said course greaterthan the width of a longitudinal mortar joint, the dimension of said overlapped portion of the sheetwhich is like-extending with said courseubeing greater than the course-wise dimension of said course by an amount equal to the width of a transverse mortar joint.