US 2095302 A
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Patented ct. Ti, 1937 1| TKON Watson H. M ord and Willi Bron, Bridgeport,
Conn, assignors to Remington 5 Company, line, a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application December 4, 1934, serial No. 155,916
This invention relates to metallic alloys of unusual properties and to particular uses of such alloys. The characteristic property of said alloys is stability at ordinary temperatures and capacity for rapid oxidation at elevated temperatures, and
use is made of this property in compositions designed for the ignition of propellant powders and detonators.
Priming compositions for ammunition ordinarily include a percussion sensitive combustion initiator, an oxidizer, and a fuel. Reaction between the oxidizer and fuel is initiated by the decomposition of the percussion sensitive ingredient and results in a flame of sumcient duration and heat to properly ignite propellant powder. In the detonation of disruptive charges a detonating material such as lead azide is used, this material being sometimes ignited by an igniter composition comprising an oxidizer and a fuel.
For the purpose of this application, both ammunition priming charges and detonator igniters will be identified as igniter compositions", and the term alloys will be used as defining broadly any mixture of difi'erent metals in any proportions.
the combustion initiator.
Many different alloys have been found to be suitable. Generally stated, the metals forming such alloys are iron, antimony, arsenic, aluminum, bismuth, cerium, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, silicon, tin and zinc. Prominent among this group is antimony. Binary alloys of antimony with varying proportions of iron, aluminum, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper and nickel, form excellent fuels. Antimony, however, is 'not an essential or necessarily characteristic ingredient.
Alloys of iron with manganese, phosphorus and silicon, are suitable; likewise, alloys of silicon and man'- ganese, copper and bismuth, and aluminum and manganese.
The foregoing examples are typical binary alloys usable as igniter composition fuels. The invention, however, is not limited to binary alloys. Desirable variations in the properties of binary alloys, as well as alloys possessing distinctive and desirable properties, are formed by admixtures of three or more of the above-mentioned metals. Thus, cerium, manganese, sili- 5 con, phosphorus, nickel, tin and, zinc, in varying amounts, may be introduced into an alloy of antimony and iron. The proportions of the metals may vary widely, and if iron is present its carbon content may vary. 10
Among the alloys suitable for use in igniter compositions are the following:
Binary alloys Percent Percent Antimony 50 Iron; 50 Antimony 70 Iron Iron 80 Manganese- 20 Copper 20 Bismuth 80 .Nickel 50 Antimony" 50 Aluminum 80 Antimony 20 Copper 50 Antimony 50 ron 80 Phosphorus 20 Silicon 50 Manganese 50 20 Cobalt Antimony 50 Ternary alloys: I
Percent Percent Percent Iron Manganese" 20 Antimony 40 Manganese 35 icon Antimony 55 Iron 33 Nickel 33 Antimonyiu 33 Iron 50 Antimony luminum 5 25 Iron Tin 25, Antimony 25 The foregoing examples are merely typical of the very numerous alloys which have been found to possess desirable fuel properties. The proportions given are merely illustrative, and are 30 not to be taken as limiting the scope of the invention. In general, alloys containing iron are hardened by the presence of silicon. In certain ammunition primers hardness is a desirable property, since it enables the elimination of an inert abrasive, such as powdered glass. The abrasiveness of the alloys is controlled not only by their hardness but by their granulation, the finer granulations, say over 200 mesh, being less abrasive 40 but more sensitive to percussion, while granulations from. 100 to 200 mesh are more abrasive. Glass, however, may be retained where the alloy does not possess suflicient abrasiveness but is otherwise desirable. 1
The use of such alloys in igniter compositions and particularly in ammunition priming mixtures has been found to be beneficial in several difierent ways. In many mixtures the amount of explosive ingredient can be very materially reduced without any reduction in sensitiveness or priming capacity. Substantial reductions in maximum pressures have been secured with no detriment to muzzle velocity or barrel time. Due to the high gravimetric density of the alloys as Per cent Guanylnitrosaminoguam ltetrazene tetrazene) 3 Lead styphnate 27 Lead nitrate 40 Alloy:
Iron 30% 3o Antimony 70% ""f Other typical priming compositions utilizing a metallic alloy fuel comprise 10% to about 60% of a combustion initiator, such as lead styphnate with a small admixture of tetrazene; 25% to 50% of an oxidizer, such as lead nitrate or a mixture of barium nitrate and lead peroxide; and 5% to 50% of such an alloy as iron-antimony, nickel-antimony, copper-bismuth, iron-tin-antimony, iron-nickel-antimony. An abrasive, such as glass, is sometimes desirable. These compositions, however, are mentioned by way of illustration only. Tetrazene and/or lead styphnate may be replaced wholly or in part by any other known sensitizer and/or initial explosive. Among such sensitizers and initial explosives may be mentioned mercury fulminate, basic lead styphnate, diazodinitrophenol, lead dinitrophenyl azide, mono-basic and di-basic lead picrate, normal and basic lead azide, lead methylene di-isonitroamine,
the salts of tetrazene, the derivatives of tetrazole and their salts, such as lead azo tetrazole and the lead and copper ammonium salts of diazo-aminotetrazole, lead hypophosphite, the lead salts of dinitro salicylic acid, the lead salts of diand tri-nitro benzol, lead dinitro-ortho-cresylates, and
position fuels, the appended claims are to be broadly construed.
What is claimed is:
1. An igniter composition comprising an alloy of iron with a metal selected from the group consisting of antimony, aluminum, manganese, phosphorus, tin and zinc.
2. An igniter composition comprising an alloy of antimony with a metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, iron and nickel.
3. An igniter composition comprising an alloy of antimony and iron.
4. An igniter composition comprising an alloy of antimony and iron in the proportions of 25 to 50% antimony and 75% to 50% iron.
5. An ammunition priming composition comprising a combustion initiator. an oxidizer, and a fuel including an alloy of antimony and iron.
6. An ammunition priming composition comprising guanylnitrosaminoguanyltetrazene, lead styphnate, an oxidizer, and a metallic alloy selected from the group of alloys consisting of antimony-iron, antimony-aluminum, antimonyarsenic, antimony-bismuth, antimony-cobalt, antimony-copper, antimony-nickel, iron-manganese, iron-phosphorus, silicon-manganese, copper-bismuth, aluminum-manganese, antimonymanganese iron, antimony manganese silicon, antimony-iron-nickel, antimony-iron-aluminum, antimony-iron-tin, antimony-iron-cerium, antlmony-iron-silicon, antimony-iron-phosphorus, and antimony-iron-zinc.
7. An ammunition priming composition comprising guanylnitrosaminoguanyltetrazene, lead styphnate, an oxidizer, and an alloy of antimony and iron.
8. An ammunition priming composition comprising guanylnitrosaminoguanyltetrazene, lead styphnate, an oxidizing nitrate, and an alloy of antimony and iron.
9. An igniter composition comprising an alloy selected from the group of alloys consisting of antimony-iron, antimony-aluminum, antimonyarsenic, antimony-bismuth, antimony-cobalt, antimony-copper, antimony-nickel, iron-manganese, iron-phosphorus, silicon-manganese, copper-bismuth, aluminum-manganese, antimonymanganese-iron, antimony-manganese-silicon, antimony-iron-nickel, antimony-iron-aluminum, antimony-iron-tin, antimony-iron-cerium, antimony-iron-silicon, antimony-iron-phosphorus, and antimony-iron-zinc.
WATSON H. WOODFORD. WILLI BRUN.