|Publication number||US2104869 A|
|Publication date||Jan 11, 1938|
|Filing date||Oct 22, 1935|
|Priority date||Oct 22, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2104869 A, US 2104869A, US-A-2104869, US2104869 A, US2104869A|
|Inventors||Levy Austin T|
|Original Assignee||Levy Austin T|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (20), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 11, 1938. A T, V 2,104,869
PREFABRI CATED BUILD ING Original Fi led Oct. 22, 1955- 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Jan. 11, 1938. T, LEVY PREFABRI CATED BUILDING Original Filed Oct. 22, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Jan. 1 I, 1938. A. T. LEVY PREFABRICATED BUILDING Original Filed Oct. 22, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet s Fri-Min Jan; 11, 1938-. A. T. LEVY PREFABRICATED BUILDING Original Filed Oct. 22, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 U m I w 4 Jan. 11, 1938. A. T. LEVY PREFABRICATED BUILDING Original Filed OC'ZL. 22, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 in br lII|I.I r1.
Patented Jan. 11, 1938 PATENT OFFICE.
2,104,869 PREFABRICATED BUILDING Austin '1. Levy, Harrisville, It. I.
Application 58 Claims.
My invention relates to prefabricated buildings. It has heretofore been proposed to make prefabricated buildings of va'rious forms of panels or slabs and then to assemble these panels or slabs to form the walls and other parts of the building. Such prefabricated structures have, however, been impractical for various reasons. .Thus', certain of the same have not possessed the necessary thermal, weather proofing or wearing qualities adapting them to practical use. Others have been of such construction or materials as to require such an expensive structure or expensive assembly as to bring the cost of the completed building far above practical limits. Still others have been of such character asinherently to require the completed building to be so unsightly or cheap or standardized in external or internal appearance as to compare unfavorably with standard built structures. Such panels formed in a large part of plastic materials and having outer and inner faces formed completely on thepanels before the assembly of the latter, also have been such as to require not only an abnormally long and expensive process of manufacture of the panels but also unduly expensive and extensive equipment to make the panels, including various molds and the like. This latter type also has presented marked difliculties as regards assembly and connection of the several panels into a wall, while also requiring the use of slow and expensive methods of assembly. Moreover; due to their excessive weight of from four hundred to five hundred pounds, not only are the panels excessively expensive to ship to the point of erection but the extensive use of hoists is required to handle the panels during as sembly and place them with nicety in their respective positions in the building. As a result of these various defects and others wellknown in the art, smallprogress has been made toward the development of practical prefabricated buildings adapted to supply the need for markedly less expensive buildings capable of being manufactured on a low cost production basis and shipped at small cost and inexpensively assembled.
My invention has among its objects to provide an improved prefabricated building. Further, its objects include the provision of a building, which, while having the desired thermal, weatherproofing and wearing. qualities, is also capable of being manufactured at a cost substantially less than heretofore, and is also capable of being erected with markedly increased facility and speed and with markedly less cost. A further object of my .vantages of the plastic type panels heretofore -of the illustrativehouse constructed in accord- October 22, 1935, Serial No. 46,156 Renewed October 7, 1937 invention is to provide such an improved building utilizing panels of an improved structure and which may be both inexpensively and quickly manufactured and assembled with a minimum of special equipment. Stillfurther objects of my 15 invention are to provide such an improved building and such improved panels, that it is made possible to produce a building, which, while having the above advantages and obtaining the ad- 10 proposed, also eliminates all,need for the use of heavy panels or the use of hoisting equipment in connection therewith. Other objects of my invention include improvements making possible, in addition to the above advantages, a markedly attractive completed structure capable of wide variation in exterior and interior finish and design. These and other objects and advantages of my invention will, however, hereinafter more fully appear. 20 In the accompanying drawings I have shown for purposes of illustration certain embodiments which my invention may assume in practice, the same being illustrated, for facility of illustration, in connection with a single storied house. However, it will be understoodthatmy invention in certain of its phases is in no wise limited to use in such a structure and that the same may be embodied in multi-storied houses and also in buildings of various other types, such, for example, as apartment houses and industrial and other buildings.
In these drawings: Fig. 1 is a perspective view of an outer corner 35 ance with my improvements, the same being shown as of a stucco type with a, shingle roof and with the various constituent wall panels or units indicated in dotted lines;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged perspective view of a portion of the corner of this house, with the outer stucco broken away to expose the adjacent corner panel units more clearly and with'portions of these units likewise broken away to facilitate i1- I lustration;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view of a side wall of my improved construction including the supporting and connecting means and with portions of the end panels and of the connecting means therefor and a part of the outer cement or stucco coating 50 broken away to facilitate illustration;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged side elevation of one of the units used in the panels, as this unit appears prior to applying thereto either the outer stucco coat or the inner plaster coat, i. e. in the form in which the unit is shipped and assembled, the same also being shown with the outer reenforcing wire broken away to facilitate illustration;
Fig. 5 is an edge view of the unit shown in Figure 4;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged detail view of a portion of the upper left-hand corner of the unit shown in Figure 4;
Fig. '7 is a like enlarged detail of a portion of the unit shown in Figure 4, and showing the attachment of the rods and reenforcing wire to the insulating material forming the base or body of the unit;
Fig. 8 is a sectional view on line 88 of Figure '7, showing a portion of the unit, but with the inner and outer plaster andstucco coats dotted thereon;
Fig. 9 is a like sectional view of a. coated portion of a unit on line 9-9 of Figure '7;
Fig. 10 is a View similar to Figure 8, showing a. form of unit adapted for inner partitions or the like and having plaster on opposite faces thereof;
Fig. 11 is a view similar to Figure 8, showing a modified construction utilizing only a single metal reenforcement Fig. 12 is a detail plan view, showing a fragment of an expanded metal reenforcement which may be used on one or both of the faces of' the unit;
Fig. 13 is a sectional view on line I3I3 of Figure 3;
Fig. 14 is a sectional view on line I l-I4 of Figure 3;
Fig. 15 is a detail sectional view on line I5|5 of Figure 3;
Fig. 16 is a view similar to Figure 14, showing a modified construction;
Fig. 17 is a perspective view of the foundation structure shown in Figures 1 and 2, with the super-structure removed and the bottom beams in place;
Fig. 18 is a perspective view ofthe corner of the building shown in Figure 1 with certain parts broken away to expose the several panels and their edge enclosing and connecting means and the roof supporting structure, a portion intermediate the top and bottom of the corner being omitted to facilitate illustration;
Fig. 19 is a. view similar to Figure 18 but at a point to the right of the corner shown in Figure 1, certain parts also being broken away to facilitate illustration;
Fig. 20 is an enlarged detail view of the portion of the structure above the foundation and at the left of the corner shown in Figure 1 and between the corner and the window illustrated therein, certain parts of this structure also being broken away to facilitate illustration;
Fig. 21 is a view similar to Figure 20 but with the panel and floor omitted to show the steel- Fig. 22 is a detail view showing one of the inner partitions in section and its connections to and support by the floor beams and the floor, and
Fig. 23 is a detail section of a modified corner metal frame structure.
In the illustrative construction, it will be noted that I have shown in Figure 1 a portion of a building made up of a plurality of panels, generally indicated at I, with the same assembled to form the Walls of the building and connected between a concrete foundation Zand a roof 3, herein illustrated as a shingle roof of the gable type; the panels I herein being all covered. with.
. jacent panel I in like manner in an external covering or surface of cement, such as'stucco or the like, and being of an improved construction and assembled and connected in an improved manner and subsequently coated externally with stucco d and internally with plaster 40., all as will hereinafter more fully appear.
Referring generally to Figure 1, it will be noted that each wall of the building illustrated comprises a series of panels I, each disposed vertically and edge to edge with another panel, while the several panels are united to form walls without any externally visible connections, the entire outer surface of the walls being of stucco or like external finish, illustrated at i. Further, it will be noted that the panels I in the walls below the eaves are all of the stame story height and Width so that each may be a duplicate of the other and that the wall may be assembled prior to coating by merely assembling a series of such panels I edge to edge between the roof support and the foundation 2. Further, it will be noted that certain panels, herein, for example, those carrying windows 5, are special panels in that each has a window set therein, the construction of these special panels not being claimed herein but in my copending application Serial No. 89,959, filed July 10, 1936. .The panels I above the roof supporting structure, though otherwise of the same structure, are of such special shape as to enable the gable end wall between the ceiling and the roof to be formed of one or more of these special panels so connected to and cooperating with the other panels and the roof supporting structure and the roof as to form a complete end wall.
Referring more particularly to the panel structure and first considering the same as used in a side wall, it will be noted that such a wall including a complete panel unit is shown in Figure 3 with the connections of the panel to the foundation and roof structure and with its connections to adjacent panels. These connections include edge connecting means which will hereinafter be more fully described. However, at this time, its is believed sufiicient merely to note that in the form shown herein the panel is supported and received in upright position with its bottom edge in a bottom channel fi-constituting a lower plate member and its'top edge similarly received in an oppositely disposed top channel 1, constituting an upper plate member and that the bottom channel 6 extends clear across the end or side of the house on top of the foundation 2. while the top channel I is similarly disposed and supported along the roof linge. Further, it should here be observed that between each vertical panel I and the next adjacent. panel, a reversely grooved connecting channel or stud member 8 is provided and suitably connected, as by welding, at its bottom and top in the bottom channel or sill 6 and top channel or plate I. that the panels I, when free from their external inner and outer plaster and stucco surfaces, form units which may be inserted singly between the channels 6 and 1 and have a connecting channel or stud 8 inserted and positioned between the channels 6 and I in such position as to position one unit and be ready to receive the next adthe assembled relation illustrated.
This general structure and-method of assembly is repeated in principle throughout the building, both in connection with the outer walls and the inner or partition walls. Also, it will be Thus, it will be evident and external walls.
have been thus assembled, the inner and outer surfaces of plaster and stucco are applied thereto in such manner as to produce smooth internal Before specifically considering the panel connecting means including the channels '6, l and 8 between the panels and the mounting means of these channels more in detail, or considering further detail in connection with the foundation structure or the roof structure,it is, however, believed to be important first to note more in detail the structure of the panel units in the. form in which they are manufactured,. shipped, and assembled during the erection of the building.
From Figures 4 to 9, showing a side wall panel,
the structure of these units, which, while the units may be of different shape, is preferably used in all units, will clearly appear. As shown, each unit includes a body formed of thermal insulating material presenting a board-dike center 9 on which the remainder of the unit isassembled. This member 9 may be formed of various materials which are adapted to be produced in board form, and which have the desired thermal qualities, while also preferably being of minimum weight. Although other materials may be used, one material which I find well adapted to my purposes is a compressed spruce wood product known commercially as Insulite. A board of this material which is relatively thin has the desired thermal qualities. Thus, for example, a board one inch thick is found adequate for use on outside panels under average conditions, although I do not in any way limit myself to this thickness as the same may be varied as will hereinafter appear. A board of this material further acts as a satisfactory support or frame upon which to build my improvedunit, while being so light as to enable the completed unit to be readily handled and placed in position by one man. In practice, I prefer to use a board comprising a single thickness of this material but, if desired, the board 9 may comprise a plurality of thicknesses of the same suitably attached together to form a laminated board. Also, if desired, the board 9 may be suitably coated or impregnated with fire-proofing material to increase the fire resistance characteristic of the panel. However,
in viewof the fire resistance provided by my improved structure hereinafter described, including particularly the inner and outer plaster and stucco coats and the reenforcing means provided between the same and the inner board 9, such further fire proofing of the board itself is ordinarily unnecessary. In'certain instances, I also cover the opposite faces thereof with building paper, illustrated at 9a, which may be of any suitable or usual type including aluminum coated paper or so-called foil sheetings adapted to prevent the entry of moisture while having high thermal insulating qualities, and also attached to the board in any suitable manner as by a suitable adhesive, or even nailed or stapled thereto or held thereon by the'rods' l9.
Upon this board 9, which may, in practice, vary in width, as desired, to meet particular circumstances, and over the paper 9a if used, I provide reenforcing means adapted to receive and clinch the inner and outer plastic coats mentioned which, are applied after the unit is assembled in the building. Herein, these reenforcing means include reenforcing rods III, herein of substantial cross section and strength and adapted effectively to prevent buckling orlateral bending of the board 9 and preferably spaced along the vertical side wall unit board 9 by suitable intervals, herein extending longitudinally, i. e. vertically, of each side of the board in parallel relation to one another, as illustrated. Note also that herein each end ll of each rod extends slightly beyond the top and bottom edge of the board 9. Further, it will be noted that over these rods ill I dispose suitable sheets of metal reenforcing and coating anchoring material, such as the usual woven wire l2 shown in Figures 6 and "7, or, if desired, expanded metal, I3, shown in Figure 12, and attach these sheets and the rods III to the board 9 by suitable connecting means. In a preferred construction, I may use suitable galvanized wire netting such as shown at l2 on both the inner and outer faces of the board comprised in the unit, or I may use only galvanized netting I2 on the external or weather face thereof, or ordinary expanded metal l3 on one or both faces or galvanize this metal if desired.
As a connecting means, it will also be noted that while various forms of connecting means may be provided for connecting the rods I on opposite sides of the board 9 to one another and also connecting the wire reenforcements I2 or I3, I preferably utilize a common connecting means for all of these elements. Herein, these means include a connecting wire l5 extended through suitably punched or otherwise formed adjacent parallel apertures l6 provided in the board 9 at spaced points along each rod 10. Thus, with the wires [5 originally in U-form, one may be readily projected from one surface'of the board 9 on opposite sides of one rod It on that face and through the wire reenforcement overlying that rod, until the open end of the U extends out through the opposite face of the board and on opposite sides of the rod thereon and through the wire reenforcement on that face. Then, by merely suitably twisting these extended or open ends of the wire, as indicated at II, it is possible securely to fasten the parts together in the single twisting operation.
' Here attention is further directed to the fact that as a result of the spacing of the reenforcing sheets I 2 or I3 from the board 9 by the rods I9, space is provided between each sheet and the board over each side face of the latter. Also, space is thus provided at the several edges of the unit to receive the channels 6, 1, 8. Further, in a preferred construction, a protruding edge I8 of the wire reenforcement l2 or l3 extends laterally beyond the right and left edges of the side wall board 9 shown in Figure 4, in such manner as thus to provide a substantial overlap at the side of each unit adapted to overlie the corresponding protruding edge It! on the next laterally adjacent unit. By reason of this overlap it will be observed that not only is a strong reenforcement provided between adjacent units when the same are assembled, but when the plaster and stucco coats are applied, effective clinchposition shown herein. /Thus, it is adapted to. have its upper and lower-edges receivedin the top channel I and bottom channel 6, respectively, ,while its vertical edges are receivable in the reversely grooved connecting channels 8 between adjacent units. Moreover, it will be noted that the unit thus formed is exceedingly strong, due not only to the provision of the spaced rods II) but also to their connection to the board 8 and the connection of both the rods and the inside and outside wire reenforcements l2 and I3 to the board. Here attention is also directed to the fact that by using these reenforcement sheets l2 or l3 with the same spaced from the board 9 on each side of the latter, it is made possible for the outer and inner coats of stucco and plaster not only to be securely attached or anchored to the unit but further materially to increase the strength of the structure in which such units are embodied.
In next considering the structure and arrangement of the channels 6, I and 8 and their mounting so as to receive and connect the several units described,'attention is directed to Figs. 36, 13 to 15 and 19.
As shown in these figures, it will be noted that the bottom channel 6 is seated directly upon the top of the concrete foundation wall 2 with its U arms extending upward and its bottom suitably connected tothe wall 2, as, for example, by angle bolts 28, suitably embedded in the wall 2 and having nuts 2| fixing the members 6 thereto, any suitable number of such bolts 28 being provided. Here also, it will be observed that at points opposite the bottoms of the several rods ID the side walls of the members 6 are provided with bent down extensions 22, preferably adjacent the bottom thereof, having suitable perforations therein through which the extremities ll of the rods l extend into suitable apertures 23 formed in the upper surface of concretefoundation 2. Thus, the members 6 provide notonly a support for the panel units but these channels 6 are interlocked with the units through the rodends I I and the perforated lugs 22 on the channels in such manner as effectually to prevent lateral displacement of the panels, while the upstanding flanges of the channels extend between the wire reenforcements l2, l3 and the opposite faces of the board 9 .in such manner as to enable both the plaster and stucco to be very firmly united or clinched to the unit after the latter has been thus placed in position in the wall.
Referring next to the channels 8, it will be noted that each of these members, as shown in Figs. and 19, is of substantially H shape and formed of two like members corresponding in shape to the members 6 and placed bottom to bottomand suitably connected, as, for example, by welding or riveting. After one panel unit has been placed in the channel 6, one of these channels 8 may be inserted at its lower end into channel 6 with one half of the member 8' enclosing the adjacent edge of the board of said unit and the other half of the member 8 extending oppositely to receive the edge of the next panel unit. Further, with the overlapping portions l8 of the wire reenforcement lying over the exposed side walls of the member 8, it will be evident that when the plaster and stucco coats are applied, the same will be very effectually bonded to the underlying structure over an area extending the full width of the channel 8 and with the overlapping portions l8 spaced from the outer metalportions of the channel 8 in such manner as also to enable eflectivefclinching or anchoring of the cementitious material.
Herein, as shown in Fig. 20, it will be noted of the other.
that the channels 8 are also fixed near their lower ends, as by short angle blocks 8a, to the upper ends of upstanding means, herein in the form of floor beams 24, which are in turn supported on the concrete foundation wall 2 on the.centers of the studs 8 inside the member 8 and fixed to the wall 2 by bolts 24a similar to the bolts heretofore described. Thus, with these beams connected to the several channels 8 along opposite side walls near the foundation line, it will be evident that the side walls will,
be efiectuallysupported during the remainder of the assemblyof the frame of the building, while of course being made rigid when the outer and inner plastic layers are applied to the reticulations associated with the units and their retaining channels. Further, it will be noted that the reenforced floor structure, herein including a usual metal reenforcement such as metal lath 25, or l3, lying on the tops of the beams 24 with a usual light brush coat 28 thereon and an upper concrete floor 21 subsequently poured thereon, further'serves to support and strengthen the frame and also the side wall structure to which the floor structure is, of course, connected at the edges of the latter.
Further, it will be noted that the member 7 is of the same general construction as the member 8 but inverted, and that the same is provided with corresponding lugs 22 adapted to receive the projecting ends ll of the rods 58, all in such manner as further to interlock and strengthen the structure, while positioning the units stably in the desired uprightposition when these channels I are attached at the roof line in the positions shown in Figs. 3 and 19.
As regards the support of the upper channel 5,
it will be noted that, as shown in Fig. 19, a joist or channel 28 likewise of H shape and similar to the channel 8 but disposed horizontally, instead of vertically, is carried on the top of the channel 1, a plurality of such channels 28 being supported on the several members 7 and connecting the same as shown in Fig. 18. Further, note that the adjacent edges of the corner panels are enclosed in upright corner studs, herein in the form of con nected channels 29 and 30, each similar to channels 6 or 1 but without lugs 22, and receivable vertically in the channels 6 and 7. As shown, these corner channels 29 and 38 are disposed with their channeled portions or grooves at right angles to one another to receive the adjacent edges of corner units disposed at right angles to each other, see Fig. 18. The manner in which the channel members 29 and extend into the lower and upper channel members at the corner of the building is shown in Fig. 18. Herein, these channels 29 and 30 are suitably connected together as by welding or riveting the bottom of one to one side With the several channels 28 disposed in suitable laterally spaced relation over the top channels 1, it will be evident that a rigid structure will be provided connecting the several top channels 1 and maintaining the several panel units in the desired relation. Also it will be observed that through the use of equally spaced rods II) on the panels 9, and the use of studs Band corner studs 29 and 38 similarly spaced from the reenforced portions of the panels i. e. directly over the rods which thus, in effect, form supplementary studs intermediate the panel studs. Further, with the upper end panel units l above the channels I at the end of the structure shown in Fig. 1, disposed in channels 3|, similar to the channels 6 and suitably fixed to the top of the channels 28, while inverted roof supporting chan nels 32, corresponding to the channels I, are suitably fixed to and braced on the channels 28, it will be evident that these upper end panels will also be securely fixed in position in substantially the same manner as the lower side' wall panel units.
.Referring more in detail to the ceiling and roof structure, itwill be noted that the channels 28 provide oppositely disposed grooves 33- adapted to receive narrow ceiling units, not shown, generally similar to the uni-tsused in the side walls and with: or without'reenforcing rods II) as desired,
which units are adapted to be located in these channels while also being effectually bonded togather and to the channels 28 by the cement and/ or plaster coats similar to those used on the upright walls. As regards the roof structure, attention is further directed ,to the fact that herein upturned channels 34, generally similar to the downturned channels 32 and suitably fixed to the tops of the latter, form roof joist supports disposed at a suitable angle to the channels 28 and are suitably connected thereto by bolts 35 and stirrup members 36 suitably fixed to the-ends of the channels 28. Accordingly, with joists 31 disposed in these channels 34 and attached by bolts 35, with any desirable overhang for the eaves extending beyond the bolts 35, these joists may be covered in a usual manner with roofers 38, which in turn may be covered with usual shingles 39 illustrated, although obviously the particular roof surface may be varied as desired. No claim is made herein to the particular roof structure shown in Figures 18 and 19, this being claimed in a divisional application Serial No. 129,091, filed March 4, 1937.
A suitable construction for internal partitions is shown in Fig. 22. Here, it will be noted that the beams 24 carry the fioor 25, 26 and 21 heretofore described and are connected by angle blocks 40 to upright channels 4|, corresponding to the channels 8, and to channels 42. -Here these channels 4B are used to connect the adjacent partition units seated in bottom and top channels 42, of which only the bottom channel is shown, and which are generally similar to the channels 6 and 1 used with the outer wall units as heretofore described. It will also be understood that where it is desired to have the fioor poured before the partitions are placed, suitable anchor bolts, such as the bolts 20, may be embedded in the floor and used to anchor the channels 42 thereto in the same manner in which the channels 6 are' atboards used in these partition units, and further,
if desired, ordinary ungalvanized expanded metal lath, such as I3; gFig. 12) may be used therein as the reenforcementson both sides of the partition units since these are not exposed to the elements. No claim is made hereinto the particularpartition structure shown herein, the same being claimed in my copending application Serial No. 161,268, filed August 27, 1937, a continuation in part of my application Serial No. 89,960, filed July 10, 1936.
In constructing the building in accordance. with my improvements, the foundation wall 2 is first poured, preferably with suitable provision in the molds for providing apertures for the ends ll of the rods in of the various units and also preferably with the holding bolts or members 20, 24a,
embedded in the concrete in the proper positions. Then, the beams 24 are laid and connected and the members 6 fixed in position. Thereafter, the several panel units, which are shipped to the point of erection prior to coating,.i. e. in the condition shown in Fig. 4, are placed in the assembled relation to their several lower and side edge nels 8 being fixed to the beams 24 by the angle blocks 8a. After the frame, walls, and partitions have been thus built up and the top channels 1 have been, placed in position and suitably connected, the roof supporting structure as heretofore described, may be erected. The reenforced cement floor may be put in after the walls are assembled, and, after this floor has been'poured, the inner and outer plastic layers may be applied to the several units in such manner as to unite. the same and provide a unitary structure. However, in a preferred form, the flooris poured before the walls are assembled and the interior par-' titions are placed, the anchor bolts 20 for the channels 42 being embedded in the concrete as it is poured in order to provide means for securely tying the interior partitions to the floor. Here, of course, it will be understood that the above outlined general procedure may be varied, but it will also be understood that an important point is that the walls of the building, and if deenclosing channels previously described, the chan-,
sired, the partitions and ceilings, are assembled from the light uncoated units and connected in their various channels, and that then, after this assembly, these units are coated on their opposite faces in such manner as to produce in efiect an integral structure.
'As a result of my improved construction, it is made possible to reduce the expense of prefabricated buildings very substantially. For example, as compared with suchprior buildings of which I am advised, it is possible to produce a substantially equivalent building and in many respects a better and more attractive and saleable building, whilev reducing the cost by onethird to one-half. Further, it will be noted that the, structure and methddemployed are such as I to enable my improved prefabricatedbuilding to be adapted to quantity production and to markedly quick manufacture and erection. Thus, while utilizing inexpensive materials, if desired the needed panel units and the various steel frame elements, including the beams and light steel channels may be made up at low cost in quantity at the factory and shipped to the point of erection asneeded while unassembled and veryinexpensively, while all are adapted to be readily and quickly assembled at the selected site upon completion of the foundation thereon. As a result, it will be observed that all necessity for the manufacture and shipment from the factory of heavy panels is eliminated, since all of the sand, cement, plaster, etc. and--other.-bu1k materials may be obtained locally if desired or. shipped in bulkt to the fact that the building is further capable of being erected without requiring any special panel handling equipment such as hoists. Mo eover no substantial quantity of special work is required during erection of the super structure on the foundation, all of the various frame members and units being capable of being suitably marked or'identified at the factory so that the erection involves only a simple assembly operation. This, under adequate supervision, also can be carried out by relatively unskilled labor quite quickly, easily, and satisfactorily without the use of special equipment. bers may be readily and quicklyplaced in position and connected, largely by wrench work or welding, and the several units may be manually fitted therein during assembly, all without requiring heavy lifting, due to the light character of the individual steel frame members and of the units. It will also be particularly noted that, due to the application of the, outer and inner stucco and plaster coats after the 'frame work and units have been assembled, and particularly to the improved bonding or clinching" of these coats to the units made possible by my improved construction, it is made possible to minimize the difficulties due to cracking or settling, heretofore incident to the use of completely molded and coated units connected together after assembly. Further, it will be evident that with the inner and outer coats of plaster or cement applied after the assembly of the frame and unit struc ture in the building, itis possible not only to obtain wide variation in the internal and external finish" but also, to vary the external appearance within wide limits, as, for example, by using external timbers located in any appropriate design or arrangement on the frame work relative to the external stucco. Attention is further directed to the wide variation in arrangement of the fioor plan made possible while utilizing the several units in the walls and partitions and using the connecting and supporting frame means herein described. These and other advantages of my improved construction will, however, be clearly apparent to those skilled .in the art.
It will be evident that in my improved c'onstruction, various features of the same may be .modified in various respects while continuing to obtain the above advantages. Thus, :for example, instead-of the corner edge enclosing channels 29 and 30 shown in Figure 18, I may, if desired, use the corner construction shown in Figure 23 and similarly locate it in the channels '6. In Figure '23 it will be noted that while channels 45 and 46 are arranged to'extend at right angles and receive the edges of-the adjacent units as in the construction shown in Figure 18, the chan-- nel 46 is disposed laterally relative to the channo] 45, while an additional channel 41, more shallow than either of the channels 45 or '46, is also used. This channel 41, as illustrated, abuts the bridging portion or'webof the channel and is so disposed that its flanges or U-arms extend out flush with the surface of the outer flange of the channel 45, whilethe web or bridging part of this channel 46* also extends to a point sub-' stantially midway vertically of the channel 45. In this construction, which is especially adapted to use where a reenforced corner is desired for Thus, the several frame memany. reason, it will be evident that the same will have, when the several channels 45, 4B and 41 are suitably united, additional strength due to the provision of two double thicknesses .of metal at right angles to. each other and to the additional outer vertical edge stn'p all provided by the channel 41 in this arrangement.
4 Here it will also be evident that this structure is adapted to effectual bonding, with the wire of the several units extended as necessary over the metal at the edges thereof, while the space-between the arms of the channel 41 may also be utilized for cement. In Figure 16, I have also shown a modified construction usable in connection with the bottom and top channels 6 and 1, if desired, in lieu of that illustrated in Figure 14. In this construction, it. will be noted that a channel 48 is provided which is wider than the channel 6, and that this channel 48 extends up outside the .rods l0. These, in turn, are projected through apertures 49 in the bottom of the channel 48 into sockets or apertures 50 in the foundation 2,
corresponding to the apertures 23 heretofore de-' scribed, while the metal reenforcement comprising the wire l2 or exparided metal l3 extends downward outside the vertical flanges of the channel 48. Such a construction, it will be noted,
eliminates the necessity for providing the lugs 22 on the channel while definitely positioning the panel against lateral displacement through theengagement of the opposite sides of the rods with the faces of the panel and the inside surfaces of the channel, and permitting the. anchoringmaterial to be effectively disposed outside the bottom channel and extend down to the foundation in such manner as to provide effective bonding. In Figure 11, I haveefurther shown a form of unit which, while not preferred, may also be used under certain conditions. In this unit, it will be noted that only a single sheet of metal lath l2 or l3 and one set of rods I0 is attached to. the board ID by the wire I5, the metal renforcement in this case being applied only on the outer face of the board. In the use of this construction, it will be understood that the outer or stucco coat 4 is applied to the outer face with the reenforcement thereon as heretofore described, while the inner or plaster coat 4:; is applied to the inner face of the board 9, and that paper 9a is used on one or both sides of the board, or omitted, as conditions require. This construction also is not preferred, by reason' of its omission of the second reenforcing sheet andcooperating rods and the consequent loss of clinching effect, as well as the manufacturing and assembling complications incident to the use of the special structure with only one set of protruding rod ends H, but the same may be used under certain conditions. It will also be understood that between the plaster 4a and the board 9, a reenforcing sheet l2 may be inserted if desired in this construction and directly connected to the board without using rods I0 therewith. Here attention is also directed to the fact that, where the dimensions of the building require, though not shown, suitable Lally? columns may be used within the foundation 2 in scribed several embodiments which my invention may assume in practice, it will be understood that the same are shown for purposes of illustration and the invention may be modified and embodied in various other forms without departing from its spirit or the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a prefabricated building, a wall frame presenting a plurality of panel apertures, panel units assembled therein each comprising a wall board of story height positioned at its edges by said frame, said units being in side by side relation and having on an outer-surface thereof external anchoring sheet material overlying said boards and a frame portion between said units, and a coating of cementitious material clinched by said sheet material and uniting said units.
2. In a prefabricated building, a metallic wall frame including plate and stud members presenting a plurality of panel apertures, insulating wall boards of story height having their upper and lower edges engaged and positioned by the plate members and their side edges engaged and positioned by the stud members, said stud members spacing apart the adjacent edges of said boards, coating anchoring sheets applied to facesof the boards and laterally overlapping exposed per-.-
tions of-said stud members, and a coating an-' chored by said sheets and extending over the boards and the exposed portions of the studs and covering the interveninglateral spaces between the boards.
3. In a prefabricated building, a metallic wall frame including plate and stud members of which the former are of channel form, wall boards of story height having their side edges spaced apart and positioned by said stud members and positioned at their upper and lower edges in the channels of the plate members, anchoring sheets applied to faces of the boards and overlapping the stud members, and a coating extending over the boards and the spaces between them and anchored by said sheets.'
4. In a prefabricated building, a metal wall framework including channeled plate members,
channeled stud members inserted into and connected to said plate members, and wall panels of storyheight having their edges engaged in the channels of the plate members and stud members.
5. In a prefabricated building, a wall frame having members including double channel studs presenting a plurality of laterally adjacent panel receiving apertures, panels of story height within said apertures each having its side edges positioned in channels of adjacent studs and having a coating anchoring sheet applied to a face of the panel, said sheets overlapping exteriorly the flanges of said studs, and a coating on said sheets covering said panels and" said studs. I
6. In a prefabricated building, a wall frame having a channeled plate member, spaced stud members, a wall panel in said frame positioned by said plate member and stud members and extending into the channel of the plate member, and reenforcing means carried by said panel at a face thereof including reenforcing rods having end portions positioned by said plate member.
7. In a prefabricated building, a wall frame comprising plate members and stud members forming a panel aperture, a panel of storyheight V members whereby said panel is positioned against inward and outward displacement, anchoring sheet material applied to said panel over said rods, and coatings anchored by said sheet material.
- 8; In a prefabricated building, a wall frame having a plate member and a panel aperture, a panel in said aperture adjacent said plate member, and reenforcing means carried by said panel at a face thereof and including rods projecting ---endwise beyond the panel and engaging sockets in the plate member whereby the panel and plate member are interlocked.
9. In a prefabricated building, a wall comprising panel units, a channel member disposed between said units and having channel portions receiving the adjacent edges thereof, coating anchoring sheets on said units overlying the flanges frame, and a coating anchoring sheet spaced from said board by said members.
11. A building comprising a foundation wall, horizontal channel members fixed to said wall and forming a corner, vertical channel members seated in said horizontal channel members at the corner and having their channels or grooves at right angles to each other, wall panels having edges engaged in thechannels of the horizontal and vertical channel members and carrying coating anchoring sheet material overlying said channel members and panels, and a coating extending over said panels and said channel members and anchored by said sheet material.
12. A building comprising a foundation wall, horizontalsill members fixed to said wall and forming a corner, vertical channels rising from said members at the corner, and wall panels carrying at their faces coating anchoring sheet material, saidvertical channels including channel members receiving the adjacent edges of the panels and over which the sheet material is latlerally extended and a third channel member located at the corner secured to each of the last mentioned channel members.
along the foundation adjacent the ends of the beams, channeled studs adjacent the .ends of the beams extending at their lower ends into the sill, wall panels having lateral edges received in said studs and lower edges received in said sill, a floor supported by said beams above the lower ends of said panels, and means adjacent the upper portions of the beam ends and connected to the studs at points spaced above their lower ends for bracing the studs.
'14. In a building, a foundation wall, beams provided with upper flanges and having their ends supported by said wall, a light channeled sill member supported by said wall and extending across and in front of the lower portions of the beam ends but below the upper portions of said ends, channeled studs within and rising from said sill member, panels engaging the channels of the sill member and studs, a floor fit supported by said beams, and members connected to the upperfianges of said beams for bracing said studs.
15. In a prefabricated, building, the combination of superposed tiers of panels, the panels of the lower tier being of story height, and a wall frame in which said panels are. set for positioning the same including an intermediate member at substantially the ceiling level having a downwardly facing channel receiving the upper ends of the lower panels and an upwardly facing channel receiving the lower ends of the upper panels.
16. A building comprising a foundation, a channeled sill membersecured thereto, wall panels comprising boards with upright reenforcing rods applied to the faces thereof set in said sill with portions of said rods within the sill member, and coating anchoring sheet material applied to said boards over said rods and extending over the sill member at the sides thereof.
17. A building comprising a channeled plate member, and a wallpanel comprising a board with upright reenforcing rods applied to opposite faces thereof set Within said member with portions of the rods within the side walls of the member in substantial contact therewith.
18. A building comprising a foundation, a channeled sill secured thereto, and a wall panel comprising a board with upright reenforcing rods applied to opposite faces thereof set within the sill with portions of the rods within the sill and engaging the side walls thereof, the lower ends of said rods extending through the bot tom of the sill into sockets in the'foundation.
19. In a building, a wall panel having upright reenforcing rods applied to opposite faces thereof, and a channeled member receiving one edge of said panel and having said rods disposed within the channel thereof between the panel body and the side walls of the channeled member, said rods having outer surfaces substantially in engagement with the inner surfaces of the side walls of said member. I
20. A building structure comprising a corner stud presenting cooperating connected channels disposed at right angles to each other, panels received in said channels, and plate means overlying the upper end of said stud and fixed thereto, said panels having external anchoring sheets extending over said channels, and a coating over the panels and stud anchored by said sheets.
21. A building structure comprising a corner stud presenting cooperating connected channels disposed at rightangles to each other and a channel at the corner of said stud, panels of story height received in the first mentioned channels, plate means overlying said stud and fixed thereto, sill means underlying said stud and fixed thereto, coating anchoring sheets applied tosaid panels and extending over said channels, and a coating over said panels and stud anchored by said sheets.
22. A building comprising a foundation, a sill on the foundation at one side thereof, a plurality of wall studs at the last named side of the foundation connected at their lower ends to said sill, and upstanding means associated with the foundation at the last named side thereof and connected to said studs at points above their lower ends to brace the studs.
23. A building comprising a foundation, beams on said foundation extending to a side of the building, a sill extending along the foundation adjacent the ends of said b'eams, a plurality of wall studs at the last named side of the foundation supported at their lower ends on said sill, means for connecting the beam ends to said foundation, and means adjacent the upper portions of the beam ends for connecting said beams to said studs.
24. In a building, a foundation wall, a sill on said wall, a plurality of upstanding studs comprising oppositely disposed channels having inner and outer flanges and disposed on said sill at spaced points along said wall, and beams having ends supported along said'wall on the centers of said studs and having a bracing connection to said studs.
and a cementitious coating over the panels; and
stud anchored by said sheet means.
26. In a prefabricated building, a wall frame including a support, a corner stud thereon presenting two cooperating connected channels disposed at right angles to each other in alignment with angularly related walls and a third channel at the corner of said stud, and angularly related plate means fixed to the upper end of said stud, panels forming adjacent angularly related walls disposed under said plate'means and having their proximate edges received in said angularly related channels, anchoring sheet means extending over the channels of said corner stud and the adjacent panels, and a cementitious coating over the panels and stud anchored by said sheet means.
27. In a building, a wall comprising spaced studs having oppositely disposed channels, wall panels between said studs having bodies whose edges are seated in opposite channels, coating anchoring sheet material extending over the panels and studs and spaced therefrom, and coatstory height in'said spaces, means extending over a the panel faces of adjacent panels and a stud member therebetween for anchoring cementitious material, means for positioning the upper'ends of said panels with respect to said 'upperplate member, a wall supporting structure, and means for positioning the lower ends of said panels with I respect to said supporting structure.
29. In a building, a wall comprising a plurality of spaced studs having oppositely disposed channels, panels between said studs having bodies received at their edges in opposing channels, external coating anchoring sheet material extending over the studs as well as over the'panels and spaced therefrom, a plate member extending above said panels and engaged therewith toprevent lateral dislocation thereof, and a coating applied to and clinched by said sheet material'at each face of the wall.
30. In a building, a wall comprising a plurality of studs, panels of story height between said studs, upright reenforcing rods applied to the faces of said panels, positioning means for said panels engaging the upper end portions of said rods, and
. said panels and overlapping said stud and alsoother positioning means for said panels engaging the lower end portions of said rods.
31. In a building, a wall comprising spaced studs having oppositely disposed channels, wall panels of story height having bodies whose edges are received in opposing channels, upright reenforcing rods applied to the faces of said panels, coating anchoring sheet material applied to the panels over said rods and spaced thereby from the panels, a plate member connected to said studs andoverlying said panels and engaging said rods, means for positioning the lower ends of said panels, and coatings applied to opposite faces of the wall and anchored by said sheet material.
32. In a building, a stud having oppositely disposed channels, panels having bodies whose edges are received in said channels, coating anchoring sheets applied to and spaced from the faces of overlapping each other over the, stud, and coatings applied to and clinched around said anchoring sheets and covering the panels and stud;
33. In a building, a wall including a support,
a plurality of channeled studs thereon, wall panels supported on saidsupport and interposed between said studs, an upper plate member extending over said studs, and means including locking rods fixed to said panels for interlocking said panels with said plate member.
34. In a prefabricated building, a wall structure comprising a metal frame including studs and a plate member cooperating with said studs to present panel apertures between said studs, panels in said apertures having edges positioned by said studs and by said plate member; and load supporting structure carriedby said wall struc-' ture and including joists fixed to said plate member and disposed over studs on opposite sides of said panels for'relieving the load on said panels.
35. In a prefabricated building, a wall structure comprising a metal frame including channeled studs and a channeled plate member cooperating with said studs to present panel apertures between said studs and having. an upper load supporting surface, panels in said apertures including panel boards having edges positioned by said studs and by said channeled plate member, and load supporting structure carried by said supporting surface and including joists supported on the load supporting surface of said plate member and disposed over studs'on oppo-- site sides of each panel for relieving the load on said panels.
36. In a prefabricated building,- a wall structure comprising a corner frame including a channeled corner stud and channeled, cooperating studs spaced from said comer stud and angu- -larly related plate members cooperating with said studs to present panel apertures on difierent' sides of said corner stud, panels in said apertures having edges positioned by said studs and by said plate members, and a load' carrying structure of the panels disposed beneath said other plate member.
37. In a prefabricated building, a wall structure comprising a metal frame including channeled studs and a plate member cooperating therewith to present panel apertures, panels in said apertures having their edges positioned by said studs and carrying reenforcing and anchoring material spacing rods positioned by said plate member, and load supporting means carried by said wall structure. and having means including' joists fixed to said plate member and disposed over said studs for relieving the load on said panels, and co-operating intermediate joists disposed over the upper ends of said rods.
38. In a prefabricated building, a plurality of wall frames having marginal portions presenting panel apertures, said frames being operatively connected and disposed in a wall, panels in said apertures, and reenforcing means having spaced reenforcing elements for said panels carried thereon and extending across the junction be-' tween said frames.
39. In a prefabricated building, a plurality of wall frames having marginal portions prasenting panel apertures, said frames being operatively connected and disposed in awall, panels in said apertures, and reenforcing rods for said panels carried thereon and extending across the junction between said frames, said frames being disposed one above another and said reenforcing rods being vertically disposed. 25
tending across the junction between said frames,
said marginal portions including studs and transverse connectingmembers therebetween and said reenforcing means comprising spaced rods positioned by said transverse members at the top of one frame and at the bottom of the other and extending across the intermediate transverse members.
42. In a prefabricated building, a plurality of wall frames having marginal portions including channel studs and transverse channel members connecting said studs and presenting panel apertures, said frames being disposed one above another in a wall, panels in said apertures and having their edges disposed in said channeled studs and members, and reenforcing means for said panels carried thereon and extending across the junction between said frames, said reenforcing means comprising spaced rods positioned by the upper transverse channel member of one frame and the lower transverse channel member of the other and extending across the junction between said frames.
p 43. In a prefabricated building, a gable structure comprising an end wall frame having marginal portions, a gable roof supporting wall frame having marginal portions and connected to and disposed above said end frame, panels in said frames positioned by" said marginal portions, and reenforcing rods carried by said panels and extending across the junction of said frames.
44, In a prefabricated building, a gable structure comprising an end wall frame having marginal portions, a gable roof supporting wall frame having marginal portions and connected to and disposed above said end frame, panels in said frames positioned by said marginal portions, and
also having intermediate ginal portions, a gable roof supporting wall frame.
having marginal portions and connected'to and disposed above said end frame, panels in said frames positioned by said marginal portions, and reenforcing means carried by said panels and extending across the junction of said frames, said marginal portions comprising channel members and said reenforcing means comprising rods having their remote ends positioned by the channels at the top and bottom of different frames and portions connected to the junction of said frames.
46. ;In 'a building, a Wall comprising a plurality of panel boards of story height in laterally associated relation to each other, a light metal frame work including lower and upper plate members and studs extending between said members, said studs being located between said boards and positioning their lateral edges, said plate members positioning said boards at their upper and lower edges, coating anchoring material applied to said boards and extending over said boards and studs at opposite faces of the wall, and coatings an- .chored'by said material.
47. In a prefabricated building, a frame comprising lower and upper plate members and interposed studs forming a plurality of panel apertures each extending from the lower to the upper plate member and from one stud to an ad-' :iacent stud, and panels comprising insulating material set within the respective apertures and carrying reenforcing elements in positioning engagement with said plate members, coating anchoring material applied to said panels, and a coatinganchored by said materiaL. I
48. In a prefabricatedbuilding, a frame comprising lower and upper plate members and interposedstuds forming a plurality of panel apertures each extending from the lower to the upper plate member and from one stud to an adjacent stud, and panels comprising insulating material set within the respective apertures and carryin reenforcing elements extending over faces thereof and provided with portions adjacent margins of the panels in positioning engagement with said plate members, coating anchoring sheet material carried by said panels and disposed oversaid elegents, andia coating anchored by said sheet marial.
49. In abuilding, a wall comprising a plurality of panel boards of story height in laterally associated relation to each other,each of said boards having applied to opposite faces thereof coating anchoring sheet material, a light'metal framework including lower and upper plate members and studs extending between said members in the plane thereof, said studs being located between said boards and having oppositely disposed pairs of flanges positioning their lateral edges,
said plate members positionifig' sa'id boards against inwanif and outward displacement at 5 their upper and loweredges, the coating anchoringlmaterial extending over said boards also being extended over said-studs; and coatings at the oppositefaces oflahe wall anchored by said ma- 7 terial.
50. :In a building, a wall comprising a plurality of panel boards of story height in laterallyassociated relation to each other, each of said boards having applied to opposite faces thereof coating anchoring sheet material, a light metal framework including upper and lower plate members and studs extending between said members, said studs being located between said boards and p0- sitioning their lateral edges, said plate members positioning said boards at their upper and lower edges and at least one of said plate members being in the form of a channel receiving ends of said studs and horizontal edges of said boards and over which said sheet material is extended, and coatings at the opposite faces of the wall anchored by said sheet material 51. In a building, a wall comprising a plurality of laterally associated panel boards of story height, upright reenforcing rods applied to opposite faces of said boards, coating anchoring material applied to opposite faces of said boards,
from the board faces by said rods and having por-Q tions extending over the sides of said plate member, and coatings-anchored by said sheet material.
53. Ina building, a wall comprising a panel board of story height having reenforcing rods applied to its opposite faces and extending adjacent a horizontal edge thereof, a plate member in the form of a channel cooperating with said board and rods adjacent said edge in positioning said board, coating anchoring sheet material spaced from said board by said rods, and coatings anchored by said sheet material.
54. In a building, a wall comprising a plurality of laterally associated panel boards, a horizontal channeledv frame member receiving horizontal edges of said boards, upright channeled frame members extending into said first channeled member and receiving lateral edges of said boards, coating anchoring sheets carried by the boards and having marginal portions extending over said horizontal member and said upright members, and a coating anchored by said sheets.
55. In a prefabricated building; a wall comprising a plurality of panel boards of story height and a light metal framework including lower and upper plate members and studs extending between said members, said studs being located between said boards and positioning their lateral edges,
- said plate members being constituted by channels I prising a plurality of panel boards of story height reenforcing rods applied to opposite faces of said boards and having portions adjacent the upper and lower margins of the boards, coating anchoring sheet material spaced from the boar d faces'by said rods, a metal framework inv eluding lower and upper plate members and" studs extending between saidv members, said plate members being constituted by channeled elements receiving the adjacent edges of the boards and portions of said rods, said elements likewise receiving the end portions of said studs, said studs each having channels receiving lateral edges of adjacent boards, said anchoring sheet material extending over said studs and over the plate members, and coatings at opposite faces of the wall anchored by said sheet material.
57. A wall unit for prefabricated buildings in which wall panels are positioned within frame apertures formed by upper and lower plate members and interposed stud members, said unit comprising an insulating panel board of story height having upright reenforcing rods applied to 0pposite faces thereof and provided with end portions adjacent the upper and lower edges of the board for engaging the plate members, and coating anchoring sheets for anchoring coatings at opposite sides of the wall spaced from the board faces by said rods and having marginal portions adapted to extend over the stud members and plate members.
58. A prefabricated building including a foundation presenting a wall support, beams supported on said wall support, a frame on said wall support providing wall panel receiving apertures and including a bottom channel member fixed to said support and studs comprising reversely disposed vertical channels having their lower extremities extending within said member between adjacent apertures and having portions above said extremities fixed to the ends of said beams, and wall panels having lower edges received in said channel member and side edges received in the stud channels.
AUSTIN T. LEVY.
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