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Publication numberUS2096968 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 26, 1937
Filing dateJun 13, 1935
Priority dateJun 13, 1935
Publication numberUS 2096968 A, US 2096968A, US-A-2096968, US2096968 A, US2096968A
InventorsRobert T Johnston
Original AssigneeLehon Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shingle
US 2096968 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 26, 1 937. R. T. JOHNSTON SHINGLE Filed June 13, 1935 Ziari Rio/21262212,

Patented Oct. 26, 1937 UNITED STATES SBINGLE Robert T. Johnston, Wiimington, 11]., assignor to The Lehon Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application June 13, 1935, Serial No. 26,324

, 6 Claims. The invention relates to improvements in shingles for roofing buildings, homes and the like,

and particularly to an improved fabricated shingle strip having a base of felted fibrous material impregnated with a water-proofing solution of asphalt and surfaced with crushed slate or other suitable mineral granules. The saturated coated and mineral surfaced material leaves the fabricating machine in a continuous length and is eventually cut into individual roofing units.

The shingle strips above described are laid on roofs in horizontal courses and overlapping relation. This type of roofing is well known and although its durability and performance in with- 15 standing the ravages of the weather is clearly satisfactory, objections have been made to its ordinary flat and'unsubstantial appearance. This is accounted for by the fact that the shingles are ofuniform thickness and therefore lie fiat-and further present a severed. unfinished and unprotected edge to the observer. The exposed raw edges of a felt base shingle are also objectionable as disintegration of the shingle is accelerated since the edges exposed to the elements- 35 tend to absorb moisture, which is carried into the body of the shingle by capillary attraction and which also seeps under the shingle. This moisture keeps the area around the edge in a constantly damp condition while the exposed top 30 surface dries out rapidly, resulting in curled and blistered shingles, loss of granules, with rapid decay of the base.

The invention' has for an object to provide a roofing unit such as a strip shingle having a 35 saturated felt base coated with mineral granules which will improve the appearanceof the roof formed by said shingles by giving the roof character and individuality and which will ex- .tend the life of the roof as the edges of the L0 shingle are sealed, preventing entrance of moisture.

A further object is to provide a shingle having an irregular butt edge and which in one modification may be described as simulating the cutting l5 edge of a saw, the butt edges having a jagged appearance very much like a saw tooth. f

Another object is to provide a felt base shingle having a bead on the exposed edges thereof for sealing the edges against the entrance of 0 moisture and which will also thicken and reinforce the shingle in the vicinity of the edge although the weight will not be increased materially beyond five per cent.

Another object of the-invention is to provide a shingle strip having transverse shingle defining lines extending from the butt edge inwardly some distance beyond the exposed portion of the shingle, said lines having relation to the irregularity of the butt edge to give to the strip the appearance of several shingles of various 5 widths.

The invention further contemplates a strip shingle having shingle marking lines or indicators on the upper face thereof and similar lines or indicators on the underface of the shingle 00- extensive with those on the upper face. In accordance with the invention the lines or indicators are formed by marking the respective faces of the shingle with asphalt or other bituminous binder and then coating the same with granules. The indicators so treated have a pronounced thickness which in addition to imparting rigidshingle provided with beaded reinforcing edges 1 and shingle indicating lines or indicators in accordance with the invention;

Figure 2 is a bottom plan-view of the shingle shown in Figure 1; V

Figure 3 is a top plan view showing a saw tooth shingle having indicating lines or areas on the upper face thereof and beaded edges in accordance with the invention;

Figure 4 is a bottom plan view of a shingle 40 similar to that shown in Figure 4, which, however, is modified to the extent of having gritsurfaced lines or areas on the bottom face coextensive with similar areas on the upper face;.

Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary sectiona view taken along line 5-5 of Figure 1;

. Figure 6 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken along line 6-6 of Figure 3 and showing the dish-formation of the shingle portions.

The type of roofing unit selected for illustrating the invention preferably comprises a shingle strip Ill having tabs II which are exposed when the strip is laid in horizontal courses in overlapping relation on a roof. The shingle generally consists of a felted base which may be formed from rag,

asbestos and the like that has been saturated and coated with asphalt and surf aced withmineral granules l2 such as crushed slate, tile or natural stone. The material leaves the roofing machine in a continuous length, having been saturated and surfaced by said machine as above described, whereupon the material is severed longitudinally forming the tabs II and is then cut into the length desired for the strip shingle. The tabs of the present shingleare formed by the irregular contour of the lower butt edge of the shingle and although the tabs have a greater width than the portions of the shingle between the tabs, this is not to be construed as limiting the invention, as the contour of the butt edge could readily be reversed. When the shingle is in use the severed butt edge permits the entrance of moisture, thereby accelerating the disintegration of the shingle which reduces the life of the roof. In accordance with the invention the butt edge of the shingle is sealed by means of a bead l3 which reinforces and thickens said edge. The lower exposed edge of the shingle isfirst coated with asphalt or other bituminous or water-proofing compound so that the asphalt extends on both sides and edge of the shingle, the asphalt'coating preferably extending a greater distance in from the edge on one face of the shingle than on the other. Mineral granules are then applied to the coated edge and faces of the shingle in the vicinity 'of the edges, which results in thickening the shingle in the area of the edge and in effect reinforces the same. The asphalt provides a firm interlock for the granules, causing them to adhere to the butt edge and also effectively seals the cut edge against the entrance of moisture, while the application of a surfacing coat of granules protects the asphalt from actinic rays and the usual roof erosion and further increases the thickness of the edge approximately fifty per cent, although the weight of the shingle is not increased materially beyond five per cent.

Figure 2 shows the underface of the shingle disclosed in Figure 1 and it will be observed that the bead I3 extends some distance in from the butt edge. The remaining area l4 of the under face remains smooth. Experience has shown that the water and moisture seeps in under the edge to a distance approximately two-thirds of an inch and the invention contemplates that the bead sealing the butt edge should extend in from the edge on the under-face of the shingle substan-- tially this distance to effectively counter-act the deteriorating action of this moisture. As shown in Figure 1 the bead extends overthe butt edge on the upper face: of the shingle for a very limited distance but on the underface this distance is materially increased in order to protect the edge against the water and moisture seeping in be tween the shingles when in an overlapping relation on a roof. For decorative purposes the mineral granules applied to the edge may have a contrasting color with respect to those surfacing the shingle or they may have the same color, or may consist of varicolored granules, giving it pleasing appearance to the shingles.

The strip shingle I5 shown in Figures 3 and 4 also has a coating of mineral granules IS on the upper face thereof and is provided with an irregular butt edge, which in this modification may be described as simulating the cutting edge of a saw, the butt edges having a jagged appearance very much like a saw tooth. It will be observed that the tabs I! having the jagged edges have different widths which may be varied as desired to the section of the shingle strip between the tabs.

' color.

change the resulting appearance of the shingle strip. In this modification the butt edges of the tab I1 are formed with a bead [8 similar in all respects to that described with respect to Figure 1. The lower exposed edge of the shingle strip I5 5 is therefore sealed against the entrance of moisture and is thickened and reinforced but since the bead is confined principally to the edge the weight of the shingle is not materially increased.

The strip shingles shown in Figures 1 and 3 are further provided with shingle indicating lines or indicators which in conjunction with the tabs divide the strip into sections, giving the appearance of individual shingles when the strip is laid in overlapping relation on the roof. The lines indicated by numeral 20 in Figure 1 and 2| in Figure 3 extend inwardly from the butt edge and terminate a short distance above the nail line of the shingle. The lines form a right angle with the butt edge of the tabs and are spaced so that they have association with the respective ends of the tabs. For example, in Figure l the lines 20 are located at the ends of the .tabs II and therefore the lines set these tabs off from Since the butt edge of the tabs is horizontal, the lines are vertical to form a right angle therewith. In Figure 3 the butt edges of the tabs are inclined although the lowermost point of each tab is on the same horizontal line. In this modification the lines or indicators 2| are therefore offset from a true vertical in order that the same 'may form a right angle with the butt edges of 'thetabs.

The reverse side of said shingle is shown in 35 Figure 4. The underface 22 is smooth faced except for the bead l8 and the lines 23 which are co-extensive with those on the upper face of the shingle. These lines are formed by coating the respective faces of the shingle with asphalt or other bituminous binder and by applying mineral granules thereto. It is contemplated that theindicators on the upper face of the shingle will be coated with granules of a contrasting The indicators so treated are more particularly shown in Figure 6. It will be observed that the shingle is thickened and reinforced at the indicators by the coating of asphalt and mineral granules on the underface and by the additional grit surface on the upper face. As previously described, the lines 23 on the underface are co-extensive with indicators 2|. These lines give rigidity to the shingle strip, rendering the indicators 2| on the upper face more prominent, and resulting in dishing the shingle section when laid on a roof in overlapping relation. The lines 23 raise the base of the shingle and therefore the section of the shingle between the lines assumes a dish-formation. This dish-formation is further accentuated .by the reinforcing bead on the butt edge as shown in Figure 5 and has the desired effect of reinforcing the shingle against curling and against the action of the wind in lifting them up. The dish-formation also enhances the appearance of the resulting roof, as 65 the shingles appear to have thickness due to the fact that the lines or indicators and also the butt edge project up out of the plane of the body of the shingle.

In the shingle of Figure 3 the tabs have been described as having their lowermost point in the same horizontal plane. This line is selected to determine the proper distance from the butt edge for locating the nail holes 24 which are represented on the upper face of said shingle by a dab of asphalt or a similar compound which will indicate to the person laying the shingle the approximate location for the nails. As usual, the

nails are located a short distance above the ex-,

posed portion of the shingle so that the next overlapping shingle strip will cover the nails. The present shingle is also provided with a registering tab 25 and recess 26 formed on the respective ends of the strip. The tab is adapted to fit within the recess of the next adjacent strip while the recess receives the tab of theadjacent shingle on its respective end. The position for the tab and recess has been selected so that they register with the head lap edges of the shingles of the next lower course. Accordingly, rain or moisture which may be driven up the joint between adjacent shingles will be deflected by the recess or tab and will be caused to reverse its direction of travel, eventually flowing downward on the shingle of the under course.

The invention is not to be limited toor by details of construction of the particular embodiment thereof illustrated by the drawing, as various other forms of the device will of course be apparent tothose skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the claims.

What is claimed is:

l. A roofing element adapted to be laid in courses in overlapping relation, comprising a base saturated with a waterproofing compound and coated with granules on the upper face, the butt edge of said element being irregular in contour forming tabs, shingle area indicators on said upper face formed by a second granule suriao ing of contrasting color, said shingle area indicators extending inward from said butt edgeand dividing the element into a plurality of sections representing shingles, and a surfacing of granules coating the butt edge of said element forming a thickening and reinforcing bead, said shingle area indicators and respective thickening and reinforcing bead outlining the exposed butt portion of the several shingle sections and also thickening the boundary of the butt portion of each of said shingle sections.

2. A felted fibrous base roofing strip having a granule surfacing on the upper face, the lower exposed butt edge of said strip being irregular in contour forming tabs, areas formed by second granule surfacings of contrasting color on the upper face and extending inwardly from the butt edge, thereby dividing the roofing strip into shingle sections, said areas having association with the tabs to give the appearance of individual' shingles, and a granule (gating on the butt edge of the strip and on the under face thereof for a distance in from the edge forming a thickening and reinforcing head, said shingle area indicators and respective thickening and reinforcing bead outlining the exposed butt portion of the several shingle sections and also thickening the boundary of the butt portion of each of said shingle sections.

3. A felted fibrous base roofing strip having a granule surfacing on the upper face, the lower exposed butt edge of said strip having an. irregular contour simulating the cutting edge of a saw, whereby tabs are formed having a jagged appearance, shingle area indicators on said granule surfacing formed by a second granule surfacing of contrasting color, said shingle area indicators extending inwardly from the butt edges of the tabs dividing the roofing strip into a plurality of sections representing shingles, and a surfacing of granules covering the butt edge of said roofing strip forming .a thickening and reinforcing bead, said shingle area indicators and respective thickening and reinforcing bead outlining the exposed butt portion of the several shingle sections and also thickening the boundary of the butt portion of each of said shingle sections.

4. A felted fibrous base roofing strip having a granule surfacing on the upper face thereof, the lower exposed butt edge of said strip having an irregular contour simulating the cutting edge of a saw, whereby tabs are formed having a jagged appearance, shingle area indicators on said granbutt edges thereof, thereby dividing the roofing strip into a plurality of sections representing shingles, and a granule coating on the butt edge of the strip and on the under face thereof for a distance in from the edge forming a thickening and reinforcing bead, said shingle area indicators and respective thickening and reinforcing bead outlining the exposed butt portion of the several shingle sections and also thickening the boundary of the butt portion of each of said shingle sections.

5. A felted fibrous base roofing strip having a granule surfacing on the upper face thereof, tabs cut from the strip on the lower exposed edge, shingle area indicators on said granule surfacing formed by a second granule surfacing of contrasting color, said shingle-area indicators extending inwardly from the butt edges of the tabs and dividing the roofing strip into a plurality of sections representing shingles, similar indicators on the under surface of the strip coextensive with those on the upper surface, and a head of granules sealing and reinforcing the butt edge of the strip, said shingle area indicators and respective thickening and reinforcing bead outliningthe exposed butt portion of the several shingle sections and also thickening the boundary of the butt porcovering the butt edge of the strip forming a thickening and reinforcing bead, said indicators thickening the strip along the boundary of the exposed butt portion of each of said shingle sections and in conjunction with the thickening and reinforcing bead. giving to the shingle sections adish formation when the strip is laid on a roof in overlapping relation.

ROBERT T. JOHNSTON.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5375387 *Jan 7, 1992Dec 27, 1994Davenport; Ralph G.Roofing shingle providing simulated slate roof covering
US5426902 *Jun 10, 1991Jun 27, 1995Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US5611186Nov 30, 1994Mar 18, 1997Elk Corporation Of DallasLaminated roofing shingle
US5660014 *Feb 10, 1995Aug 26, 1997Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US5666776Aug 30, 1995Sep 16, 1997Elk Corporation Of DallasLaminated roofing shingle
US5901517 *May 9, 1997May 11, 1999Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US6195951Nov 17, 1998Mar 6, 2001Certainteed CorporationComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US6205734 *May 25, 1999Mar 27, 2001Certainteed CorporationShingle
US6305138Oct 18, 2000Oct 23, 2001Certainteed Corp.Composite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US6523316Oct 23, 2001Feb 25, 2003CertainteedComposite shingle having shading zones in different planes
US6983571 *Sep 28, 2001Jan 10, 2006Teel Plastics, Inc.Composite roofing panel
US7735287Jan 23, 2007Jun 15, 2010Novik, Inc.Roofing panels and roofing system employing the same
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US8209938Mar 8, 2010Jul 3, 2012Novik, Inc.Siding and roofing panel with interlock system
US8281539Jun 24, 2011Oct 9, 2012Certainteed CorporationShingle layer or shingle having thick appearance
US8302358Sep 23, 2011Nov 6, 2012Certainteed CorporationShingle layer or shingle having thick appearance
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US9212487Sep 28, 2005Dec 15, 2015Elk Premium Building Products, Inc.Enhanced single layer roofing material
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US20050257465 *Mar 8, 2005Nov 24, 2005Felton Colin CComposite roofing panel
US20100154342 *Feb 25, 2010Jun 24, 2010Certainteed CorporationShingle layer or shingle having thick appearance
US20110214375 *Mar 8, 2010Sep 8, 2011Michel GaudreauSiding and roofing panel with interlock system
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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/558, D25/139, 428/143, 428/192
International ClassificationE04D1/00, E04D1/26
Cooperative ClassificationE04D2001/005, E04D1/26
European ClassificationE04D1/26