US 2096588 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 19, 1937. F. L. KING BEET TOPPING DEVICE Filed Oct. 19, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet'l mm ljllllllll 1 lllll V INVENTOR. F L. Kuz 9 BY Q? mm.
ATTORNEY Oct. 19, 1937. KlNG 2,096,588
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE CE Filed Oct. 19, 1956 2 Sheets Sheet 2 INVENTOR. E L. Ku z y BY QM 8 .SLLEISSL.
. ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 19, 1937 .pmTED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2 Claims.
This invention relates to machines for mechanically cutting the tops off sugar beets after they have been dug, and as is necessary before the beets are delivered to the refinery. In per- 5 forming this operationit is essential that the beets shall be topped at the proper height, since if too much of the body of the beet is removed with the crown and leaves a considerable loss is entailed in the aggregate, since the sugar content of I the part removed cannot of course be saved. If on the other hand an insufiicient portion of the crown is removed a part of the beet which has no sugar content and hence no value and which adds to the bulk to be treated in the refinery to no useful purpose, is retained; thus of course cutting down the sugar output at the refinery relative-to the total quantity of the beets handled.
' The principal object of my invention is to provide an apparatus for the purpose which, in connection with a pair of rotating topping discs, is arranged with means for movingthe beets into propercutting position relative to the discs, and
for holding the beets so positioned that the discs will engage the beets and remove the tops at the proper height.
I am aware that various attempts have been made to mechanically or automatically top the beetsafter the'y'have been dug or prior to the digging of the same. As far as I am aware, however, such attempts have been unsuccessful, since none of the contemplated devices are at present in use and the beets are now topped by hand, which of course is a relatively slow procedure and is apt to be inaccurate and to incur waste. My apparatus on the other hand is positive in operation.
A further object of the invention is to provide an apparatus of this character which is of such a physical nature that it can be either mounted directly on any standard beet digger or harvester, or it can be arranged as a self-contained portable unit to be drawn along by the harvester, or as a stationary unit to be mounted in some convenient fixed point.
A further object of the invention is to produce a simple and inexpensive device and yet one which will be exceedingly effective for the pur- 50 pose for which it is designed.
These objects I accomplish by means of such structure and relative arrangement of parts as will fully appear by a perusal of the following specification and claims.
5.5 In the drawings similar characters. of reference l If; indicate corresponding parts in the :several views: v
Figure 1 is a sectional elevation of the apparatus as in operation. I
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the same. :.5
Figure 3 is an enlarged .cross section as on the line 33 of Fig. 1.
Figure 4 is a'fragmentary enlarged plan, partly in section, of a modified form of top engaging rolls.
Referring now more particularlyto the characters of reference. on the drawings, and particularly at present'to Figs. 1 to 3, the apparatus comprises a pair-oftransversely spaced rolls l whose axes are parallel to each other. These l5 rolls are turned of wood or metal, 'as found best,
and in any event are preferably rough surfaced. The rollsare provided with end spindles 2 mounted in suitable bearing brackets 3 which are supported from horizontal'beams 4 which form the supporting frame or apparatus. This frame may be rigidlyiattachedto'a beet harvester (or incorporated therewith during its manufacture). -or it may be made as a-portable-orstation- I ary unit separate from the harvester, as may be g 5 found most suitable or expedient. a The 'rolls are each formed from end toend with outwardly projecting fiat faced threads '5, the threads of the two rolls extending in opposed but matching relation to each other, as shown 30 in Fig. 2. The 'pitch of the threads gradually decreases from end to end of the-rolls so that the spacing between adjacent threads likewise gradually decreases, as plainly'shown. Between the threads the periphery of the rolls is concaved 35 as shown at 6, the depth of the concavity gradually decreasing With the decrease in the spacing between the threads. The purpose of this arrangement will be seen later. 1
Extending'over the rolls close to theupper pe 4,0 riphery of the same at the end having the closest thread spacing (which is the discharge end of the rolls) is a pair of topping discs 1. These discs are disposed in transversely spaced relation to each other in a common horizontal plane and 5 are arranged so that their adjacent edges are close to each other. Said discs are'mounted-on vertical spindles 8 suitably. supported from the adjacent bearing brackets 3. Guide plates or boards 9 extend lengthwise of and above the 2 5,0 rolls and project upwardly in divergingrelation to each other from approximately the. central vertical plane of the rolls, as shown in Fig. 3.
At the intake end of the rolls these plates'are connected by a cross plate In so thata hopperi is 35 formed into which the beets are initially discharged from the elevator ll of the harvester or other mechanism.
At one end the rolls are connected by gears l2 so that they will turn together and at the same speed. The necessary rotation is imparted to one of the gears, so that the upper surfaces of the rolls will turn toward each other, from a drive shaft l3. This shaft is preferably disposed to one side of the rolls and is provided at a suitable point in its. extent with, a pulley M or the like so that it may be driven from a power plant such as a gas engine or the like.
such rotation, any body resting on the rolls is conveyed toward the discs. The discs also are arranged to be driven so that, their forward ad-' jacent edges turn toward each other, the discs being connected together in such driving relationship by suitable gearing asindicated at IS. The discsare also preferably driven from the shaft 13 by gearing connections H5, at a speed considerably in excess of the speed of the rolls. j
It is to be noted that no particular emphasis has been placed on the driving connections of the rolls and discs, or on their mounting, since these features may obviously be varied considerably as may be found most expedient in practice, without departing from the spirit of the invention which resides in a special form and arrangement of the rolls and their relationship to the discs.
In operation thev beets as they drop off the elevator naturally fall lengthwise onto the adjacent end of therolls, on account of the guide plates which serve to deflect them and. also on account of the rotation of the rolls. The diameter of the rolls and the space therebetween relative to the diameterofthe beets is such that the beets rest on the rolls without any tendency for them tobe pinched between said rolls. The leaves however, being fiexible and separate elements and relatively thin, tend to drop between the rolls. With the rotation of the rolls in the direction as previously described not only are the beets advanced toward the disc, but with such advance the leaves are caught between the rotating surfaces and are pulled down. This pulling causes the beets themselves to be gradually upended, as indicated in Fig. 1, until by the time said beets reach the disc they are in a vertical position, with the body of the beets at their crowns resting on the rolls The discs are at such a level relative to the rolls that they will engageand cut through the beets at the'proper height. In order to better hold the beets in the desired position While being cut the concave surfacesof the rolls between the threads and'adjacent the discs are provided with a number of outwardly projecting blunt studs H, which press into and firmly engage the leaves or stalks. The cut beets are then discharged from the discs by the rotation of the same into a chute l8 which is provided in connection with'the guide plates 9 at the corresponding end. The severed tops drop of themselves into a chute l9 disposed between and directly below the discs. .The further disposition of the beets and tops is then a matter of choice, which forms no part of my invention.
The opposed concavity of the top receiving surfaces of the rolls, between the threads, is such as to flatly engage the entire mass of thetop stalks and leaves with an even pressure. The space between the opposed concave surfaces is decreased as the discs are approached so that tops of. different sizes or cross sectional area 7 thereto.
The direotion of the roll threads is such that with spending sizes would be substituted.
as set forth herein.
within certain limits will be properly engaged and clamped. The pitch of the threads is decreased as the discs are approached so that the endmost stalks of relatively large tops of correspondingly large and heavy beets will be engaged and clamped between the threads themselves, and thus the additional pull on the stalks sometimes necessar} to completely straighten or upend such heavy beets will be imparted Though as stated, the above features are designed so that the rolls will operate successfully with beets and. tops of different sizes, it is not intended that a. unit of a single size shall be used for all sizes of beets. Rather the range of adaptability of a unit is only such that it may take care of the different sizes of beets as are .liable to be encountered in any one field. When working in other fields in which the average beet size is larger or smaller, diflierent rolls of corre- Though I have shown only a single pair of rolls and disc, the complete apparatus if necessary would comprise a number of sets of such units, 'so that the necessary capacity to take care of the output from a fast digging harvester would be provided without choking the rolls. 7
In the modification shown in Fig. 4 the rolls comprise hollow bands of rigid metal arranged in the form of helical coils, the turns of which are spaced somewhat fromeach other. Said bands at their ends are provided with rigid heads 2| having, axial spindles 22 whereby the rolls may be supported and driven. In the interior of each roll between the heads is at rubber .air bag 23 in which air the suitable pressure ismaintained. Formed on the back are rubber threads 24, conforming in pitch and width to the pitch and spacing of the turns of the roll-band, and projecting outwardly through said spaces as shown. This arrangement makes the threads yieldable, so that leaves passing between the threads will be clamped and held against movement, and the pulling of the beets toan upright position and Ymaintaining theminsuch position is rendered more positive. V
From the foregoing description it will be readily seenthat I have produced such a device as substantially fulfills the objects of the invention While this specificationsets forth in detail the present and'preferred construction of the device, still in practice such deviations from such detail may be resorted to as do not form a departure.
from the spirit of the invention, as defined by the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and useful and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: p
1. A beet-topping apparatus including a pair of cooperating horizontally spaced rolls adapted to be rotated so that their upper surfaces turn toward each other, and onto one end of which the beets to be topped are deposited, a horizontal cutting device mounted above and extending across the rolls at the other end, and a thread projecting outwardly from and extending spirally along each roll from end to end; the threads of the two rolls being disposed in opposed but matching order and the pitch being in such a direction as to cause the beets contacting with the threads to be advancedtoward the cutting'device with the rotation of the rolls; the pitchof the threads being gradually decreased toward the cuttingdevice end of the rolls, whereby the spacing between adjacent turns of the threads is also decreased.
2. A beet-topping apparatus including a pair of cooperating horizontal rolls adapted to be rotated so that their upper surfaces turn toward each other, and onto one end of which the beets to be topped are deposited, a horizontal cutting device mounted above and extending across the rolls at the other end, and a thread projecting outwardly from and extending spirally along each roll; the threads of the two rolls being disposed in opposed but matching order, and the periphery of the rolls being concaved between adjacent turns of the threads with a decreasing depth toward the cutting-device end of the rolls.
FLOYD L. KING.