US 2099983 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 23, I937. s. LAKE" 9,
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Original Filed Sept. 18; 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. Sz' onlalte Nov. 23, 1937. s. LAKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE original Filed Sept. 18-, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 F HU I ATTO EY Nov. 23, 1937. 's. LAKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Original Filed Sept..l8, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 m T T. A
Nov. 23, 1937.
S LAKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Original Filed Sept. 18, 1929 INVENTOR Jz'mon lake, ca.
TORNEY Nov. 23, 1937. s. LAKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Original Filed Sept 18, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 IN VEN TOR.
Patented Nov. 23, 1937 UNi'l'ED- STATES PATENT OFFICE I INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Simon Lake, Milford, Conn.
Application September 18. 192:9, Serial No. 393,356
Renewed April 26, 1937 27 Claims. ((31. 123-41) J and yet have a relatively slow-speed engine producing a substantially uniform torque; (3) To obtain greater reliability; (4) To facilitate easy regulation, adjustment and repair; and To provide an engine of the type referred to which may be started automatically and which may be stopped and reversed as to direction of rotation at will.
These and other related objects are attained by this invention by the provision of means and combination of parts fully referred to in the annexed specification. Their attainment is very important and advantageous in connection with engines designed for motor vehicle and marine vessels, such, for instance, as submarines, but
especially so in engines designed for aircraft,.par-
ticularly heavler-than-air machines.
Another leature is the provision of opposed pistons in each cylinder so that in each cylinder 'each piston forms the head of the combustion m chamber for the other piston, thereby saving the weight of the head which would otherwise be needed.
other features and advantages will hereinafter appear.
In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate one embodiment of this invention, that at present preferred-- Figure 1 is a longitudinal vertical section through the engine.
so Fig. 2 is a tranverse vertical section taken on I the line 2-2 Fig. l.
Fig. 3 is a similar view taken on the line 3-3 Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a similar view taken on the line t-fi Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is an end view of the engine looking from i -55 mixing chamber and the valve controlling passage of the mixture of fuel and air to the explosion chamber.
Fig. 8 is a plan view partly in section of the mechanism for starting and reversing the engine and the means for "controlling and regulating I the flow of fuel to the cylinders.
Fig. 9 is a detailed view of an automatically operated valve forming part of the reversin mechanism.
Fig. 10 is a detail view of a modified form of cam-operating mechanism to be used when the engine is to operate as a four cycle engine.
According to the present invention,.the cylinders ill of the engine are not arranged side-byside in a verticahor horizontal plane as is 0115- isf tomary but, instead, are arranged squirrel-cage fashion in a frame work ll having a base it. In the cylinders W are pistons i3 each connected by a connecting rod i l to a crank shaft is. The crank shafts are disposed radially -in the frame work ll so that their axes all intersect the axis of a main drive shaft it to which power developed within the cylinders It is transmitted by means of bevelled gears l! on the crank shafts iii engaging a bevelled gear ill on the main shaft to.
In the form of the invention shown herein' the cylinders lfl are shown as mounted parallel with each other and with the main shaft l6, and this, for many reasons which will appear, is considered preferable at the present time. However, so far as 30 some of the aspects of this invention are concerned, this precise arrangement is not necessary, and while still being arranged in a curved plane, the axes of the cylinders l0 may converge more or less toward each other and toward the main shaft l5, and this is particularly feasible with the bevelled gear drive ll-l8 between the cranks lb and main shaft to. for it is merely necessary to have the teeth of the bevelled gears li--l8 at the proper angle.
As stated above, the engine of the present invention provides one cylinder ID for each two pistons l3 and this is shown in Fig. 1, in which it will be noted that the cylinder comprises a straight cylindrical tube in which both pistons it may slide away from each other under the force of combustion occurring within a space or chamber l9 provided between them when they reach their closest proximity, as shown in the upper part of Fig. 1. The opposed pistons i3 have their crank shafts l5 located at opposite ends of the engine, and-accordingly, there is a bevelled gear 18 on the shaft it at each end of the engine. i
The frame work H on which the cylinders 5 the uprights 20. Each of the caps 24 has half bearings 25 for the crank shafts, and chambered portions 26 each forming one-half of the crank case for one of the cranks l5.
The caps 24 and the uprights 20 have external flanges 21 and 28 respectively, which are bolted together by bolts 29, see Figs. 2 and 8, after the crank shafts have been placedin proper position between the respective uprights 20 and their caps 24. By this operation, the bearings for the crank shafts l5 are completed and the two halves 23 and 26 of the crank case are brought together; 7
The uprights 20 and caps 24 are further fastened together by bolts 30 located in webs 3i and 32 in the uprights 20 and caps 24 respectively, at each side of the half bearings 2 |---25 which make up the bearings for the crank shaft l5, see Fig. 2.
The crank case chambers 23-26 in the uprights 20 and caps 24, respectively, are .provided with transverse separating walls 33 which may extend radially so that each rank case is separate from each adjacent cra-n case.
In embodiments of this invention operating on a four-cycle principle, these separating walls 33 are not essential-but are, however,shown herein since the engine illustrated is of the two-cycle type and precompression of an; occurs 26 has secured to it by rivets34 an annular member 35 having at equi-spaced points around its periphery half-round seats 36, see Fig. 3, into which'the cylinders may be placed. Each of these half-round seats is provided with a halfround clamping member 31, which is secured in place by bolts 38 after the cylinders ill have been placed in the half-round seats 36. Conversely,-
when. it is necessary to remove a cylinder, the clamping member 31 for that cylinder is removed the frame work H is concerned, is free to be lifted out. Other parts connected to the particular cylinder to be removed must, of course,
be disconnected and further reference to this will be made below.
,; When the cylinders in are in place, their edges II are slightly free of the upright members 20 for the purpose' of permitting longitudinal expansion of the cylinder, and are located adjacent circular holes 40 in the upright members The frame work of the engine also comprises a tube 4| extending from one upright member 20 to the other and secured in place by rivets or bolts 42 passing through a flange 43 in the annular members 35. Among its other functions, which will be referred to below, the tube 4| serves to tie the upright members 20 together and, be-
- ing tubular in form, serves to substantially strengthen and stiffen the frame work without itself adding very much weight to it.
Although many of the features of this invention are not limited to any particular kind or type of internal combustion engine, as herein -illustrated, the engine is of the two-cycle type and operating on the Diesel principle, in which, as is well known, combustion of the fuel is produced by causing air'trapped in the. combustion chamber to be compressed to such an' extent that the heat developed ignites the fuel when the latter is injected, and in which scavenging of the burnt gas resulting from the explosion and the injection of fresh air to the cylinder chamber is efiected by compressing the air in the crank case on the power stroke of the pistons and allowing it, when the piston reaches the proper position in the cylinder at near the end of the power stroke, to rapidly surge into the cylinder, expell the burnt gases and remain in the cylinder to be compressed upon the return stroke of the piston.
Accordingly, the chambered portions 26 of each cap 24 is provided with an air inlet 44 through which the-atmospheric air may freely pass into the crank cases 23-26 and cylinders I below the pistons l3 during the inward or return movements of the pistons, that is to say, during the movement of the pistons from the position shown at the bottom of Fig. 1 to the position shown at the top of Fig. 1. The air inlets 44 are each controlled by a disc valve 45 so that so soon as its associated piston is driven downwardly, the valve 45 closes, causing the air trapped inthe crank case to be compressed and to be held under compression until the .piston l3 reaches the end of its power or outward stroke.
At this time, the air in the crank case is allowed to rapidly escape into the cylinder chamber through a port 46 therein, see Figs. 1 and 6, which is connected by a pipe 41 extending parallel with the cylinder and having at its opposite ends flanges 48 adapted to be fastened to the upright members 20 which are provided with ports 48 each communicating with the crank case 2326 at one end of the engine, see Figs. 2, 3' and 8. The pipe 41 is connected to the inlet port 46 of the cylinder by a coupling 50 held to the cylinder 10 by screws The port 46 for each cylinder, as will be seen from Fig: 1, is so located that one of the pistons l3 on each cylinder acts as a valve to open and close it and does this at the end of the power stroke and beginning of the return stroke of the piston respectively.
Each cylinder Ill is also provided with an exhaust port 52 through which the spent gases and the products of combustion may escape, and the exhaust port 52 is so located as to be opened and closed by one of the pistons at the end of the power stroke of the piston. Thus it will be seen that during the power stroke of the piston, air is compressed in the crank cases 23--26 and in the pipe 41 so that at the end of the Power stroke the inlet port 46 and outlet port 52 are opened and allow the spent gases to surge out of the port 52 andto be forced out by the compressed air rushing in through the port 46. It should be noted that each of the crank-cases 23-26associ- 75 ated' wltha particular one of the cylinders 10 is used to precompress the air instead of usingonly one crank case for this purposeas was the practice heretofore, and that, according to this invention. double the amount of compressed air is available for scavenging the cylinders.
It should also be noted that while both crank cases are used for precompressing the air for each cylinder, onlyone inlet port 46 and one outlet port 52 are provided and that these are 10- cated at opposite ends of the cylinder. Hence, at
near the end of the power stroke, the air will rush through the cylinder in a substantially straight path from the inlet port 46 to the outlet port 52 and it will not be necessary to double back upon itself or otherwise follow a tortuous path as it any otherarrangements were 54 in the tube and in the compartment 55 of the tube 4i thus formed, there is provided one or more sets of fan blades 56 mounted on a sleeve 5! supported on the power shaft l6 by means of ball "bearings 58, see Fig. 1, and driven by means described below. The direction of the pitch and rotation of the blades 561s such as to tendto produce a partial vacuum in the chamber 55 forcing the air from the compartment 55 through exhaust pipes 59 leading to an exhaust manifold 66 connected to an escape pipe 6i.
The exhaust pipes 59 are placed around the tube 4! and pass through the rear upright 26 and cap 26 in the spaces between the bearings ZI-25 for the crank shafts, as shown in Fig. 4, while the manifold 66 to which the exhaust pipes 59. are connected lies in an annular chamber 62 provided inthe cap 24 at the right-hand side of the engine, as viewed in Fig. 1.
, Tm insure that the gases, both air and the products of combustion, in the compartment 55 are forced out into the exhaust pipe 59'rather than being merely caused to circulate within the compartment, a centrifugal fan 63 is provided on. the sleeve 5'! in the plane of the openings of the exhaust pipes as shown in Figs. 1 and 4,
so that the spirally arranged blades 64 of the centrifugal fan.63 force the air and spent gases.
outwardly into the exhaust pipes 59 as the air and other gases are forced between the fan blades 66 by the blades 56. 1
Thus it will be seen that due to the rotation of the fan blades 56and 64, as soonas an exhaust port 52 is opened in one of the cylinders, the gases therein are forced out of the cylinder by the in-rushing precompressed air from the crank case and further are sucked out by the action of the'blades 56 and 63 very rapidly and' completely, the exhaust gases being quickly care ried off and expelled through the escape pipe 6i and allowing a flow of fresh air into and through the cylinderv before the inlet port .45 is again.
closed upon the return stroke of the piston.
. In the operation, ofscavenging a cylinder of spent gases and filling a cylinder with fresh air" preparatory to the compression stroke, not only theair which was precompressed in the crank cases by the power stroke of the pistons is employed, but, due to the provision of the suction fans- 56 and 63, it isintended that other air at atmospheric pressure be taken into the cylinden This additional air is taken in through the inlet ports 44 in the covers 24 and'is allowed to enter by reason of the disc valve 45 which opens automatically as soon as the pressure withinthe cylinder and crank cases becomes less than atmospheric pressure after expansion of thepi e- -compressed air and due to the suction or partial vacuum created by the fan blades 56 and 64. Of course, these disc valves 45 immediately close as soon as the air in the crank cases begins to be compressed on 'the power strokes of the pistons. I
When the engine is of the air-cooled. type as air-impelling means be employed for assisting in cooling the cylinders particularly the inwardly located external walls thereof. I To accomplish this, the present invention provides fan blades 65 on the fan-sleeve 51 whichit willbe remem bered is the sleeve which carries the fan blades 56 and 63. -These fan blades 65 are located in the tube H in advance of the dividing wall 54 which forms a compartment 66 between the wall 54 and the front upright 20.
Fresh air is drawn into the compartment 66 by the fan blades 65 through an annular chamber 61 in the front or left-hand cap 24 of the frame and passes through openings 68 between the bearings 2l-2 5 into an annular chamber 69 in said upright 20'which has openings Ill leading into the chamber 66. .The air impelled by I the fan-blade 65 passes out-of the chamber I56 through ports H in the direction of the arrows shown in Fig. 1 and impinges against the walls of the cylinders and cools them, the cylinders being preferably provided with fins 12 to further increase radiation .and facilitate cooling.
The means for driving the sleeve 57, which carries the cooling blades '65 and exhaust blades 56 and 63, comprises a gear 13 secured to the sleeve and meshing with a gear 14 mounted. on astud shaft I5 carried by a bracket 16 secured to the tube 4|, the gear 14 being driven by the power shaft l6, as will be described below.'
Since the engine herein illustrated is reversible, that is to say, since the pistons are capable of driving the power shaft IS in either direction, means are provided by this'invention for enabling the sleeve 51 carrying the fan-blades to rotate in one direction only, regardless of the direction of rotation of the power shaft.
For this purpose, reversible gearing is provided between, the power shaft I6 and the gear 14 which drives the fan-sleeve.' This reversible gearing comprises an externalgear, TI and an internal gear 18 both secured on the power shaft l6. Either of these two gears is adapted to mesh with a pinion l9 slidably mounted on a sleeve 66 carried by the gear 14 and the 'plnion I9 is adapted to be shifted by a forked arm Bl pivoted at 82 on the upright member 20. By movingthe forked arm 8i, the pinion 19 may be moved out of mesh with the external gear" ll into mesh with the internal gear 18' or vice versa. The shifting fork is normally urged to the position shown in Fig. 1, by a spring 63 located between it and the frame llvl ien the engine is operating forwardly, thespring 83 keeps the pinion 19 in mesh with the gear TI on the power shaft and this causes the fan-blades to rotate in the proper direction. When, however, the engine is reshown herein, it is preferable that fans or other versed, the forked arm 8| is rocked, by means hereinafter described, to move the pinion 18 into mesh with the internal gear 18, and thus. causes the pinion and fan-blades to be driven in the same" direction as before, even though the shaft is rotating in the opposite direction.
As-far as some of theaspects of ,this invention are concerned, particularly a number of those described above, the engine as illustrated herein may operate upon relatively highly volatile and inflammable fuel as, for instance, gasoline or heavier and less inflammable oil, such as is known as Diesel engine oil. In either event, each cylinder is provided with an inlet port 84 communicating with the chamber I8 between the heads of the opposing pistons I3. In the former case, the fuel may be carbureted and fed into the chamber I8; and ignition means, such as spark plugs, may be supplied for each cylinder to cause combustion of the fuel.
The engine, as illustrated herein, however, is of the Diesel type, which, as is well known, employs no carburetor and depends upon the heat resulting from the compression of the air in the chamber I8 on the return stroke of the pistons to explode or bum the combustible material injected into the cylinder.
Accordingly, the engine of the present invention is provided with a fuel oil supplypipe 85 which has a branch 88 provided for each cylinder leading into a regulating mechanism 81 also provided for each cylinder. Each regulator or injector 81 comprises a block 88, see Fig. 8, se-, cured to the cylinder, as, for instance, by screws- 88, and has a chamber into which the oil may flow from the branch pipe 88. Communicating with the chamber 80 is a duct BI, passage of the oil to which is controlled by a valve 82 'slidably mounted in the chamber 90. The duct 8| leads into a charge regulating chamber 83in which is mounted an ejector plunger 84 on a rod 85, which plunger is normally urged toward the left, as viewedin Fig. 8 by a spring 86, located between a collar on the rod and the side of the clamping member 31 in a hole in which the rod 95 is guided for sliding movement.
From the charge regulating chamber. 83 the fuel oil may flow, when permitted so to do by a valve 88, to a duct 88 leading to a mixing chamber I00, see Fig. 7, from which it may pass through a helically fluted regulating screw IOI andnozzle I02 to the combustion chamber I8. The screw IOI has suitable packing means I03 and an accessible. finger-piece or nut I04 by means of which it maybe adjusted up or down to bring a conical tip I05 on the screw farther from or closer to a conical apertured seat I08 of the nozzle I02. This is done to regulate the flow of fuel from the nozzle to adjust it for fuel oil of different qualities, particularly with reference to the viscosity of the oil; also to clean the nozzle of any foreign matter which might lodge therein.
} upright 20.
For operating the stems I01 and I08 by the crank shaft, thelatter is provided with a cam I08 moving in the path of a rocker arm IIO pivotally mounted on a stud III carried by a ring formed integral with the half-clamp 31 which holds the cylinder in place on the upright 20, by means of rollers on screws II1 which ride in a slot H8 in the tappet. The tappet II5 has a broad head II8 located in position to engage the ends of the valve stems I01 and I08 when the rocker arm moves the tappet toward the center of-the engine.
The stem I01 being longer than the stem I08 is the first one to be engaged by the head [I8 of the tappet. This causes the valve 82 to be moved to the right, as viewed in Fig. 8, to closeofi" the duct 8| and prevent-return flow of fuel contained in the charge regulating chamber 83. After this is done, the head II8 of the tappet engages the valve stem I08 and moves the valve 88 from its seat, permitting the fuel to flow through. the. duct 98 to the chamber I00 and from thence through the nozzle I02 to the combustion chamber.
At this time, the fuel is ejected from the chamber 83 by the plunger 84 under the action of spring 86. In the operation of the engine, the motivating power for this purpose was previously stored in the spring 86 by the pressure on the fuel oil in the branch 86, chamber 80 and chamber 83, when the latter was allowed to be in communication with the chamber 80 through the duct 8I being opened by the valve 92, while the valve 88 was closed, the oil under pressu'reforcing the plunger84 toward the right, as viewed in Fig. 8. r
Thus, it will be seen that as soon as the duct 8| is closed and the valve 88 is opened; the spring 88 may force the fuel past the valve 88 and eject the fuel oil therefrom and force it into the mixing chamber I00 and ultimately into the cylinder I0.
The quantity offuel oil injected into the cylinder ateach operation is controllable, according to this invention, so that the speed and power developed by the engine may be varied as desired. This is accomplished in a very simple and advantageous manner in the form of the invention illustrated herein, by regulating the range of movement of the ejector plunger 84.
Tov do this, the plunger rod at itsend which protrudes through the member 31 toward the right-hand or rear upright 20 is provided with a s op collar I20 fixed thereon, and located in its th is a stop I 2I which limits the ejecting movement of theplunger and therefore regulates the quantity of fuel oil ejected by the plunger 84 at each operation thereof.
There is a stop I2I for each cylinder and these are mounted one. ring I22 which is supported on the right-hand upright 20 for rotation and is adjustably rotated by means of a segmental rack I23 meshing with a pinion I24 secured to a shaft I25 connected to a control lever not shown.
The operating edge of each stop I2I is sloped from one end where it lies close to the ring I22 to the other end where it is spaced substantially therefrom. Thus, when the ring is rotated theoperating edges I28 are moved closer to or farther from similarly inclined operating edges I21 of the stop collars I20, and thus permits less or opens-into the cylinder and in which the jet I02 greater ejecting movement of the plung'ers .94 under the. influence or their spring 96, according to the setting oi the ring I22.
Although it is not essentialv to the successful operation of the engine, it is preferable in large size engines or where heavy oil is used, that air under compression be caused to flow into the jet I02 so as to atomize theoil being ejected through the jet. This is accomplished in the form of the invention shown herein, by providing a pipe I28 connected to a reservoir of compressed air, with a branch. I29 for each cylinder. The branch I29 leads into a chamber I30. in the regulator mechanism 01 and this chamber has a duct I3I' leading into another chamber I32 having a valve I33 on a valve stem I34, which like thevalve stems guided by member 31 and the front and lefthand upright 20, to be operated by the head. I I9 of the tappet H5. The valve I33 is opened by operation of the cam I09, the rocker I I0, and the tappet II 5 simultaneously with the opening of the fuel-oil valve 92. Asr the fuel oil passes through the chamber I00, air under pressure in the chamber I32 passes the valve I33 and enters a duct I35, then passes into said chamber I 00 and mixes with the fuel oil in said chamber and then passes through the helical groove in the regulating screw and is there further broken up before it enters the cylinder 10, being broken up into fine particles so as to form a mist which will freely-ignite and burn when it contacts with the air in the chamber I9 which was brought to high temperature, due to the compression resulting fromthe approaching movement of the opposed pistons I3. ,The pressure on the auxiliary air fed to the cylinders by the compressed air line I26 is, of course, greater than the pres sure of the air under compression in the cylinder at the time it and the fuel oil is being fed into the cylinder.
The engine of. this invention is started and brought up to suflicient speed, so that the air in some of the cylinders will be compressed rapidly enough to cause it to ignite the fuel, by compressed air supplied to the cylinders by the compressed air line I20, above described. For this purpose, means are provided for introducing relatively large quantities of compressed air to the cylinders of,the engine, whichat the time of starting have their pistons located at the proper point to receive the air. I
Forlthe purpose of controlling the introduction of compressed air tothose cylinders whose pistons are inthe proper position to receive it,
the crank shaft I5 for each right-hand piston,
as viewed in Figs. 1 and 8, is provided with a cam I31 which-co-operates with a rocker armI38 having rollers I39 and I40 to engage and be engaged by the cam I31, and other rollers MI and I42 adapted to engage the head I43 of a tappet I44 held for sliding movement on ,atable I45 formed integral with a half clamp 31 for the right-hand end of the cylinder by means of rollers or screws I46 which ride in a slot I4'I in the tappet I44. The head I43 of the tappet I44 is adapted, when operated, to engage an operating stem I48 for the valvemechanism which. permunication with a 'circular chamber I00 whieh I 01 and I03 extends through, and is.
a stem I54 slidably mounted within the stem I60 and closing an opening I55 through the valve I49, the valve stem I having openings I56 through which air may pass to the duct I52,
and into the chamber and thus raise the pressure on the backside of the valve I49 preparatory to its opening.
The pilot valve I53 has a spring I51 normally tending to keep it closed, and-at its other end has a pin I58 engaging the end wall I59 of a hollowed end I60 on the operating stem I48, in
- which the pilot valve stem I54 and the main valve stem I50 extends. Normally, theend I6I of the main valve clears the wall I59 so that the first movement of the operating stem I49, 'by engaging the pin I58, opens the pilot valve I63 and then the subsequent movement of the operating stem I48 causes the end I6I of the main valve stem I50 to be engaged by the wall I59 to open the main valve I 49.
The rocker arms I 38 are mounted for oscillation on a starting ring I62 rotatably mounted on the right-hand upright 20. The starting ring I62 is provided with a segmental rack I63 adapted to mesh with a pinion I64 on a control shaft I65 so that rotation of the shaft by a control wheel, or lever, not shown, may cause the-starting ring I62 to be adjusted to desired position.
When the engine is running, the starting ring is in a midway position so that neither of the rollers I39 or.I40 are in range of the cam I31, and thus while the engine is running, the rockers I38 do not operate, nor does the valve I49 or its pilot valve I53 open.
When, 'however, the engine is stopped and it is desired to start it, the operator rotates the shaft I65 to shift the ring I62 in either direction, depending upon whether it' is desired that the en gine run forwardly or backwardly, that is to say, in one direction or the other. 7
Assuming that it is desired to have the engine rotate forwardly, with the parts in the position would be their power stroke when the engine is running forwardly, i. e. in the direction of the arrow shown on the cam I31. For instance, as shown in Fig. 8, the piston controlled by the cam I3! is well along in its power stroke, and when the ring I62 is shifted, the roller I40 engages the land of the cam I3'Iand causes therocker I38 to oscillate and open the pilot valve I53 and main valve I49 for allowing compressed air to enter the cylinder with which the cam I3! is asso-' ciated.
This will cause the engine to start to turn over,
whereupon due to the mutual movement of the rotation of the other cams I31 and the advancement of the ring I62, the rollers I 40 belonging to successive cylinders will be engaged by the cams I31 to admit compressed air to the cylinders controlled thereby, until the ring I62 reaches the limit of its movement and then the rotation of the crank I5, due to the operation of the engine by compressed air, will cause the valves I53 and I 49 of the cylinders to be opened successively and bers I9 and drive the pistons I3 apart. This op- I eration of the engine by compressed air is maintained until the engine reaches sufficient speed so that fuel injected into the chambers I9 of some ,of the cylinders will be ignited by the heat generated by compressing the air therein.
Before starting the engine, the fuel control ring H2 is shifted to a neutral position so that the ,cam I09 of the left-hand crank shaft will not engage and operate the rocker H0, and thus during the initial starting movement, no fuel is injected in the cylinder.
After the engine is started by rotation of the ring I62, and while being brought up to speed, the operator shifts the control ring II2 through operation of the shaft I61 which'has a pinion I68 meshing with a rack I69 on the ring II2 so that the rollers II3 on the rockers IIO are brought into range of the cams I09. This .causes fuel to be injected into the cylinder at the proper time, and fuel ignites and burns and the engine begins to operate under force of the combustion of the fuel oil.
The expansion of the compressed starting air in the cylinders tends to cool the walls of the cylinders and this tends to retard the starting of proper combustion of the fuel oil. Consequently, according to this invention, after the inertia of the parts is overcome and the engine speeds up, compressed starting air is withheld for some of the cylinders to give them an opportunity to generate suflicient heat by compressing therein air taken in through their crank cases so as to cause combustion to take place. Accordingly, when sufficient speed is obtained, the fuel control ring is moved to bring the rollers II3 on the rockers IIO into range of the cam I09 so that fuel and auxiliary air is fed to the cylinders. At the same time the starting ring is retarded slightly, 1. e..moved to neutral position, so that rollers I40 belonging to certain of the. cylpletely returned to neutral position by rotation of the control shaft I65 so that the cams I31 will no longer reach the rollers I40 to oscillate the rockers I38.
To stop the engine, the operator rotates the shaft I61 so as to move the rockers IIO out of range-of the cams I09 and thus cut off the supply of fuel and auxiliary air to the cylinders.
To cause the engine to travel in reverse direction from stopped position, the shaft I65 is ro-' tated so as to cause the ring I62 to be shifted downwardly, as viewed in Fig. 8. Thiswill move 'the rollers I39 on the rockers into engagement or compression stroke when the engine is being operated in a forward direction. The cranks of these pistons having not yet crossed the dead center line between the wrist pins of thepistons and the cranks, air admitted to these cylinders and impinging against'these pistons causes the pistons to be driven apart, and thus causes the direction of motion of the engine to be the reverse .of that previously described.
The co-action of the rollers I39 and the cams I31 and I31a is'the same as between the rollers I40 and the cams I31 as that above described, except for timing, as just stated.
As above stated, the rollers I I3 and H4 on the rocker IIO operate to control the opening of the fuel valve 92 and auxiliary air valve I33 when the engine is going forwardly. These same functions are performed by rollers I10 and HI, also carried by the rocker I I0, when the engine is operating in reverse direction. Being on the opposite side of the stud shaft III from the rollers H3 and H4, the rollers I10 and HI oscillate the rocker in reverse direction but of course this is of no consequence since the tappet II moves in the same way whether it is operated by the roller I I4 or the roller I1I.
The point in the operation of the pistons at which fuel is injected may be controlled during the running of the engine by adjusting the control ring II2 so that the injection of the fuel oil may be advanced or retarded to obtain best efiiciency. This is done by adjusting the control ring II2 more or less, either toward or from its neutral position so that the rollers H3 or I10, according to the direction in which the engine is being operated, may be engaged later or sooner 'in the rotation of the crank shaft, and the ar rangement may be such that thepoint of injection of the fuel, and consequently the ignition or combustion point, may be advanced so that the engine fires just before the pistons complete the ends of their compression strokes.
Thus, it will be seen that the engine may be controlled or throttled to vary the amount of fuel injected, by adjusting the ring I22, and may be controlled as to timing, 1'. e. the point in the cycle of operations where fuel is injected by adjustment of the ring II2.
As described above, the fan blades 56 and 65 are always driven forwardly whether the engine is operating forwardly or in reverse, and this is controlled by the forked arm BI normally held by the spring 83 in position to. cause the fans to operate forwardly when the engine rotates forwardly. However, when the engine is operated in reverse direction, a piston I12 sliding in a cylinder I13 and connected by a link I14 to the forked arm I, causes the arm to be shifted so as to move the pinion 19 into engagement with the internal gear 18, against the tension of the spring 63. v
The piston I12 is operated by compressed air and is connected by a pipe I15 leading to a threeway valve I16. This valve has a pipe I11 leading to thecompressed air pipe I28 above mentioned, and a cylindrical vane I18 having an operating arm I 19, see Figs. 8 and 9. The operating arm I19 is normally held in the position shown in Figs. 8 and 9 by a spring I80 so that a passage I8I in the vane normally connects the pipe I15 leading tothe cylinder and piston I13, I12 with an escape orifice I82 in the valve. When the operating arm I19 is rocked, however, the communicating passage I8I moves beyond the outlet orifice I82 so that the cylindrical vane Closes the same and continues to move until the pipe I11 aooaoss that' when the control ring is shifted from neutral position toward reverse driving position, that is downwardly, as viewed in Fig. 8, the cam I83 engages the arm I18 to shift thevalve.
It will, of course, be understood that while th engine as herein illustrated comprises eight cylinders each having two opposed pistons, any numher of pistons may be employed within the scope of this invention, and if desired, an even greater number of cylinders could'beemployed without materially increasing the 'space occupied by the engine by placing the cylinders a little closer together; or the engine may be. made larger and a larger .number of cylinders employed; Or, when the engine is to be used for motor vehicles, some of the cylinders, for instance the lower three in Fig. 3 may be omitted entirely, in which case the pistons of the remaining cylinders will be so connected by their crankshaft IE to the main driving gears I8 as to split the firing points of the cycle equallybetween them.
This, as well as the varying of the firing order,
if desired, may be accomplished by simply placing the cylinders in the desired relative positions before the bevelled driving gears I8 are secured in place on the power shaft i6.
1 By this manipulation of the pistons in the cylinders, they may be made to fire'in any way desired. That is to say, the firing order of the cylinders may be in regular succession or alternately as cylinders I, 3, 5, l, 2, 4, 6, 8, or in fact in any way desired. Of course, these variations and automatically varied by simply manipulating the changes may be effected without requiring any separate alternation or adjustment of mechanism, for the relations between the cams I89 which are individual to each cylinder and their co-operating rollers H3 and I10 are properly and pistons.
Sometimes it is desired to have the outlet port 52 0f the cylinder opened a little ahead the air in-.,
take port 48. This can be accomplished, according to the present invention, by adjusting the right-hand set of pistons I3 slightly in advance in their cycle with relation to the left-hand pistons,
before the right-hand bevelled gear is secured in place, and thus a lead is obtained to give the exhaust gases achance to expand and start out from the cylinder before the air intake port 48 is opened.
It should be noted that-by having the cams I89 for controlling fuel injection individually to each cylinder, not only is'it possible to adjust the pistons as of the respective cylinders relative driven by asprocket I84-carried by the power shaft I6 and connected-to the shaft by a clutch Variations and. modifications may be made within the scope ofthis invention and portions of the improvements maybe madewithout others.
' For instance, when it'is desired .to have the engine operate on a four cycle principle, it is necessary to change the operation of thecam I 0 9 shown, ,for producing the and the cam I31 so that they will make butone revolution for two revolutions of the crank shaft. One way of accomplishing this is shown in 'Fig. 10, wherein the crank shaft I has secured to it a pinion I86 meshing with an internal gear I81 on a cam I88 mounted ona stud shaft I89.- The ratio between the pinion I86 and the internal gear I81 is such that for eachrevolution of the crank shaft the cam I88 makes only one-half a revolution, that is to say, the cam only makes one revolution for each two of the crank shafts.
Having .thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and for which it is desired to obtain Letters Patent, is:-;
1. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a fuel injector for, each cylinder including a chamber; a valve for closing said chamber; mechanism for automaticallyopening and closing said valve:
, means for maintaining fuel in said chamber under pressure and injecting the fuel into thecylinder when said valve is opened, said means including a plunger and a stop device on the plunger for determining its length of stroke in injecting direction; and means common to all of said injectors and comprising cooperating stops.
2. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a fuel injector for each cylinder including a chamber; a valve for closing said chamber;. mechanism for automatically opening and closing said valve; means formaintaining fuel in said chamber under pressure and injecting the fuel into the cylinder when said valve is opened, said means including a plunger and a stop device on the plunger for determining its length of stroke in injecting direction; and means common to all of said injectors and comprising cooperating stops, said lastnamed means being adjustable to increase or decrease the length of strokes of the plunger.
3. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, having pistons, a crank shaft for each piston, means for starting the engine by compressed air including a plurality of valves one individual to each cylinder for introducing compressed air to the cylinder, a tappet for the valve, a rocker for operatcylinder; a tappet for the valve, a rocker for cpcrating the tappet, a cam on a crank shaft associated with each cylinder for operating said rocker, and means common to all of said rockers for supporting them for movement into and out 'of range of said cams, said rockers each having two cam followers, one to engage and to be engaged by thecams when, the engine is started forwardly and the other when the engine is started in reverse direction so that compressed air is introduced into a certain plurality of cylinders simultaneously according to the position at the moment of the individual crank shafts'and cams carried thereby and rockers engaged by the cams, and according to the directionin which it is desired to have the engine run.
5. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine having pistons, an individual crank for each piston, means for starting the engine by compressed air including a plurality of valves one individual to each cylinder for introducing compressed air to the cylinder, a tappet for the valve, a rocker for operating the tappet, a cam on a crank shaft associated with each cylinder for operating said roaser, means common to all of said rockers for supporting them for movement into and out of range of said cams so that compressed air is introduced into a plurality of the cylinders simultaneously according to the position at the moment of the individual crank shafts and cams carried thereby and rockers engaged by the cams, some of said cams being shorter than others, and said means for supporting the rockers being movable to a position where the rockers are engaged by the long cams and not engaged by the shortcams whereby compressed air is admitted to only cylinders whose cams are long, and means for injecting fuel for a regular firing charge into those cylinders in which compressed air has not been admitted.
6. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a fuel injector for each cylinder including a chamber; a valve in said chamber; a plunger in said chamber; a spring on said plunger; mechanism for filling said chamber with fuel oil, while the valve therein is closed, with sufiicient pressure totmove the plunger to a back position and at the same time storing energy in the spring associated therewith; means for opening the valve, whereupon the spring alone, due to the energy stored therein, urges the plunger back into the chamber to force fuel oil into the cylinder; and means common to all of said fuel injectors for regulating the spring urged travel of the plunger into the chamber and thereby regulating the displacement and quantity of fuel injected at each operation of the injector.
'7. An internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and pistons, each' cylinder containing a pair of pistons; a crank shaft for each piston; means for starting the engine by the application of compressed air to the cylinder, said means including a valve individual to each cylinder; and a plurality of cams, one for each cylinder, to operate the valve and admit compressed air to the cylinder, each cam being mounted on a crank shaft operated by one of.
the pair of pistons in the cylinder.
i 8. In a multi-cylindcr Diesel-type engine, a fuel injector for each cylinder including a chamber;
a reciprocating plunger in said chamber, and a spring to impart working travel to'the plunger;
direction to regulate the quantity of fuel injected at each operation of the injector; and means. in-
dividual to each cylinder and including a valve controlling the passage of' the fuel from said chamber to said cylinder' for determining'the point in the cycle of operation of each cylinder at which said injector operates.
9.- In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a fuel injector for each cylinder including a chamber, a reciprocating plunger in said chamber, and a spring to impart'working travel to the plunger; manually'controllable means common to all of said fuel injectors for controlling the, extent of spring actuated. reciprocatory movement of the plunger in working. direction to regulate the quantity of 'fuel injected at each operation of the injector; means individual to each cylinder and including a valve controlling the passage between the cylinder and the chamber for determining the means of all of the cylinders at one time.
10. An internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and pistons; individual crank shafts for each piston; means for controlling the point of fuel-injection into the cylinders including a plurality of cams, each cam individual to a crank shaft; rockers, one engaged by each of said cams; and means for simultaneously and uniformly varying the relation between each of said rockers and its associated cam.
11. An internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and pistons; a crank shaft for each piston; a main shaft; a gear drive between said crank shafts and said main shaft; fuel injecting means individual to each cylinder; means for controlling the point in the cycle of operations of the piston in which fuel is injected by said injecting means and including a cam on a crank shaft associated with each cylinder;
rockers engaged by each of said cams; and means for simultaneously and uniformly varying the relation between each of said rockers and its associated cam to simultaneously and uniformly vary the points in the cycle of operations of the pistons in which fuel is injected.
12. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a plurality of cylinders each having a crank shaft individual thereto; a fuel injector for each cylinder including a reciprocating plunger and a spring to impart working travel to the plunger; means common to all of said fuel injectors for controlling the extent of spring actuated reciprocatory movement of the plungers in working direction; means actuated by each crank shaft individually at a point in the cycle of operation of each cylinder for operating the injector; and
. means for supporting said last-named meansfor simultaneous bodily movement to uniformly vary the points in the cycle of operations at which the injectors operate.
13. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a plurality of cylinders each having a crank shaft individual thereto; a, fuel injector for each cylinder including a reciprocating plunger and a spring to impart working travel to the plunger; means common to all of said fuel injectors for controlling the extent of spring actuated reciprocatory movement of the plungers in working direction; means actuated by said crank shafts individually at a point in the cycle of operation of each cylinder for operating said injector; and manually adjustable means for shifting the lastnamed means to uniformly vary the points in the cycle of operations at which the injector op-' erates.
14..In a multi-cylinder' Diesel-type engine, a
plurality of cylinders each having a crank shaft individual thereto, one fuel injector for each cylinder; means actuated by the crank shafts in-' dividually at a point in the cycle of operation of direction to another range of operating positions,
for the reverse direction of operation of the engine;
15. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a.
plurality .of cylinders each having a crank shaft individual thereto; one .fuel injector for eachone range of operating positions for one direction of operation of the engine and in another direction to another range of operating positions for the reverse direction of operation of the engine, said last-named means being variable to advance or retard the points in the cycles of operations of the cylinder in which said injectors operate.
16. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine, a plurality of cylinders each having a crank shaft individual thereto; one fuel injector for each cylinder; meansactuated by the crank shafts individually at a point in the cycle of operation of each cylinder for operating the injector; means for supporting said last-named means for simultaneous bodily movement to vary the points in the cycle of operations at which the injectors operate; and means for shifting said last-named means from neutral position in one direction to cm range of operating positions for one direction of operation of the engine and in another direction to another range of operating positions for the reverse direction of operation of the engine, and the position of said means in either forward or reverse position being variable to advance or retard the points in the cycles of operations of the cylinders in which said injectors operate. l
17. In a Diesel-type engine having a plurality of cylinders and pistons, a crank shaft for each piston, a fuel injector for each cylinder comprising an operating part, a cam on the crank shaft associated with each cylinder, a plurality of in-' .terponents, one between each ofsaid cams and its associated injector and individual thereto, and
manually operated means for shifting said interponents simultaneously relative to the cams and the injectors.
18. In a Diesel-type engine having a plurality of cylinders and pistons arranged in squirrelcage form, a crank shaft for each piston, a fuel injector for each cylinder comprising a valve, 9.
tappet for operating the valve, a cam on the crank shaft, a rocker between the cam and the tappet adapted to be operated by the cam and to operate the tappet, and a ring extending around the cylinders on which said rockers are mounted, said ring being rotatably adjustabiy mounted-nfor shifting the position of the rockers relative to the cams.
19. In a multi-cylinder Diesel-type engine having a plurality of cylinders arranged squirrel-' cage fashion, a piston in each cylinder, an individual crank shaft for each piston, means for startingthe engine by compressed air including a plurality of valves, oneindividual to each cylinder for introducingcompressed air to the cyllnder. a tappet for each valve, a rocker for each valve cooperating with the tappet, a cam on the crank shaft associated with each cylinder for opera-ting said rocker, and a ring extending around said cylinders and supporting the rockers, said ring being mounted for rotating movement to move the rockers into and out of range of the cams. i
20. The invention as defined in claim 5, in which the rockers each have two cam followers, one to engage and be engaged by the cam when the engine is started forwardly and the other to engage and be engaged by the cam when the engine is started in reverse direction.
21. In a Diesel-type engine having a plurality of cylinders, pistons, and means driven by the pistons, means for starting the engine by compressed air including a plurality of valves eacl. individual to one cylinder, 9. tappet for each -valve, a rocker for operating each tappet and individual to each valve, a plurality of cams each individual to one of the cylinders and controlled as to position by the position ofthe piston in its associated cylinder, and settable means for making said cams operable on said rockers and tappet to open .a plurality of said valves to admit compressed air to a plurality of said cylinders simultaneously according to the position at the moment of the pistons in the respective cylinders.
22. Theinvention as defined in claim 21, in which each rocker has two cam followers, one to engage and be engaged by the cam when the engine is started forwardly and the other to engage and be engaged by the cam when the engine is started in reverse direction.
23. The invention as defined in claim 21, in which some of the cams are shorter than others,
' and in which the rockers engage only the longer cams so that compressed air is admitted to only those cylinders whose associated cams are long, and in whichthere is means for injecting fuel for a regular firing charge in those cylinders in which compressed air has not been admitted.
24. The invention as defined in claim 21," in which each rocker has two cam followers, one to engage and beengaged by the cam when the engine is started forwardly and the other to engage and be engaged by the cam when the engine is started in reverse direction, in which some of the cams are shorter than others, and in which the rockers engage only the 'longer cams so that compressed air is admitted to only those cylinof cylinders, pistons. and means driven by the pistons, means for starting the engine by compressed air including a plurality of valves each individual to one cylinder, and a plurality of cams each individual to a cylinder and controlled as to position by the position of the piston in its associated cylinder, and suitable means for making said cams operable to open a plurality of said "valves to admit compressed air to a plurality of said cylinders simultaneously according,to the position at the moment of the piston in the respective cylinders.
'26. The invention as defined in claim 25, in which the last-named means is shiftable to open certain of said valves when the engine is to be started forwardly, and othersof said valves when the engine is to be started in reverse direction.
27. The engine as defined in claim 25, in which only certain of said valves are opened to admit. compressed air to the cylinders, and in which there is means for injecting fuel for a regular firing charge in those cylinders in which compressed air has not been admitted.