US 2094948 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 5', 1937.
'r. F. HURLEY ET AL 2,094,948
APPARATUS FOR DIVIDING OR COMBINING STREAMS OF FLUENT MATERIALS Filed March 9, 1956 B M e8 6 Sheets-Sheet l Oct. 5, 1937. T. F. HURLEY ET AL I 2,094,948
APPARATUS FOR DIVIDING OR COMBINING STREAMS OF FLUENT MATERIALS Filed Mar ch 9 1936 e Sheets-Sheet 2 U U U TFJ-[urlqg R Di c Ki N so N I NVENTORS Oct. 5, 1937. "r. F. HURLEY ET AL 2,094,943
APPARATUS FOR DIVIDING OR COMBINING STREAMS OF FLUENT MATERIALS Filed March 9, 1936 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 TFHur/ey ,5 DicHmson INVE NTORS Oct. 5, 1937. T. F. HURLEY ET AL 2,094,948
APPARATUS FOR DIVIDING OR COMBINING STREAMS OF FLUENT MATERIALS INVENTORS Patented Oct. 5, 1937 PATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR DIVIDING OR COMBINING STREAMS F FLUE-NT MATERIALS Thomas Frederick Hurley and Robert Dickinson,
Application March 9,
London, England 1936, Serial No. 67,992
In Great Britain April 9, 1935 3 Claims.
This invention relates to apparatus for use in dividing or combining streams of fluent material as, for instance, for the purpose of mixing, sampling and distributing and as a burner for 5 gaseous liquid or pulverulent solid fuels in the production of diverging or dispersive or concentrated flame effects.
The object of the invention is to provide an improved apparatus for the purposes in question enabling a stream or streams of fluent material to be sub-divided into a greater number of equal or unequal streams or to enable a number of streams to be combined into a single stream, in
such manner as will ensure intimate mixing of the material forming the individual streams or to enable a single stream of material which may have become stratified or otherwise segregated'to be treated in order that its composition or constitution may be averaged or rendered substan- 20 tially uniform.
'The invention consists in apparatus for the purpose in question comprising one or more inlets or outlets for all of a plurality of ducts and having more than one outlet or inlet for such ducts in such manner that no duct connects with more than one such outlet or inlet.
Preferably, apparatus in accordance with the invention comprises a plurality of sections of the character defined, in which the ducts of one see- 30 tion communicate with a greater or less number of ducts in an adjacent section.
The ducts connecting one inlet or outlet with any given outlet or inlet may be regularly or symmetrically spaced, arranged or interspersed with respect to the ducts connected with another outlet or inlet.
Thus, for instance, where the inlet or outlet is in the form of a parallelogram the ducts may be arranged to form rows parallel with two opposite sides of the parallelogram the adjacent ducts in such individual rows communicating with different outlets or inlets.
Optionally, in accordance with the invention, where the apparatus comprises a plurality of sections, the ducts of one section communicating with a greater or less number of ducts in an adjacent section, the cross sectional area of the ducts in the several sections may be varied for the purpose of promoting a constant velocity of flow of material through the successive ducts.
To this end also or alternatively the form of the ducts in cross section may be modified.
Furthermore, the form of the ducts or certain of them may be modified to secure a Yenturi effect. r
In some cases the ducts may be arranged to provide for the flow of the materials in a rectilineal path generally or in particular sections where a plurality of sections of the character above defined are provided.
Alternatively, the ducts may be curved so as to secure the flow of the materials in a generally non-rectilineal path.
In one form the invention may be described as covering apparatus having an inlet or outlet divided into X groups each of Y ducts, each group having each of its Y ducts connected to one inlet of one of the X outlets or inlets. The arrangement of the ducts will normally be such that the entrances to the Y ducts of any of the X groups are distributed over the cross sections of the conduit in such a manner that the material from adjacent ducts does not pass to the same outlet when the device is used as a distributor. The entrances to the X groups may or may not form geometrically similar patterns when viewed along the direction of flow.
The invention may be conveniently illustrated by reference to its application as an apparatus for dividing a stream of air carrying powdered coal into two substantially equal streams for supplying two powdered fuel burners. Up to the present this has been a difiicult problem owing to the varying distribution of the coal particles. It has been found by the inventors that if the main conduit is divided by equidistant transverse partitions and the ducts thus formed are connected alternately to a second conduit leading to one burner and to a third conduit leading to the other burner, a substantially equal supply to both burners is ensured.
In a preferred modification all the ducts in the first row are inclined to the right conveniently to the extent of half the width of one duct.- The next row is inclined by a similar amount to the left, the third to the right and so on. If the ducts are distinguished at their entry by the letters n, m used alternately horizontally and vertically, this displacement will have the effect of bringing all the ns and all the ms together in alternate vertical rows at their exits. All the vertical rows of ns and all the vertical rows of ms can then be separately connected with the second and third conduits previously mentioned.
For convenience of description it has been assumed in the preceding paragraph that the inlet is horizontal. In practice any of the conduits may 7 2o separate tubes of; circular, :hexagonal or other as far removed as'possible from one another.
I two sets of take-oils were used., 7 g
g The ducts maybe of any shape and tent of half the width of one duct in either direction. In certain cases, for example when the apparatus is used for mixing, the inclination may be increased to any desired'extent in order that filaments of the fluent material entering adjacent ducts'may emerge from the outlets of the ducts As will be seenythis method of 'displacing the ducts can be used for the production of three or more streams. For examplefif all the ducts in the-first row are inclined to the right'and those a in the second row to the left andithosein the -;third row are given no inclination, and thislisvrepeated for every three rows 'threev groups-ofttakemanneresimilarto the previous exam am being formed by partitions may be formed as crosssection; More than ,one shape of duct may- 7 be 'used, preferably,ithoughnotgnecessarily, ar-
ranged according to a definite pattern.
In the examples given the ducts have been distributed over thegcross section of the original I condu'lt'tas iunifornily as possible, but; the invenh tion is not'limited to a uniformdi stribution and, V indeed -any distribution maybe used, provided J V "Abovetthe application of the invention in'con- I nection,with' burners'for powdered'fuel '-has"ibeen W 7 V burnerszwithliquid or gaseous fuels oras sampling always ;that' no "duct is connected to more than lone 'outlet. V e
described; It is,lhowever, to be noted that the invention is equally'applicable in connection with devices; or for any apparatus that requires 'a stream of" fluent; material :lto: 'be divided intora number-of equal orziunequalstreams.
";,.The ;apparatus'may itselibeused as a'burner for 'gaslor pulverized fuel. 1' Thus, if 35,7With101' without air, or air bornepowderedfuelis -introduced through the inletit willemerge fromthe ductsdivi dedinto a numberof groups zofiseparate-streamsthe number 'of groups corresponding to the 'number ofoiitletswhen the deviceiisiused f as' a distributor: TIieoutIetsofthe'ducts can be Alternatively, ibyjreversing: the apparatusidearranged to communicatewith' a furnac'e, thus n enabling the apparatusto' be used as a. dispersive burner-. 1!"desired;;secondary aircan be interspersed betweenv the streams of fuel' orfu'el and air leaving the ducts;
" scribed above,'it may "be 'use'dfo'r 'miizin'g 'twofor more equal or teria1. U p ratuls mayfalsobe used as a burner. in its' reversed fornr' Fo'r example making use of: i the*modiflcation infwhich the normal inlet is a normal outlets" may 'be supplied with me, with or ;-wi thout primary air, while another'of t h'no rma'l' 'divided int'o arnumber'of square ducts, one 'of the outl ets issupplied'with'secondary air. Withlthis air-,1 thus enabling the'apparatus to be used as a arrangement the'fuelfwith' or without'primary faifiw ill'fissue from the normal inlet'in the form er a number of streamslof square cross section,
alternating with" similarfstreams of secondary burner;
j'Iiwoori moreof theab'ove devices 'may'be'ar I ranged infseries in anysdesired manner. The e l foutput fromany or all ofthe outlet conduits'from the fir'st' apparatus may be passed through the 7' secoiid apparatus; or alternativelygthe output i rom any outlet conduit may lie-circulated back to "plane at right angles to Figurel.
V while'the three ducts 5 communicate-Withthe duct 8. In addition'the ducts 6' communicate with alternate 'rows of :ducts are inclined to the exbe passed through any preceding apparatus again; 7 7
apparatus in'acco rdance with the invention, in
which the inlets and outlets and the individual ducts are in theform of rectangular parallelo- Figurez being'a view thereof in elevation in a Figure 3 is a plan view of the uppermost sec- 7 tion of the apparatusillustrated in Figure 1, oils can .be fitted to the outlets of 'th'e'duct s in a 1 lesiwhere Figure 4 is a sectional elevation on the lines 'IV -IV o'f Figure 3, 7
:Figure '5 is a corresponding viewon the lines stream of material is'dividedupto'form three streams or three streams may 'be united to form a single stream; 7
V :Figure 9 is a section on 30 Figure 8, the sections :oni the lines 'IV--IV' an'd V -V 'of this figure being generally; as-indicated in Figures 4 and 5.
In Figures 1 and 2 l represents the inlet which 1 as shown in Figures 3-8 is'div'ided' up 'by walls 3 and 4' toaform a plurality of ducts arranged in rows, theiducts '5, 5a, 519550, 521', 5e andifform ing rows alternating, in the case of the construc 5 tion illustrated in Figures 3-5, ith 'rows of (hi *1 L V 6, 6a., 61), 60,511, 6e and 6f. V :In the case of theconstruction"illustrated-in Figure/8, between each twoflof such rows of'ducts I i there-is arranged.a further row of ducts 7'1 1d e 1b, 1c, "Id, 116 and TfL The walls dividing 'the a individual ducts in the rows5-5f and the rows 6 6f are inclined in reverse senses as may'besee'n' from" Figures 4 and 5, while thewalls dividingf ranged vertically as may beseenfrom Figure 9.
Alternate" members of each of the horizontal 50 rows of ducts in'the case "offa constructionas Thus, all of the-ductsSd connnunicatewith the the individual ducts in the "rows ZI-'lj' are =ar- V illustrated in Figures l to 7 are arranged to coinmunicate', so' iar' as is possiblegwith' the same duct of the 'next preceding or; succeeding section.
theduct ab,- an of the ducts 5cwith the duct ja' the ducts 5d with'the duct 8d, the ducts Be With"- the duct 86!, and the 'ducts' fif; with the iiuctfilf,
an, the ducts 6a with 8b, the ducts 6b with -ilc turn with the common duct'or outlet 3 and the In the case of the constructionshown in Figure 9 a third outlet or inlet will be provided;
We claim: 1 .f f; 1. Apparatus 'com'prisinga plurality of ducts,
"a plurality of intermediate ducts arranged in" vgroups the number of 'whicligroups corresponds with the number of; the first-mentioned duct's the ducts to with ad; the ducts so with 8,-the s I 'ducts Ge with V V f 5 and 8f communicate in V ducts aa, segu and sg with'the duct or outletjljfl.
and with the ducts of each of such groups arranged in communication with only one of each such first-mentioned ducts, a plurality of terminal ducts arranged in a plurality of rows with the alternately located members of each row in communication with one only of the intermediate ducts and with the adjacent terminal ducts of an immediately neighbouring group in communication With a different intermediate duct.
2. Apparatus comprising a plurality of ducts, a plurality of intermediate ducts arranged in groups the number of which groups corresponds with the number of the first-mentioned ducts and with the ducts of each of the groups of intermediate ducts arranged in communication with only one of each of such first-mentioned ducts, a plurality of closely spaced terminal ducts arranged in a plurality of rows with the first, third, fifth and like odd numbered ducts of one row in communication with an intermediate duct of one group, and the second, fourth, sixth and like even numbered ducts of the said row communicating with an intermediate duct of a second group of such ducts, and the first, third, fifth and like odd numbered ducts of the second row, and the second, fourth, sixth and like even numbered ducts of a third row communicating with another intermediate duct of the last-mentioned group of the first, third, fifth and like odd numbered ducts of the third row, and the second, fourth, sixth and like even numbered ducts of the fourth row communicating with an intermediate duct of the first-mentioned group thereof,
and so on.
3. Apparatus comprising a plurality of ducts, a plurality of intermediate ducts arranged in groups the number of which groups corresponds with the number of the first-mentioned ducts and with the ducts of each of the groups of intermediate ducts arranged in communication with only one of each of such first-mentioned ducts, a plurality of closely spaced terminal ducts arranged in a plurality of rows with individual terminal ducts spaced apart at intervals in a row in communication with an intermediate duct of one group and the individual ducts located Within such intervals in communication with an intermediate duct of another group and with the correspondingly space-d ducts in the next succeeding row communicating with the first-mentioned intermediate duct, the individual ducts in the succeeding row being correspondingly arranged in communication with intermediate ducts.
THOMAS FREDERICK HURLEY. ROBERT DICKINSON.