US 2099077 A
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Nov. 16, 1937. E; A. PESSAGNO ET AL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 12, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet l CP/HL/p 50/05/512 7- E. A. PESSAGNO El AL IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII ON Q 1937- E. A. PESSAGNO ET AL 2,099,077
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII ON N -16,1937. E. 'A. PES SAGNOETAL 2,099,011
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 12, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Nov.-16, 1937. I E. A. PESSAGNO ET AL 2,099,077
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 12, 1934 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 liq-33. 3
5/1. P5554 G/YO Li. /l/L/P flex/125mg MIC/MEL A. ,D/ITTEQSOIY WILFIQID 1 WOQLMD Patented Nov. 16, 1937 UNi'i" STATEfi BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Application April 12, 1934, Serial No. 720,324
This invention relates to building construction and more particularly to a novel form of monolithic construction which may be employed in fabricatmgstructures such as buildings, dams, bridges, frame works and similar constructions utilizing plastic material such as concrete and the like.
One object of the present invention is to provide a novel assembly of forms for casting a monolithic structure as a complete unit.
Another object of the invention is to provide novel form or pan members which shall have universal application to provide the desired outlets in a monolithic structure while being cast .as a unit.
Another object of the present invention is to provide novel indestructible forms which shall be reversible in use and have universal application to the construction of a wide variety of monolithic structures.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel form or pan unit for effecting the desired construction.
Another object of the invention is to provide a plurality of forms of the character designated having novel interlocking and supporting devices.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel reinforcing tie construction which shall remain as an integral part of the completed structure after the forms are removed.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel form of anchor and spacer members for theforms employed in casting the monolithic structure.
A further object of the invention is to provide apparatus of the character designated which shall expedite the building of monolithic structure in a reliable and efiicient manner and with a resultant saving in time, labor and materials.
These and other objects of the invention will be more apparent from the following specification and drawings and particularly set forth in the claims.
In the drawings:
, Fig. 1 is a perspective'view of a novel monolithic structure constructed in accordance with the present invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged perspective view partially in section and showing novel forms arranged in accordance with our invention;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged perspective view showing a novel arrangement of ceiling and wall forms;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged perspective view showing details of arrangement of the forms and method .;of producing an outlet in the structure;
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a novel form of inside pan;
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of a novel form of universal pan clamp construction;
Fig. 7 is a sectional view of a pan having a 6 substantially L shaped supporting fin Figs. 8, 9 and 10 are fragmentary sectional views of substantially U shaped supporting fins;
Figs. 11, 12, 13 and 14 are sectional views of pans for forming angular and/or circular structures;
Fig. 15 is a sectional View on line l5|5 of Fig.
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary side elevational view of the end of the pan shown in Fig. 5;
Fig. 17 is a sectional view of an inside corner D Fig. 18 is a fragmentary side elevation of the end of the pan shown in Fig. 17;
Fig. 19 is a sectional view of a typical straight inside pan;
Fig. 20 is a fragmentary side elevation of the end of the pan shown in Fig. 19;
Fig. 21 is a sectional view of a straight outside D i.
Fig. 22 is a side elevation of the end of the pan shown in Fig. 21;
Fig. 23 is a sectional view of an outside corner filler pan;
Fig. 24 is a sectional view of a spacer member for the top portions of the inside and outside pans, and for spacing inside and outside pans at outlets in the structure;
Fig. 25 is a base spacer member for the inside and outside pans;
Fig. 26 is an end view of a universal gusset brace plate;
Fig. 27 is a view in elevation of the plate shown in Fig. 26;
Fig. 28 is a sectional view of a one module wide filler pan;
Fig. 29 is a sectional view of a one module wide corner pan;
Fig. 30 is a perspective view of a reinforced concrete structure showing novel tie and spacing devices;
Fig. 31 is a fragmentary sectional View of a reinforced concrete structure showing the location and arrangement of the principal construction forms;
Fig. 32 is a fragmentary sectional view showing a wall and floor joint of a concrete structure fabricated in accordance with the present invention; and
Fig. 33 is a fragmentary sectional view of wall and floor joint shown in Fig. 31 withfloor in section and wall forms in elevation.
Referring to the drawings there is shown in Fig. l a monolithic structure constructed in a novel manner in accordance with our invention. One important feature of the proposed construction is that all of the main structure such as the walls, flooring and ceiling are cast integrally. This construction is representative of a small two-story dwelling of reinforced concrete adapted to be cast as a unit, and is illustrative of the method and apparatus which may be employed' for any monolithic structure such as dams,'b'ridges and the like.
One of the important features of our invention is the provision of a novel system orarrangement which may be universally applied to the structure so that fundamental parts such as integral wall and floor joints, ceiling beams and columns r studding may be cast at one pouring or placing of the plastic material such as concrete.
Regardless of the particular shape of the forms employed to facilitate the proposed construction; one important feature of our invention is the provision of a novel design of form or forms in a system which shallbe readily removable when the entire structure is completed. Furthermore these forms are preferably of sheet metal con- .struction and interlocked in assembly so that they are self-supporting and have a section modulus sufiicient to sustain the dead load of the concrete building material and such live loads as may be imposed during construction.
system are dimensioned in multiples of an arbi trary unit called a module. tiori of the module is based upon the over all thickness of a typical Wall section plus'one thickness of metal used in the form.
In the illustrative embodiment of our invention as applied to a two-story reinforced concrete dwelling, we have shown a complete system of wall forming pans which enable a basement Wall l 6, first story floor H, second story wall 12, I
first story ceiling I3 and partition walls 14 to be set up and cast as an integral structure. It will be noted that the pans are arranged to form all details of construction such as doors 1 5, windows 1%, stair well H and a chimney flue l8. In
other words, the forms are all positioned in a predetermined manner so that each successive story of the structure may be integrally cast at one pouring of concrete.
Referring to the details of construction and the arrangement of the forms shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5, there are two general types of pans, an outside pan indicated by the numeral i9 andan inside pan indicated by the numeral 29. The inside pans 28, 2B are substantially three modules wide and eighteen modules long, while outside pans i9, 19 are three modules wide and nineteen modules long. This arrangement allows one module for the depth of the fioor slab H and joists 21. In a similar manner the wall I21 and studding 22 have an over all depth of one module. At points where inside partitions l4 join outside walls l2, there is placed an outside'filler pan 23, Fig. 28, one module wide and nineteen modules To provide for corners of typical walls, there is added a one module filler pan 23 and a one module corner filler pan 23, Fig. 31. This same provision is also made at the corner of the basement walls i by inserting two'loutside 3 fillerpans one module wide and nineteen modules lengths in exact multiples of their widths.
of indestructible, self-supporting forms Substantially all forms employed in our novel a The determinalong. the next story wall provision is made for an oilset by a special basement corner pan 24, Fig. 23.
The reason for making the lengths of all inside pans in exact multiple of their widths is to make them adaptablefor use in either fioor or wall construction. In forming a floor, the floor form must space out evenly with the number of wall pans required for the particular wall beneath. There may be several difierent lengths of inside pans and outside pans in order to form fioors over rooms of various sizes, but in the present illustrative embodiment of our invention, all inside pans are dimensioned with their However whether inside, outside, filler, corner, or name-hole pans be employed, the construction of the individual pans is such that they shall be in multiples of the module as hereinbefore defined. Another important feature of the specific structure is that all joists 2| and studs 22, or
columns and beams, wherever employed, are uniformly spaced in multiples of a moduleand are aligned in. a predetermined manner during the setting .of the forms so that each joist frames directly over a stud. In this same manner it will be noted that a continuous and integral structural beam is provided at the interse'ctionof all studs and joists.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the outside pan I9 is flat with lateral edge fins 25, 25 projecting outwardly from the forming surface. The fins for these outside pans are coextensive with the length of the pan and are provided with apertures 26, 26
spaced throughout the length thereof. At the opposite ends of the fins are spaced slots 21, 28 identical in arrangement. The arrangement of the apertures 26, 26 and the slots 2'! and 28 provide a'universal or reversible, form which greatly facilitates the assembly of the forms for a particular structure. For example, inside slot 28 is adapted to engage a base angle iron support or aligning member 29, and the outside slot 21 at the upper end of the pan 49 engages and supports an angle iron forming member 30 which is awall thickness reducing member between the basement and next story wall as well as a rigid support for the next story outside forms. 19.
The novel form of inside pan employed by us is substantially U shaped with atop portion 3|, sloping side portions 32, and outwardly projecting lateral edge portions 33 which terminate in an integrally formed fin 34 extending substantially at right angles to the top portion 31. The ends of the pan are closed with a sloping end portion 35, the depth of the side portion 32. The fin may be of various, forms as indicated in Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10. For example; in Fig. 7 an additional bottom flange 36 is added to give an I beam effect and thus increase the section modulus of the form. Then again this. flange 36 may be provided with a flange 31 doubled back upon the fin body 34 as shown in Figs. 8,, 9 and 10 to effect the same desirable results and make the pans more durable and less liable'to damage in handling. V H
In Figs. 11, 12, 13 and 14' we have shown special designs for forming angular or curvilinear surfaces. However, whichever form of pan is desired for a particular structure, it will be noted that each pan is provided withlateral edge fins which may be attached to adjacent fins to form a selfsupporting form structure. for receiving plastic material and this is an important feature of, our novel pan construction. The pan construction Since the basement wall is thicker than heretofore described is of suificient rigidity to provide a rigid form which shall withstand the weight and pressure of the concrete, whether the pan be used for a wall, ceiling 'or floor form. An inside pan having a fiat forming surface is indicated by the numeral 38. Whichever form is assembled, the pans are secured together by their fins" and to facilitate this fastening each is provided with systematic and uniformly spaced slotted opening 26 which corresponds with a similar slot in the adjacent fin. By thus designing the pans internis of the unit module and providing universal fastening means for the fins of all pans, the pans are interchangeable in character within practical limits.
A novel form of securing device is shown in Fig. 6 in which a rectangular shaped pin All is provided with a head 41 and a slot 42 near the head. These clamping pins are identical in shape and each is a complement of the other when in clamping relation. It will be noted that the pins have a tapered end portion 43 which slopes from the slot and therefore makes them interchangeable as Wedge and slot members and thus avoiding the necessity of any special tools in assembling the forms. A securing clamp of this character effects an appreciable saving in time and labor, as well as providing a simple and positive securing device for all types of pans.
In a universally adaptable form of the character hereinbefore described, many obstacles have been overcome in the practical application of this invention. Utilizing the module as the unit of construction, Figs. 15, 1'6, 17, l8, l9 and 20 illustrate the typical inside pans that may be used in general construction work. In this characteristic pan the locking apertures 26 are uniformly spaced from the end of the pan and the fin is shorter than form surface. The fins are also cut away as indicated at M to provide a proper clearance for erection and removal of the forms. The straight inside pan and fin shown in Figs. 19 and 20 is provided with the same type of fin as the U shaped pans.
The inside corner pan as shown in Fig. 17 is provided With an inward projecting fin 45 having the uniformly spaced apertures 26. This corner pan fits in the corner as shown in Figs. 2 and 31 and is rigidly secured to the adjacent fins of the adjacent pans.
Figs. 21 and 22 show the end section of a typical outside pan. The pans shown in Figs. 15, 17, 19 and 21 are each three modules wide and it will be noted that the measurement is between the vertical projections of the supporting fins as indicated by m, m, m.
To facilitate the construction of the forms and securing them rigidly in place there is provided a sheet metal gusset brace and supporting plate 46. This plate is provided with adjacent right angle sides 4"! and 48 having the corner cut-away to form a right angle recess 49. Adjacent each right angle side is mounted a wedge-shaped supporting member 50. This member may be in the form of a special U shaped member, adapted to accommodate two thicknesses of metal such as contained in the fins. Adjacent to each wedgeshaped member 56 is an aperture 5! spaced from the right angle corner at a distance substantially equal to that of the apertures 26, 26 in the inside or outside pan fins.
One important feature of this gusset brace on inside construction is that it serves as a supporting and bracing member between adjacent ceiling and wall pans as shown in Fig. 3. For example,
thewedge-shape member 50 on an angle side serves to temporarily draw adjacent vertical fins together and then when the fins are finally drawn together by the entering wedge pin 40 into the apertures 26 of the adjacent fins, the parts are held rigidly together and form a self-supporting structure. After the vertical fins are secured, then the horizontal fins may be supported and secured in the same manner. The cut-away portion 49 enables the forms to be rigidly drawn into place and proper alignment and thus provide a rigid self-supporting structure. These same gusset plates are employed as inside base support anchorages. The bottoms of the inside pans are aligned by a suitable bar member 52 and in this arrangement, the cut-away portion 49 serves to engage and clamp the fins and pan members into positive alignment.
There is shown in Fig. 4 a typical arrangement for providing for outlets such as windows and doors in the building. Wherever an opening is to occur, opposite wall pans are provided with openings 53, 53. The pans are positioned by spacer and clamping members 54, Figs. 4 and 24. Spaced around the pan openings is a frame 55 of the size of the desired opening and of the wall thickness. When the frame 55 is positioned, the pans are clamped rigidly by the members 54.
The base of the forms is spaced and secured by a strap member 56, Figs. 1 and 25 and from the foregoing it will be noted that all the form members are spaced and rigidly secured in position without the aid of tie members passing through the wall. One feature of the present invention is that the wall structure is free of all tie members which pass through the wall and remain in the finished wall except at the basement wall footings.
It frequently happens that the joists 2| and studding 22, Figs. 30, 31, 32 and 33 is reinforced by steel rods 51. In this case the inside pans 20 are provided with suitable spaced openings 58 adjacent to the fin 34. The steel rods 5'l--51 are positioned by the wires 59 which pass through the openings 58. After the concrete has set and the forms removed, these tie wires remain and are utilized to secure stringers or furring members 6!] of an inside wall or ceiling.
Having thus described the various features of our novel building construction, it is obvious that numerous changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of our invention as defined in the claims. For example, the pans or forms for casting a monolithic structure may be of any desired shape to form ornamentation in the finished structure. In a similar manner, the door and window framing members may be of any desired design to provide ornamentation of these parts.
Having thus fully described our said invention, what we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is,
1. A sheet metal pan for casting a monolithic structure comprising a substantially rectangular inverted U shaped trough member having closed end portions, laterally extending base portions projecting outwardly from the sides thereof, and each outward projection terminating in a downwardly extending fin the ends of said fins terminating short of the closed end portion.
2. A sheet metal pan for casting a monolithic structure comprising a substantially rectangular inverted U shaped trough member having laterally extending base portions projecting outwardly from the sides thereof, each outward projection terminating in a downwardly extending fin, and means for securing the finsof adjacent pans together to form an integral self-supporting structure.
3. A form arrangement for casting a monolithic structure comprising interchangeable wall and .floor forming pans, means for securing the pans structure comprising interchangeable wall and floor forming pans, means for securing the adjacent pans in an integral self-sustaining form for receiving plastic material, each pan being di-- mensioned in modules so that the length is a multiple of the width, ceiling pans forming a continuation structure with said inside wall pans, and a plate having adjacent sides at right angles and'including means for rigidly connecting the adjacent ends of said side wall and ceiling pans to form a self-supporting structure.
5. A form arrangement for casting a monolithic structure comprising interchangeable inside and outside basement wall pans, means for securing the pans in an integral self-sustaining form for receiving plastic material, each pan being dimensioned in modules so that the length is a multiple of the width, and next story pan forms similar to said basement forms, and means for joining the end portions of said basement and next story forms together.
6. In combination, a plurality of wall form units having longitudinally disposed lateral edge fins adjacent to each other, a base member for aligning the bottom of said units, a plate member including means for clamping said adjacent fin members together, holding the units in rigid contact with said base membenand transmitting the load from the adjacent fin members to the base member.
7. In combination, a plurality of wall form units each having longitudinally disposed lateral edge fins adjacent to each other, a right angle brace plate for engaging 'and securing adjacent fins, including a wedge-shaped fin supporting member secured to one side of said brace plate, an aperture provided in said brace plate and adjacent to said wedge-shaped supporting member, and
means for engaging said aperture and said fins to' prising sides at right angles to each other, a wedge shaped member mounted on one side for receiving a member to be supported, a symetrically placed wedge-shaped member mounted on the adjacent side and an aperture provided in each side adjacent to said wedge-shaped members.
9. In a sheet metal member for forming outside surfaces of a monolithic structure, a projecting fin extending the length 1 of the member along the lateral edges, said fin having spaced apertures ends of said fin for receiving a horizontal mem-.
her to comprise the seat for superimposed outside forming set vertically or horizontally.
10. In an integral, self-supporting mould structure comprising inside and outsidesheet metal form members spaced apart to form a wall, frames for providing apertures in resulting monolithic structure, apertures in opposite inside and outside sheet metal form members, a clamping member comprising a rectangular, U shaped strap having laterally extending portions projecting outwardly from the sides thereof, one outwardly extending portion having an aperture for receiving means for engaging said aperture and adjacent fin members of forms to'said clamping member, and the other outwardly extending portion terminating in a wedge shaped member for engaging adjacent fins, drawing said fins together and rigidly securing the same.
11. A sheet metal pan for casting a monolithic structure comprising a substantially rectangular,
- U shaped trough member having closed end portions, one side of said. pan having a laterally extending base portion projecting outwardly from one side thereof, and the outward projection terminating in a downwardly extending fin, the ends of said fin terminating short of the closed end portion; the other side of said pan having a laterally extending fin projecting inwardly, the ends of saidfin'terminating short of the closed end portion.
a 12. An intergral, interlocking, self-supporting mould structure comprising vertically disposed inside and outside sheet metal form members rigidly spaced apart to form a wall-mould, and horizontally disposed inside form members of .a width substantially equal to the width of each inside form member, each end of each said horizontally disposed form member interlocking with the uppermost end of one of the said vertically disposed inside form members to form a floor-mould.
' E. A. PESSAGNO.
E. PHILIP SCHREIERN MICHAEL A. PATTERSON. WILFRID V. WORLAND.