US 2098295 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 9, 1937. c. F. KETTERING ET AL 2,098,295
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING AN ARTIFICIAL FEVER Original Filed March 17, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l $8 C/mmss F Ai fimmc fDW/N C. S/ TLFR Gum/MA;
C. F. KETTERING ET AL.
Nev. 9, 1937.
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR CREATING AN ARTIFICIAL FEVER Original Filed March 17, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 CHARLES Patented Nov. 9, 1937 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR CREAT- ING AN ARTIFICIAL FEVER Charles F. Kettering and Edwin 0.
ton, Ohio, assignors,
Delaware Sittler, Dayby mesne assignments, to
General Motors Corporation, a corporation of Application March 17,
1933, Serial No. 661,210
Renewed September 1'1, 1937 4 Claims.
This invention relates broadly to methods of and apparatus for producing and maintaining in human bodies a condition of fever for thepurpose of curing, or at least relieving certain dis- 5 eases.
A condition of fever or in other words, a high body temperature has a decided remedial effect on certain diseases. This fact has been known to the medical profession for some time, although 10 the exact action in such cases is still more or less unknown. In many instances, particularly in extreme cases, this remedial effect of a condition of fever has been utilized by subjecting the patient to certain other diseases such as malaria or the 16 like. Obviously this method has its disadvantages since the remedy may prove as dangerous as the disease it seeks to cure, and consequently has been resorted to only in extreme cases.
Because of these facts, attempts have been made to artificially produce a condition of fever in human bodies. One such method has been the subjecting of the patient to an electrostatic field, created by a machine capable of producing a very high frequency alternating current. Such machines consist generally of an oscillating tube and a rectifier tube and resemble in practically every detail the ordinary radio machine used for broadcasting purposes. Hereinafter this machine is generally referred to as a high frequency alternator.
In the use of such high frequency alternator it has been found that the patient is subjected to severe body burns. It is believed that these burns are caused by the fact that the body lying u; as it does in the electrostatic field gives off an increasing amount of perspiration as the body temperature increases. The burns are probably due to the fact that small pools of perspiration heat more rapidly than the body itself and to the electrical discharge across such small bodies of perspiration.
Our invention aims to overcome the foregoing objections to these high frequency alternator machines and has for its object the provision of methods of and apparatus for maintaining the body of the patient relatively dry while it is being subjected to the electrostatic field.
A further object, and'equally as important as the first, is the provision of a method of and ap- 0 paratus for supplementing the heating effect of the electrostatic field and also for maintaining the body of the patient at a fever temperature for a considerable length of time after the operation of the high frequency alternator has been 5 discontinued.
Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein a preferred form of the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view taken through a cabinet, with the radiotherm machine shown in elevation;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a vertical section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2, also showing the radiotherm machine in elevation, and
Fig. 4 is a vertical section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
As one specific embodiment of an apparatus capable of carrying out our method, we have shown, as generally indicated by the reference character ID, a housing or cabinet. This cabinet includes three compartments, an operating compartment indicated by the reference character II, a blower compartment indicated by the reference character I2 and a heating compartment indicated by the reference character IS. The operating compartment H is supported at its forward end by means of the legs I 4 and at its rear end by means of the heating and blower compartments l2 and i3. partment ll. includes the bottom wall I 5, the forward wall It, top wall ll, side walls l8 and a rear wall IS, the forward wall 16 being pivoted to the top wall I! as indicated at 20. The forward wall i6 is also provided with an opening 2| which opening is adapted to be closed by means of a curtain 22.
Means are provided for creating an electrostatic field within the operating chamber and to this end we have shown, as generally indicated at 26, a high frequency alternator machine. It should be understood that this alternator is an apparatus capable of producing a very high frequency alternating current and since the details of this machine form no part of the present invention, such details have not been disclosed. It should be understood that the high frequency alternator is connected to the two plates 21, one located in each side wall of the cabinet in order to intensify the electrostatic field in the operating compartment between the two plates.
We also provide means for properly conditioning the body of the patient to maintain it in a substantially dry condition while being subjected to the effects-of the electrostatic field. For example, a flue indicated at 30 is formed on the The operating comtop of the operating chamber ii and communicates with a discharge opening it formed in the top wall ll. At its other end the horizontal flue til communicates with a vertically extending due 32 formed on the outside of the rear wall it, this flue being in turn connected with the outlet fit of the blower it located within the blower compartment it.
Located along the floor of the chamber ill is a second horizontally extending flue itiormed by means of the false bottom 3%. this due lid also communicates with the discharge oi the blower it and with the forward end of the openating compartment M as shown in the drawings.
Thus, with the blower it in operation, air, the source of which will be hereinafter described, is discharged from the outlet it into the hue lid and into the dues 32 and it to be discharged from the said flues into the operating compartment at the forward end thereof.
We also provide means for either re-circulating the air from the compartment M or for discharging the air outside of the apparatus, or discharging only a limited quantity of air and recirculating the remainder thereof. For extample, openings it, Fig. 2, formed in the rear wall it of the compartment ll Municate with vertically extending dues dl converging into the discharge flue it. The dues ll communicate at their lower end with the horizontal flue it formed on the top wall M of the blower compartment it. Extending down the rear wall it of both the blower compartment 02 and the heating compartment it is a flue ill, which flue communicates at its upper end with a due (iii and at its lower end communicates with the heating compartment it. Thus, air escaping from the operating compartment it may pass upwardly through the iiues ii and the discharge due 62 to the outer atmosphere or may pass through the due lt, downwardly through the flue ill! to be recirculated through the compartment and the blower compartment.
To control the circulation of air through the operating compartment, we provide a plurality of dampers, herein shown as hand operated dampers located in the various flues. For example, in the outlet hue Hi there is located a damper 52, controlled by handle 52', while in the return flue 43 there is provided a damper it, operated by handle t l. Also, in the reed flue 32 there is provided a damper t6, operated by handle 5t, while in the fresh air intake 58 to the heating compartment there is provided a damper t controlled by the handle 80'. Also, we provide a damper iii, located in the inlet to the blower 35 and controls this damper by han die ti.
Means are provided for properly heating the circulating air and in this modification there is disclosed a plurality of electrical resistances constituting heating devices 64 located within the heating compartment i3.
Within the operating compartment ii there is shown a stretcher 66 supported at its forward ,end on the outwardly extending platform so formed on the front wall It of the operating compartment ii and supported at its rear end on the false bottom 39.
In the operation of the device hereinbefore disclosed, the body of the patient is located on the stretcher $6, with the head of the patient of course resting on that portion of the stretcher 66 that is shown supported on the platform 68.
access In other words the head of the patient islocated outside of the operating compartment ii. The high frequency alternator machine is connected to the usual electrical source, for instance a 110 volt supply, and the electrostatic field is created between the plates 21!. The body of the patient is therefore positioned in the very powerful electrostatic held and is subjected to the heating efiect thereol. At the so time blower it is started in operation to circulate air over the heating device dd through the dues M and 32 into the operating chamber ii. The temperature of the circulating air may vary irom 150 to 20b ht, depending upon the particular patient tit treated. We attempt to maintain the wet bulb temperature at substanti 105 to 110 so as to assist the ah lreouency alternatorin raising the tempera oi the body of the patient to lever temperature,
During the operation or the lush ireauency alternator machine we have found that it is advantageous to permit from to 2il% or the air circulating through the operating compartmerit ii to be discharged through the outlet flue til, the remder oi the air being, of course, recirculated over the heating coils it. of course, is accomplished by properly arranging the dapers [it and ill.
The alternator is continued in operation until the body oi the patient reaches a temperature of substantially lot or lilo", at which time the intensity of the electrostatic field may be decreased by lowering the power or the a frequency alternator mace or it may be discontinued entirely.
It the machine is cut ofl when the hody of the patient has reached substantially ml to l05 F" the circulation of the air is continued and practically none of the air is permitted to be discharged to the atmosphere ugh the discharged conduit M, at the same time the temperature of the air may be lowered and the humidity increased since the presence of perspiratlon on the body will cause no burning. e1- iect, due to the fact that the n frequency alternator has been discontinued. The velocity of the air may also be decreased.
The humidity of the circulating air may be increased in any known manner, Ior example, by injecting steam through the inlet opening 58, by providing a supply of water in the heating compartment it, or-by any of the known artificial means 'for humidltying the air.
It has been found that in such a device as herein disclosed, it is possible to treat the patient in the electrostatic field for a period of from threecuarters of an hour to one hour to properly increase the body temperature to that desired. Afterwards for a period of from four to five hours the fever may be maintained in the body of a patient without the operation of the high heouency machine by merely circulating the humid air by means of the blower 35.
Hereinbefore we have described the high frequency machine as located in or near the operating compartment M. It is of course possible to first treat the patient in a cabinet wherein the electrostatic field is created and then remove the patient to a second cabinet wherein it may be subjected to the eflect of the heated humidair. This latter method has the advantage in that a more comfortable means for supporting the patient may be provided in a second compartment and since the patient. may spend much time, say from four to five hours in the second compartment, comfort is desirable.
It will be noted that by our process the patient may be treated in an electrostatic field in safety since the circulating air removes excess perspiration, maintaining the body of the patient relatively dry. At the same time, the apparatus may be so controlled that the heating effect of the electrostatic field is required for only a short period of time, and the humidity and temperature of the atmosphere may be so controlled as to maintain the fever temperature for a considerable period of time after he high frequency machine has been discontinued.
While herein We have disclosed a high frequency alternator comprising substantially a radio machine, it should be understood that such a high frequency alternator may comprise a spark gap or other device.
While the form of embodiment of the invention as herein disclosed constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope oivthe claims which follow.
What is claimed is asfollows:
1. Process comprising subjecting a human body to the effect of a high frequency field to create a fever in said body and at the same time maintaining the body substantially dry.
2. Process comprising subjecting a human body to the effect of a high frequency field to thereby create a fever in said body, and at the same time circulating warm air over the body to maintain it relatively dry.
3. An artificial fever producing machine comprising a plurality of walls surrounding and forming an enclosure or a portion of the body of the patient, means for creating a high frequency field within the enclosure, and means for circulating warm air through the enclosure.
4. An artificial fever producing machine comprising a plurality of walls surrounding and forming an enclosure for a portion of the body of the patient, means including electrical plates incorporated in the walls for creating a high frequency field within the enclosure, means for circulating air through the enclosure, and means for heating the circulating air.
CHARLES F. KETTERING. EDWIN C. SITTLER.