US 2095714 A
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Oct. 12, 1937. J. PINAUD ET AL TIE ROD CONSTRUCTION Filed April 21. 1934 Patented Oct. .12, 1937 TIE ROD CONSTRUCTION John Pinaud, Atlantic Highlands, and George Quick, North Arlington, N. J., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Universal Form Clamp Company, Chicago, 11]., a company of Illinois Application April 21, 1934, Serial No. 721,679%
This invention relates to a novel tie rod construction and more particularly to a tie rod adapted to cooperate with walls of forms or molds into which concrete or the like is poured and hardens.
Such a tie rod must satisfy a number of varied and seemingly conflicting requirements. For one thing, it hasto space the walls of the molds and hold them in properly aligned relation while the concrete is poured and sets. It must permit the molds to be readily stripped off after the concrete has hardened, and in this connection it is important that provision be made for readily severing the ends 'of the tie which protrude beyond the forms, from the portion of the tie which is embedded in the concrete. plicity and ease with which the ends of the rod are thus severed is an important factor". At the same time, as large a portion of the mold construction as possible must be salvaged for reuse.
For another thing, the rod must be strong enough to take large stresses. imposed on it by the material poured into molds, and it should also be strong enough to permit a workman to,
step on it while assembling other portions of the mold. On the other hand, the rod itself should readily break off at the desired point or points and must not be weakened unduly at other points so that it will break at the wrong point. The construction should be simple and inexpensive to manufacture and easy to assemble and disassemble.
A feature of the present invention accordingly resides in the provision of a tie rod construction/ which satisfies these requirements andothersiin a superior manner.
More particularly, a feature of the invention resides in the-production of such a rod which is weakened as to torsion at agiven point or points to permit one or both ends to be twisted off after the concrete or the like has set, preferably without substantial weakening of the rod in tension.
Another feature resides in a novel manner of preventing turning of the rod in the concrete while the end or ends of the red are being twisted oif. v I
A further feature resides in an improved attachment to the rod for spacing a wall of the mold, which attachment shall be simple to apply and sturdy, and which shall notweaken the rod enough to permit it to break at the point of attachment, under the ordinary forces applied to the rod. I
Still another feature resides in novel means for permitting the ends of the rods to be en- The simadapted to prevent a loop in the wire from being pulled out by outward pressure on the wall of the mold.
' An additional feature of the construction resides in its ability to engage directly the sheet material forming the walls of the mold, thus reducing the need for bracing by means of horizontal walers and vertical studs, and in fact eliminating the need for them at one side of the mold. The need for nails or the like is correspondingly reduced and the salvaging of the molds is simplified and made more complete.
These and other objects, features and advantages will become more apparent in connection with the following detailed description of certain forms of the invention as illustrated in the accompanying drawing, to which reference will now be made and in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view, partly broken away, of a partially assembled mold embodying one form of construction in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a tie rod in accordance with the invention;
Fig.3 is a perspective view of a device,'also in accordance with the invention,- for engaging the end of a tie rod at the outside of a mold;
Figs. 4. and 6 are detail side elevation views showing manners of weakening the rods, in accordance with the invention, at the points where they are to be severed;
Figs. 4-1: and 7--a are side elevations showing preferable manners of weakening rods in accordance with the invention;
Figs. 5 and 7 are sections taken on the lines 55 of Fig. 4 and 1-1 of Fig. 6, respectively;
Figs. 5a and 6a are cross-sections of the rods shown in Figs. 4-a and 7-0 respectively;
Figs. '8, 9 and 10 .are side elevation views, the latter partly in section, showing forms of members for spacing the molds, these numbers being shown in dotted lines as originally formed and in solid lines as secured to the rod;
Fig. 11 is a section taken on of Fig.'10;
Fig. 12 is a side elevation of a modification of the constructions shown in'Figs'. 8-11 the line I I|| Fig. 13 is a section taken on the line l3-I3 of Fig. 12; and
Fig. '14 is a side elevation partly in section of another modification of the spacer member.
Referring first to Figs. 1 to 5 and 8, opposed, spaced walls of a, mold or form, into which concrete or other similar material may be poured and allowed to harden, are shown at 20. These walls may be formed of any suitable material but may be advantageously made of standard size plywood panels which are light to handle and are firm and strong. Each wall may be made of a number of panels which may be shouldered or provided with any suitable interlocking means, if desired. In order 'to support the rear wall of the form any suitable frame may be used. For instance, a series of walers or horizontal members 2| may be connected to a series of studs or vertical members 22 as by means of irons 23 and wedges 24. The frame may be braced and held in proper position in any convenient way. The rear wall of the mold may be secured to the frame by irons 23', directly engaging the wall, and by wedges 24', or other suitable means. The manner of locating and holding the rear wall may take any suitable form and is no part of the present construction. However, through the present devices one is enabled to omit any bracing from the outer or front side of the front wall of the mold.
For holding the walls of the mold properly aligned and spaced a series of tie-rods 25 are preferably employed. These may advantageously lie in grooves 26 formed in the upper and/or lower edges of the ply-wood or other sheet material so that when two pieces of the material are abutted an opening is formed large enough for the rod but preferably small enough so that devices employed in conjunction with the rod may engage the sheet material around the edges of the opening, as hereafter described in more detail. If desired, as may be particularly advantageous at or near the bottom or top of the mold, holes 21 may be formed in the sheet material large enough to permit the ends of the rods to be passed through the sheet material. In this manner, provision is made for readily assembling the mold and for permitting a direct engagement between the tie-rod constructions and the mold walls, with the consequent elimination of many parts formerly required.
It will be understood that the bottom and end walls of the mold or form may be of any suitable or convenient construction.
In the preferred form of the construction each tie-rod comprises deformations 28 or other types of deformations in the rod to'prevent it from turning in the concrete, portions 29 weakened, as compared to the balance of the rod, to twisting or torsional forces, spacer or spreader members 30, and, end portions 3| for engagement with means to'abut against the outsides of the walls of the mold and subsequently with means to twist off the ends of the rod. Each of these features involves certain points of novelty and advantage as will be pointed out more fully below.
The tie-rod 25 has to be sumciently strong in tension to hold 'the walls of the mold against large forces applied to them when the concrete is poured, and accordingly must not be weakened unduly at the points where the spacer members 30 ,are applied to it. Moreover, these members have tobe securely fastened to the rod so that they will not be moved endwise thereof when the forms bear against them. These results may be achieved by forming the spacer members 30 as dished washers with central apertures for receiving the rods, and by then pressing the washers fiat, as indicated in Fig. 8, so that they grip the rods. The washers may advantageously be initially formed of relatively soft material and be case hardened before they are applied to the rods. Thus, the washers may be readily flattened, and at the same time the hardened portions will bite into the rod sufiiciently to firmly grip the latter in order to prevent the washers from moving lengthwise of the rod. Moreover, the rod is not substantially weakened, or is not weakened as much in torsion as it is at the points where the ends of the rods are broken ofi as hereinafter described. The washers are thus enabled to positively space the molds at the exact desired distance apart. It will be understood that the washers need not be circular at their perimeters, but may take other convenient shapes, if desired.
It is desirable, and in many cases required by law or specifications, that the points at which the ends of the rods are severed from the center portions of the rods be spaced inwardly from the face of the concrete a given distance, usually one inch, and accordingly it is desirable to weaken the rods at these points. This weakening is advantageously accomplished by providing a number of indentations in the rods. Preferably, though not necessarily, these indentations may be punched or chiselled into each rod to a depth of, say, half a radius, to spread the metal of the rod and thus reduce its resistance to twisting without weakening it in tension. In fact the perimeter of the wire may actually be increased as shown, and it is desirable that no metal be actually removed from the rod. .Preferably, also, the indentations are not formed axially of the rod, but at an angle to the length ofthe rod, for instance as shown. Any desired number of them may be formed in the rod for the purposes mentioned. The rod may be thus weakened about 60% or even more in torsion without substantial loss of tensile or compression strength.
The ends of the rods are preferably formed as U-shaped or loop-shaped portions 3| for the dual purpose of cooperating with improved cleats for engaging the outer sides of the form during the pouring and setting of the concrete, and cooperating with means for twisting off the ends of the rods after the concrete has hardened. The ends of. the portions 3| advantageously abut against the rods to prevent two or more rods from becoming entangled when they are piled up. The outside width of the loops is preferably less than the diameter of the washers or spacers 30, so that the ends of the rods may be passed through holes in the form and so that the'forms will then abut against the washers.
The cleats for the purpose mentioned may advantageously be formed of steel or the like and be composed of two parts, a wedge 32 and a plate 33. The plate 33 is provided with a slot 34 for receiving the U-shaped portion with its legs'lying in a horizontal plane, and thus pre-'.
vents turning of the rod. The plate is preferably formed as anangle iron, with a flange 35 at the top, slotted as at 36 to receive the wedge 32. The wedge may have a projection 31 at its upper end for preventing it from falling out of the plate; and may also have a stud 38 secured thereto'for preventing it from being pulled out by a vertical pull. One side .of the slot 36 may be cut away as at to avoid undue narrowing of the slot when the member 33 is bent. The wedge may have a series of spaced openings Mi for receiving pins for abutting against flange 35 and thus precisely aligning the walls of the mold by varying the relation of the wedge and the plate. This may be advantageous when spreader washer is not required.
The operation of the wedge and plate will be apparent but it may be briefly mentioned. The wedge is lifted so that its lower end is above the slot 36 and the end 31 of a rod is then passed into slot M, whereupon the wedge is dropped so that its lower end passes through the loop in the rod and holds plate 33 against the form.
It has been found that with certain types of soft or spring wire which it is desirable to use in the rods for certain reasons there is a tendency for the loop 3! to be pulled out straight under large forces and thus free the wire from the wedge. This can be avoided by forming the corners M of the wedge assharp corners so that they bite into the relatively soft wire sufflciently to prevent the loops 3| from being pulled out. The wedge and washer of Fig. 3 are preferably case hardened, which maintains sharp hard edges M and permits the use of relatively thin material for washer 33.
A particular advantage of this construction resides in permitting the forms to be directly engaged by the plates 33, thus. avoiding the need for bracing at one side of the mold. Moreover, the cleats are simply to apply and remove and are salvaged after each use. Also, no nails are required. If the plates are to be employed with split walers, they may be provided at either side with flanges M for engaging shoulders formed in the walers. Otherwise, these flanges are best omitted.
When the mold is to be stripped from the hardened concrete or other material, the cleats are preferably removed and a slotted tool is passed over each of the loops 3i to twist ofi the ends of the rods before forms are removed. In order to permit the rods to be broken off within the concrete, the rods are preferably bent or otherwise deformed as at 28 so that the central portions of rods will not turn in the concrete. These deformations are advantageously formed in the rods themselves and there is thus avoided the need for additional attachments. While the portions 28 are advantageously formed by bending the rod, they may be formed as burrs, or in any other convenient manner, provided the deformations are capable of being gripped by the concrete and are 'not such as to weaken the rods more than the rods are weakened at the points where their ends are to be broken off. By thus providing for severing the ends of the rods before the molds are removed, the subsequent stripping of the mold is facilitated. Moreover, by twisting the ends off, the concrete is. not weakened and will not spall ofL-as when the ends ofthe rods are rocked. Moreover, a neat small hole is left which may be readily plugged with cement mortar or other material. Since the wire is not weakened sufliciently to permit a break at any point save where the punch marks are applied, the break is insured at the proper point.
The tie-rods are simple and inexpensive to manufacture. They may be made in any convenient manner. Advantageously, the washers may be slipped onstraight rods and the other operations may be, performed by a punch press. Each end of the rod may thus be completed in a single operation.
strength the wire of which the rod is formed may be somewhat smaller or weaker than would be required in the case of a wire reduced in crosssection at certain points.
In Figs. 6 and 7 there is shown a slightly modifled manner of weakening the rod in torsion without substantially reducing its effective cross-sectional area, or in other words, without substantiallyweakening it in tension. In this form of the construction, a suitable number of recesses 50, four being shown, are formed in the wire at the points where the ends are to be severed from the center, and these recesses are preferably so formed that the portions of the wire removed from the recesses are forced in to the adjacent portions of the wire, for instance as shown in Fig. 7.
Preferred manners of weakening the wire or rod in torsion are shown in Figs. 4-a to 7-1;. As shown in Figs. 4-a and H, the rod may be pierced or split into two sections by any suitable punching operation, or otherwise, in order to sever one side of the rod from the other for a small distance along its length. While it is preferable to actually split the two portions of the wire from each other, it will be understood that the two sections need not be spaced from each other. For instance, as shown in Figs. 5--a and 6-a the two halves of a rod may be offset laterally by the use of opposed punch members which shear one-half of the wire from the other and offset it, for example, as shown. The torsional resistance of the two parts is markedly less than that of the undivided whole, while the resistance in tension is scarcely affected.
Referring to Fig. 9 thereis shown a washer 30' similar to the washer 30, but havinga flanged portion 5i around its perimeter. The washer 30' may be secured to the rod 25 in a manner similar to that described in connection with the washer 30. This type may be advantageously used for very hard wire so as to get a more inward pressure of the washer on the wire.
I In Figs. 10 and 11 there is shown another modified form of spacer element in which small grooves 52 are formed in the wire 25, and in which the washer or spacer element 30 is similar to the washer shown in Fig. 8, except that when the washer is flattened, portions of it are forced into spacer members are applied. However, if it be.
desired to break off the ends of the rods at the points at which the spacer members lie, then the construction in Figs. 10 and 11 provides an admirable combination of spacer member and means to weaken the rod at certain points. That is to say, provision may be made for forming the groove 50 'sumciently deep to weaken the rod in torsion, and, at the same time, to prevent undesired movement of the spacer element.
In Figs. 12 and 13 there is shown a construction in which a fiat washer 53 is maintained against longitudinal movement by means of upset portions 54 formed in the rod. These upset portions may be formed in any convenient manner and are preferably such as to avoid unduly weakening the rod 25, in accordance with the foregoing considerations. However, if desired, the upset portions may be sumciently large to prevent turning of the rod in the hardened concrete, and a series of them may be provided for this purpose at spaced points along the rod, apart from those required for maintaining the washer 53 in desired position.
In Fig. 14 there is shown a flat washer 55 which is secured to the rod by a weld around the circumference of the 'wire or rod,,or at suitable spaced point. Where the washer is thus welded to a rod which is weakened as at 29, at a point spaced from the washer, it is important that the weld be such as to avoid substantial weakening of the wire at the point of the weld. In fact, the weld is preferably accomplished, as will be apparent to those familiar with the art, in such manner as to actually strengthen the wire at the point of the weld, in order to avoid breaking of the wire at this point when the ends of the rod are twisted off.
It will thus be appreciated that through the present construction there is provided a simple and expeditious manner of weakening the wire in torsion at desired points, preferably spaced from the molds, so as to permit the ends of the rod to be broken ofi by simply twisting them. Moreover, this advantage may be achieved without substantial weakening of the wire in tension. At the same time, the wire or rod itself is preferably formed with kinks or suitable deformations or with channels or burrs between the points at which the rod is weakened, in order to prevent turning of the rod in the hardened concrete when the ends are twisted off.
In addition, this construction is a simple and eflective means of providing for securing spacer elements to the rods without substantially weakening of the latter in order to permit severing the ends of the rods from their center portions, at points within the concrete, all without the possible damaging of the concrete during the removal 'of the end of the rod. Furthermore, by
. forming the ends of the rods in the manner described, particular advantages aresecured in that the ends of the rods are well adapted to cooperate with simple cleats, and also with rods or bars for twisting off the end of the rod.
Through the provision of the rod and cooperating cleat a simple and effective means is provided for engaging the ends of the rods directly with the forms or molds, thus avoiding the need for much bracing, which would otherwise be required, and no nails or fastening means are required in connection with the rods, and the cleats are readily assembled and disassembled, being salvaged for further use. a
The terms and expressions. which-have been employed are used as terms ofdescription and not of limitation, and there is no intention, in
gaged for twisting and being deformed at its central portion to prevent said central portion from being turned in hardened concrete.
2. A form tie for use with form walls for molding concrete comprising a rod having a section adapted to lie within a mass of material received by the form, said section being weakened in .torsion by having split portions of material size, the splits extending partly through the rod while retaining substantially its entire cross sectional area and full strength in tension, and having end portions adapted to extend through openings in the form wall, said end portions being constructed and arranged to engage a cooperating device for bearing against the outside of the form, and to receive a tool for twisting an end of the rod about its axis. 3. A tie rod fora concrete form having a part thereof normally adapted to be embedded in the concrete cast in the form, said part being deformed to prevent the rod from turning within the concrete, said rod having another part thereof adapted to lie within the concrete, and deformed by being split part way therethrough to weaken the rod in torsion and not in tension, said rod being adapted to be engaged by a cooperating device for bearing against the outside of a form. 4. A form tie unit for use with form walls for molding concrete consisting of a rod having a deformed central portion for preventing the rod from turning in solid concrete, a pair of opposed spacer elements carried bysaid rod and adapted to abut against the inner faces of the form walls, weakened sections formed in said rod between the spacer elements and the deformed portion for enabling the ends of the rod to be severed from the central portion by twisting, said sections being weakened by somewhat splitting the surface of the rod along its length and said end portions being adapted to extend through openings in the form wall and to lie on the outside of said wall.
5. A form tie comprising a rod and spacer means welded to said rod, said rod being weakened in torsion at a point spaced inwardly from said weld to a greater extent than the rod is of the surface of the rod, said rod being adapted to have its ends extending outside of said form walls and having each end turned back on itself to form a loop adapted to receive a wedge which engages the exterior surface of the form walls, and spacer elements firmly mounted on said rod at points at farther distances from said deformed part of said rod than said weakened sections, said spacer elements adapted to engage the inner surfaces of said form walls to maintain them in spaced relation.
'7. A formtie unit for use with form walls for molding concrete comprising a rod having two deformed off-center parts spaced apart but near the center of said rod, two sections weakened in torsion and not in tension in said rod at points outside of the deformed parts of said rod, said sections being weakened in torsion by splitting sitioned farther from the center of said rod than the weakened sections, said spacer elements adapted to engage the inner surfaces of the form walls, each end of said rod being adapted to extend beyond the form wall and being turned back on itself to form a loop adapted to receive a wedge that engages the outer surface of said form wall to hold said rod in position and to pinch the wall between said spacer element and said wedge.
8. A form tie unit for use with form walls for molding concrete comprising a rod having a portion adapted to lie within the form and be embedded in the concrete, a deformed part in said portion which is adapted to engage the material cast in the form, said rod being provided on either side of said deformed part with sections weakened in torsion and not in tension, said weakened sections being formed by partial splits in said rod extending toward the central axis thereof along the surface of said rod while mainsaid rod being adapted to have its ends extend outside of the form walls and having-each end turned back on itself to form a loop adapted to receive a wedge which engages the exterior surface of the form wall, and spacer elements firmly mounted on said rod at points at farther distances from said deformed part of said rod than said weakened sections, said spacer elements being adapted to engage the inner surface of the form walls to maintain them in spaced relation.
JOHN PINAUD. GEORGE QUICK.
- taining the same substantial cross-sectional area,