|Publication number||US2104067 A|
|Publication date||Jan 4, 1938|
|Filing date||Dec 22, 1933|
|Priority date||Dec 22, 1933|
|Publication number||US 2104067 A, US 2104067A, US-A-2104067, US2104067 A, US2104067A|
|Inventors||Bailey Henry H|
|Original Assignee||Barrett Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
H. H. BAILEY Jan. 4, 1938;
SHINGLE Filed Dec. 22, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet l VI m Y m m m m WNW m7 Patented Jan. 4, 1938 PATENT OFFlCE SHINGLE Henry H. Bailey, Riverside. 111.. assign to The Barrett Company, New York, N. Y. a corporation of New Jersey Application December 22, 1933, Serial No. 703,525
This invention relates to roofing and more particularly to interlocking shingles of the felt base type.
One object of this invention is to provide a 5 shingle of novel shape which affords a maximum roof coverage and results in an eflicient waterproof andweatherproof covering.
'Another object of this invention is to provide such shingle with a simple and eifective lockin device permitting the ready application of the shingle with other similar shingles in overlapping courses. I
Other objects and advantages of my invention will appear from the following detailed description of my invention.
In the drawings: 4
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a shingle embodying this invention;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary plan view of a number of shingles of Fig.1 arranged in courses on a roof or other surface;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of a modified form of shingle embodying this invention; v
Fig. 4 shows a plan view of a pair of reversible 25 shingles constructed in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 5 represents a plan of a strip of roofing material showing av layout for cutting the shingles of Fig. 4;
30 Fig. 6 shows the pair of shingles of Fig. 4 arranged with the side edges overlapping indicating the manner of applying the shingles in one and the same course;
Fig. 'I is a plan viewof a section of roof laid 5 with the shingles of Fig. 4 and illustrates one method of application;
Fig. 8 is a plan view of a section of roof laid with the shingles of Fig. 4 and illustrates an alternate method of application;
Fig. 9 is a plan view of several shingles of Fig. 4 showing a modified method of laying the shingles in the same course;
Fig. 10 shows a plan view of a pair of modified reversible units similar to those of Fig. 4; and
Fig. 11 shows the pair of units of Fig. 10 arranged in interlocking relation and indicates the manner of applying the units in the same course.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, reference numeral I indicates a shingle constructed of a 50 substantially square body portion 2 outlined by dotted lines 3 and 3' and side edges 4 and 5. Instead of having the body portion square it could be made rectangular with the side edges somewhat longer or shorter than the top and bottom 55 edges of the body portion.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 1, a substantially triangular projection 6 extends from the top edge 3 of the body portion of the shingle. Side edges I and 8 of this triangular projection form an angular top or rear 5 edge 9 of the shingle. What might well be considered a pair of right triangular projections I0 and III are disposed on the bottom edge 3' of the body portion; The short sides of the projections In and ID are in line with side edges 4 '10 and 5 respectively of the shingle, and form the lower extremities of these side edges. Sides l2 and I3 constituting the hypotenuses of projections In and I0, form an angular bottom or forward edge l4 of the shingle. Sides or edges I2 15 and I3 defining forward edge l4, it will be noted, extend parallel with edges 1 and 8 defining rear edge 8. All of the sides I, 8, l2 and I3 are of equal length, thereby providing a symmetrical chevron shaped shingle, the median line of which passes through the vertexes of the angular forward and rear edges.
Extending angularly inward from transverse edge 5 at a point near its forward extremity is an interlocking slit or slot Hi. This slit begins on thetransverse edge at a point II in line with the remote side I2 of forward edge l4 and extends inward parallel to the near side 13 of the forward edge l4. Slit l6 provides a flap H3 at the lower corner of the shingle which can readily be bent-out of the normal plane of the shingle.
With reference to Fig. 2, it will be noted that the chevron-shaped shingles of Fig. 1 are adapted to be laid on a roofor other surface in overlapping courses, the shingles of each course overlapping and interlocking with adjacent shingles in the same course. Each shingle is placed with angular forward edge l4 lowermost in such a manner that side I2 extends parallel to the horizontal direction of the roof and side l3 dips downward at an angle with respect to the horizontal direction of the roof.
In covering a roof or other surface, the shingles may be laid from right to left with side edge 5 of shingle A overlapping side edge 4 of ad- 4.5 jace'nt shingle B in the same course. The lower extremity of side edge 4 of shingle B is inserted in slit Iii of unit A in such a manner that it partly overlies flap l8 thereof. Edge ll of shingle A is set parallel to and in the same horizontal line with the corresponding edge or leg of shingle B. Side edge 4 of shingle B abuts against the inner extremity of silt iii of shingle A and point I! of the slit falls on edge I! of shingle B. These features aid considerably'in l6 aligning the shingles in each course. Each shingle in the -same course, it will be noted, is overlapped by an amount equal to the perpendicular distance between transverse edge 5 and the inner extremity of slit l6 of an adjacent shingle.
After laying course A--B, the next overlying course, denoted by the shingles C and D, is laid in a similar manner with the lower edges I4 of shingles C and D overlapping the upper edges 9 of the shingles in the underlying course. Shingle C is offset from shingle A so that the inner extremity of slit I6 on shingle 0 falls in line with an extension of transverse side 5 of shingle A. This allows slit I6 of shingle C to fall on the body portion of shingle B in the underlying course so that an effective waterproof and weatherproof roof. covering is formed requiring very little overlap between shingles in adjacent courses or in the same course.
It will be noted that the shingles of this invention can readily be laid to produce an emcient roof covering. The upper edge and almost one entire side edge or marginal portion of each shingle are covered by portions of adjacent and overlying shingles. The other side edge of each shingle is effectively held down by having its flap inserted under the non-homologous side edge of an adjacent shingle in the same course. In addition, it will be noted that the chevron-shaped shingles of this invention produce a roof covering having an attractive and pleasing appearance.
Fig. 3 shows a modified chevron-shaped shingle 20 similar to the element of Fig. 1 and constituted of a substantially square body portion 2 I, but having the chevron design asymmetrically arranged and having its interlocking slit extending in a different direction from that of Fig. 1. This shingle has straight parallel transverse edges 4 and 5 of equal length and disposed opposite to one another. However, instead of having the four sides of the angular forward and rear edges the same size, as shown in Fig. 1, sides 22 and 23 on one transverse portion of the unit are longer tharr'sldes 25 and 26. Extending angularly inward from transverse edge 5 is a slit 27 lying in line with the remote side 22 of the forward edge.
The asymmetrical modified shingles 20 are adapted to be laid in a manner similar .to that described above in connection with the symmetrical chevron-shaped units I to form an effective roof covering having a somewhat modified appearance.
Fig. 4 represents a. pair of reversible shingles G and H of symmetrical chevron shape, similar to the unit of Fig. 1. Each unit G and H is defined by parallel side edges 4 and 5 and parallel angular rear and forward edges 9 and I4. Sides I2 and I3 of concave edge I4, and sides I and 8 of convex edge 9 are all of the same length. Ex-
tending inward from transverse edge 4 of shingle G is a small cut-out portion or triangular shaped notch 30 which aids in aligning the shingles in overlapping courses when they are laid on a roof or other surface. This notch is preferably located at a point near the concave end of the shingle, the exact position depending upon the amount of overlap desired between adjacent courses. Notch 30 is defined by edge 32 extending inward parallel to side I2, and edge 33 disposed at an angle to'and converging with edge 32. Transverse edge 5 is provided at a'corresponding point with a similar inward-extending notch 35 defined by edge 31 parallel to side I3 and edge 38 converging with edge 31.
Shingle H is provided on transverse edge 4 with a short triangular projection 40 complemental in V size and shape to aligning notch 30 of shingle G. Projection 40 is defined by an edge 42 extending outward from the transverse edge 4 parallel to side I and edge 43 disposed at an angle to and converging with the outer extremity of edge 42. The distance between edge 42 and side I of shingle H is the same as the distance between edges 32 or 31 and sides I2 or I3 of shingle G. Transverse edge 5 of shingle H is provided with a similar projecting portion 45 defined by edge 41 parallel to side 8 and edge 48 converging with edge 41.
Extending inward from transverse edge 4 of shingle H, near the concave end thereof, is an incision or slit 50. This slit begins at a point on edge 4 in line with the remote side, he, side I3, of concave edge I4 and extends substantially parallel to the near side, i. e., side I2 of concave edge I4. Slit 50 forms a flap 52 which can readily be bent out of the normal plane of the shingle. Similarly, the other transverse side of the unit is provided with a slit 54 starting at a point on edge 5 in line with the remote side I2 and extending parallel to the near side I3. Slit 54 provides an interlocking flap 55 similar to flap 52 at the opposite side of the shingle.
Fig. 5 illustrates a layout for cutting the shingle pairs of Fig. 4 from a sheet of flexible roofing base 59 having side edges 60 and 6|. The sheet is of a width sufiicient to produce three elements in cutting position. Base 59 may be of felt saturated with bituminous material, such as asphalt, coated on both sides with asphalt or other waterproof. bituminous material, surfaced on one side with granular material, such as crushed slate, and having the usual material applied to the other side to prevent sticking while packaged. It will be understood that the roofing fabric or base from which the elements are cut may be of any desired width to produce any desired number of elements.
Alternate parallel cuts 62 extending lengthwise of the sheet define transverse edge 4 and alternate cuts 53 define transverse edge 5 of each unit. Cuts 62 and 63 are interrupted by angular incisions 64 alternately positioned on opposite sides of the cuts. These angular incisions define the notches and projections of the individual units. Parallel transverse cuts 55 are provided extending in a zigzag direction across the width of the fabric to define the angular shaped forward and rear edges of the individual units. Suitable cuts 61 are also made extending from the longitudinal cuts 62 and 63 and parallel to the adjacent portions of the transverse cuts 65 to form the short slits extending inward from the transverse edges of shingles H. As shown in the layout, the shingles are out without substantial waste, the only waste involved being the narrow strips of material between marginal cuts 62 and 53 and the side edges BI and 60 respectively of the sheet.
With reference to Fig. 6 it will be noted that each shingle pair is laid with shingle G reversed so that shingle H has the convex edge 9 uppermost and unit G has the concave edge I4 uppermost. The entire marginal portion adjacent edge 4 of shingle G with the exception of the lower extremity is overlapped by the adjacent marginal portion of shingle H. The extremity of the marginal portion of shingle G is inserted through slit 50- in shingle H and overlaps the flap 52 at the extremity of shingle H. Sides I and I2 of shingle H fall in the same straight lines as sides I2 and 1 respectively of shingle G.
In laying a roof, the shingle pairs are interlocked in rows, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8, to form horizontal direction of the roof. The shingles are placed with transverse edges 4 and 5 of units H overlapping transverse edges 4 and 5 respectively of two adjacent units G and with the flaps 52 and of units H overlapped by the longitudinal edges will form a continuous zigzag line, i. e., so that adjacent sides of the angular edges of adjacent shingles fall in the same straight line.
The shingle pairs may be laid in overlapping courses and in staggered relation so that the vertices of the convex andconcave angular edges on the exposed portions of shingles G and H respectively fall on the vertical center lines of the overlaps between adjacent shingles in the next underlying course. The units can readily be laid with the proper amount of overlap between adjacent courses by placing the vertex of each shingle H of one course in horizontal alignment with either one of the projecting portions 40 or 45 of each shingle H in the next underlying course. Fig. 7 shows a roof produced by aligning the vertex of an overlapping shingle with projection 40 of shingle H in the underlying course. Fig. 8 shows a roof construction in which projection 45 is used for aligning the shingles of an overlapping course with respect to those in the underlying course. v
A modified method of laying the shingle pairs G and H in the same course is illustrated in Fig. 9. In accordance with this modification, transverse edge 4 of shingle H overlaps edge 4 of one adjacent unit G while opposite transverse edge 5 is overlapped by edge 5 of the other adjacent unit G. Instead of laying the units in this manner, it should be understood that the units may be lapped in the opposite direction, i. e, with transverse edge 4 of shingle H overlapped by edge 4 of one adjacent shingle G and opposite edge 5 overlapping edge 5 of the other adjacent shingle G. Similarly, both transverse edgeso'f' shingle H may be overlapped by edges of adjacent shingle G and both flaps 52 and 55 of shingle H exposed to the weather.
The construction of the pair of elements depicted in Fig. 4 may be varied somewhat to provide a pair of interlocking units J and K shown in Fig. 10, each unit having a slit in both transverse edges thereoi'. Each slit I5 in shingle J is made along a line extending parallel to the near side of the convex edge 9 .as shown in Fig. 10. Each slit ll in shingle K. starts at a point on a transverse edge in line with the extension of the remote side of the concave edge i4 and extends parallel to the near side of the concave edge. The shingle pairs are adapted to be laid with shingles J reversed as shown in Fig. 11 and with a slit 15 of shingle J interlocking with a slit 11 in shingle K. These pairs of units can be laid similarly to units G and H to produce all the roof constructions pointed out above.
The shingles of this invention may be cut from sheet roofing without substantial waste and can be laid in overlapping courses to cover a maximum amount of surface employing a minimum number of elements or minimum quantity of material. For example, the shingle of Fig. 1 or 3 can be made 14 inches wide and 16 inches long, having an area of 224 square inches. Such units can be laid as shown in Fig. 2 with a two inch overlap between adjacent units in the same course and a four inch average overlap between adjacent courses thereby exposing 144 square inches of each unit to the weather. Only one hundred such shingles are required to cover one hundred square feet of roof. This results in a considerable saving in material over other shingles of similar size now on the market which when laid with sufliclent overlap to produce an efficient covering have only about one-half of their surface exposed to the weather.
The chzvron shaped units can be applied on a roof or other surface even by unskilled workmen to produce an efficient, waterproof and weatherproof roof covering. Portions of the exposed sides of each shingle are inserted under and held down by portions of adjacent shingles in the same course thereby preventing the ends of the shingles from being blown up by the wind and rain from getting thereunder. The shingles are pleasing in appearance and may be applied to a roof surface to produce a variety of attractive and artistic designs as hereinabove described.
Since certain changes in the construction set forth may be made without departing from the scope of this invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense. a
1. A shingle having straight parallel transverse edges and parallel angular shaped forward and rear edges, the width of said shingle being approximately equal to its length, said shingle having a slit extending inward from one transverse edge thereof, said slit beginning at a point on the transverse edge in line with the remote side of the forward edge.
2. A shingle having straight parallel transverse edges of equal length, and angular-shaped parallel forward and rear edges each comprising two sides of equal length, said shingle having a slit in one transverse edge adjacent the forward edge thereof, said slit beginning at a point on the transverse edge in line with the remote side of the. forward edge and extending inward parallel to the near side of the forward edge.
3. A'flexible shingle having straight parallel transverse edges of equal length, and angular shaped parallel forward and rear edges, each of said forward and rear edges being constituted of angularly disposed portions of unequal length,said
shingle having a slit in one transverse edge adjacent the forward edge thereof, said slit extending inward in line with the remote side of the forward edge.
4. A roof construction comprising shingles laid in general alignment adjacent each other in courses with the lateral edge of one shingle overlapping the lateral edge of a shingle laid adjacent thereto in the course, said shingles each having an edge to be exposed formed with a, serrated outline, the portions of said outline adjacent the lateral edges of the shingle being symmetrical about a line in the shingle extending in the same general direction as the lateral edges of the shingle, said symmetrical portions of said outline in the same shingle not being in alignment with each other, said shingles being tilted in the course to position said symmetrical portion adjacent the underlapped lateral edge of the laterally underlapped shingle in spaced relation in the direction transverse to the course to the symmetrical portion ad- Jacent the overlapping lateral edge of the laterally overlapping shingle. a
5. A roof construction comprising'a plurality of rooting elements having lateral edges generally like-extending and having an edge extending transversely of the direction 01' said lateral edges, said transverse edge of said elements being formed jacent in the course, said elements being positioned in the course with the transverse edge thereof extending generally in the direction of the line of the course but with the dimension thereof whichis like-extending with said lateral edges extending at an angle other than a right angle to the direction of the course and at such an angle as to space in the direction transversely of the course said portions 01? adjacent elements which respectively are adjacent the overlapping lateral edges of said adJacent elements.
HENRY H. BAILEY.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5611186||Nov 30, 1994||Mar 18, 1997||Elk Corporation Of Dallas||Laminated roofing shingle|
|US5666776||Aug 30, 1995||Sep 16, 1997||Elk Corporation Of Dallas||Laminated roofing shingle|
|US8978332 *||Jun 22, 2012||Mar 17, 2015||Building Materials Investment Corp.||Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein|
|US9212487||Sep 28, 2005||Dec 15, 2015||Elk Premium Building Products, Inc.||Enhanced single layer roofing material|
|US9404260||Jan 15, 2015||Aug 2, 2016||Building Materials Investment Corporation||Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein|
|US20070068108 *||Sep 28, 2005||Mar 29, 2007||Elkcorp.||Enhanced single layer roofing material|
|US20130160389 *||Jun 22, 2012||Jun 27, 2013||Building Materials Investment Corp.||Roofing shingle system and shingles for use therein|
|USD369421||Mar 17, 1995||Apr 30, 1996||Elk Corporation Of Dallas||Random cut laminated shingle|
|U.S. Classification||52/523, D25/139|
|International Classification||E04D1/22, E04D1/12|