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Publication numberUS2105528 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 18, 1938
Filing dateApr 8, 1932
Priority dateApr 8, 1932
Publication numberUS 2105528 A, US 2105528A, US-A-2105528, US2105528 A, US2105528A
InventorsFoisy George A
Original AssigneeWinchester Repeating Arms Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Disintegrating bullet
US 2105528 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 18, 1938. A o sy 2,105,528

DISINTEGRATING B LLET Filed April 8, 1932 INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 18, 1938 UNITED STATES DISINTEGRATING BULLET George A. Foisy, New Haven, Conn, assignor. to Winchester Repeating Arms Company, New

Haven, Conn, a. corporation of Maryland Application April 8, 1932, Serial No. 603,962

' 13 Claims.

This invention relates to ammunition and more particularly to bullets for cartridges for small arms ammunition.

In the manufacture of bullets for use in shoot- 5 ing galleries, efforts have been made to produce a disintegrating bullet. In the use of lead bullets, there is danger involved in the spattering of the metal formingthe bullet when it hits a target of sheet metal or other.'material harder than the lead from which'thefbullet is formed. Injuries have resulted to shootersfrom particles of the bullet rebounding fromjthe target. The incorporation of other'metalswith the lead in the bullet to form a. separation of-fthe lead particles and prevent amalgamation thereof will provide a bullet havingthe power of penetrating wood or useful in shooting game but which will disintegrate when it strikes a target of sheet metal or other material harder than the metal forming the bullet. Heretofore efforts to produce such bullets have been unsuccessful because the bullets so formed have been incapable of having a grease groove formed in the surface by the loading machine, or in any other satisfactory manner. It is essential that the bullet be provided with a grease groove .to retain grease for lubricating the chamher and the inside of the barrel of an automatic gun. If the groove is not provided the bullets must be greased immediately before use and it is the usual practice to provide this groove so that the grease may be applied to the bullet and the bullet stored'for any desired length of time before use.

I have found that a disintegrating-bullet may be produced by employing a mixture of lead and.

another metal or metals. The mixture is extruded in the form of a wire and, the extrusion produces a continuous non-brittle surface in which a grease groove may be formed in the loading ma- 40 chine in the usual way. The formation of this non-brittle surface by extruding the mixture of lead and the other metal used therewith also permits the upper edge of the cartridge shell to be crimped into the bullet to prevent accidental displacement of the bullet. The crimping at the top of the shell also retains the gas in the shell until the proper pressure has been attained and the proper velocity is thus obtained when the cartridge is discharged. Various metals may be v0 mixed with lead for the purpose of producing a disintegrating bullet. It is necessary that these metals be harder than lead in order to obtain the desired separation of the lead particles and prevent amalgamation. Among the metals which may be employed are zinc and antimony and I may also employ various alloys, such as brass. I may also use a mixture of lead and copper plated lead shot, the copper plated lead shot functioning as the harder metal to produce the separation of lead particles in the extruded wire from which 5 the bullets are formed. In place of copper plating, plating of other metals, harder than lead, may be employed.

In a specific embodiment of the invention I employ a mixture of substantially parts of lead and 20 parts of zinc. The proportions may be varied within wide limits. Lead in small particles may be used and I preferably employ lead in the form of dust shot capable of passing through a 20 mesh screen. Any other finely divided lead may be used. In the proportions stated above, I preferably employ granulated zinc capable of passing through a 20 mesh screen and being retained on a mesh screen. The size of the zinc particles may be Varied within wide limits and, as a general rule, the quantity of zinc or other metal mixed with the lead will be less when."

' the metal is finely divided and. greater when the metal is in a coarser form. The lead and zinc, or other metal, in proper proportions, are thoroughly mixed and then fed to an extruding machine. In the extrusion operation a wire is formed of proper diameter to produce a calibre of bullets desired. The extruded wire differs from lead wire formed by extrusion in that the particles of lead are separated from each other by the harder metal mixed with it and the wire is, therefore, more brittle. The surface of the wire, however, is continuous and non-brittle and is capable of being worked to the extent of the formation of the usual grease groove and to the extent of crimping the cartridge shell into the surface of the bullet. The formation of a wire of this character is obtained by properly controlling the pressure during extrusion. If the pressure is too great, even though a mixture of lead and a harder metal is used, the particles of lead do not remain separated to the desired extent and the wire will not produce a disintegrating bullet. The desired pressure will vary within wide limits with different sized tools and with different mixtures of lead and other metals. With the specific mixture, set forth above, I have found that a pressure of about 60,000 pounds per square inch produces the desired result. g 50 After the wire having the above characterlstics, has been formed, it is sheared into blanks of the proper size to produce the bullet and is then shaped and fed to a loading machine of the character generally employed in the manufacture mt i y of ammunition, In the loading machine primed shells are first loaded with the proper amount of propellant powder and the bullet then inserted. The cartridge shell with the bullet in place is then fed between two discs and the upper end of the cartridge shell is crimped into the surface of the bullet and a grease groove formed in the bullet. These operations are carried out in the usual manner heretofore employed with lead bullets of the non-disintegrating type and a more detailed description of them is, therefore, deemed unnecessary. However, in prior attempts to form a disintegrating bullet, the surface of the mixture of lead and other harder metal was not capable of being worked in this manner in the loading machine.

In the accompanying drawing I have diagrammatically illustrated the manufacture of the billlet and the completed cartridge. In the drawing:

Fig. 1 is an elevation of a blank sheared from the extruded wire;

Fig. 2 is a vertical, sectional view of the blank after the first step in the formation of the bullet;

Fig. 3 is a similar view of the bullet after the second step in the formation of the bullet;

Fig. 4 is a vertical, sectional view of a cartridge with the bullet in place showing. the cartridge case crimped into the bullet and showing the grease groove formed in the bullet; and,

Fig. 5 is an enlarged, sectional view on line 5-5 of Fig. 1.

Referring to the drawing, the reference nu meral l designates a blank which is sheared or otherwise severed from the extruded wire formed in the manner heretofore described. As stated,

the blank consists of a mixture of lead and a harder metal or alloy or of lead particles, some of which are coated with a harder metal. As shown-in Fig. 5 of the drawing, the pressure exerted during the extruding operation is controlled to produce a blank, the interior of which consists of separated particles, the lead particles being spaced from each other by the particles of harder metal. The interior structure is indicated by the reference numeral 2. In the interior structure of the blank, as shown, the lead particles surrounding the particles of harder metal act as a binder to retain the particles assembled. As shown in Fig. 5 of the drawing, the metal adjacent the surface is compacted to a much greater extent than the central portion of the blank and is thus submitted to an operation similar to ironing or pressing. This produces a continuous surface or skin, indicated at 3, which is capable of being worked to the exteninnecessary to roduce a grease groove and to permit crimping of the upper end of the cartridge shell into the bullet.

In Fig. 2 of the drawing the first step in the formation of the bullet is illustrated. As shown,

the rounded nose 4 is formed on the bullet and the lower end which is adapted to be received in the cartridge case is reduced in cross section as indicated at 5.

Fig. 3 illustrates the second step in the formation of the bullet in which the rounded nose 4 is completed and the lower reduced portion 5 is completed.

Referring to Fig. 4 of the drawing, the reference numeral 6 designates a cartridge shell having the usual rim portion 1 for the reception of a priming charge. While the invention is illustrated in connection with rim fire cartridges, it may also be applied to center fire cartridges. A charge of propellant powder usually is placed in the shell and the bullet then placed in position in the usual loading machine. As a last step in the operation of the loading machine, the bullet is passed between two discs, the peripheries of which, are shaped to crimp the upper edge of the cartridge shell into the surface of the bullet as indicated at 9 and to form a grease groove in the bullet as indicated at l0. As stated above, the formation of the skin or surface 3 permits these operations to be performed on a disintegrating bullet. I am aware that such operations are normal operations in the manufacture of lead bullets of a non-disintegrating type but in so far as I am aware, no one heretofore has produced a bullet of a mixture of lead and other harder metal having the characteristics of the central portion of the bullet herein disclosed and having a surface capable of being worked in this way.

In the use of the bullet herein disclosed in shooting galleries employing targets of sheet metal or other material harder than the metal of the bullet, the bullet disintegrates on. striking the target, as a result of which spattering is substantially eliminated as the particles will not come back from the target a distance of more than about ten feet and danger of particles flying back a sufficient distance to strike the shooter or others. behind the shooting line is eliminated. At the same time the bullet is hard enough to penetrate wood and is, of course, hard enough for use in shooting game and, therefore, may be used just as well as a non-disintegrating bullet for these uses.

I claim-z 1. A disintegrating bullet comprising a mixture of particles of lead and a harder metal, the interior of which comprises particles of the harder metal interspaced in a core of lead and the surface of which comprises a more densely compressed, continuous mixture of said metal particles capable of being worked.

2. A disintegrating bullet comprising a mixture of particles of lead and zinc, the interior of which comprises particles of'the zinc interspaced in a core of lead and the surface of which comprises a more densely compressed, continuous mixture of said metal particles capable of being worked.

3. A disintegrating bullet comprising a mixture of particles of lead and antimony, the interior of which comprises particles of the antimony interspaced in a core of lead and the sur face of which comprises a more densely compressed, continuous mixture of said metal particles capable of being worked.

4.. A disintegrating bullet comprising a mixture of particles of lead and copper, the interior of which comprises particles of the copper interspaced in a core of lead and the surface of which comprises a more densely compressed, continuous mixture of said metal particles capable of being worked.

5. An extruded, disintegrating bullet-comprising a mixture of particles of lead and a harder metal whereby the interior portion consists of separated particles of the harder metal interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, non-brittle metal casing capable of being worked.

6. An extruded, disintegrating bullet comprising a mixture of particles of lead and zinc whereby the interior portion consists of separated particles of the zinc interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, non-brittle metal casing capable of being worked.

'7. The method of making a disintegrating bullet which comprises mixing particles of lead and a harder metal, extruding the mixture at such a pressure that the. interior of the extruded metal consists of separate particles of the harder metal interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, nonbrittle metal casing capable of being worked.

8. The method of making a disintegrating bullet which comprises mixing particles of lead and a harder metal, extruding the mixture in the form of a wire at such a pressure that the interior of the wire consists of separate particles of the harder metal interspaced in a core of.lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, metal casing capable of being worked, cutting the wire into blanks, and shaping the blanks to form bullets.

9. The method of making a disintegrating bullet which comprises forming a mixture of particles of lead and a harder metal, extruding the mixture at such a pressure that the interior of the extruded metal consists of separate particles of the harder metal interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, metal casing capable of being worked, swaging the extruded metal to shape it into a bullet having a rounded nose whereby the exterior casing is shaped to cover the nose of the bullet.

10, The method of making a disintegrating bullet which comprises forming a mixture of particles of lead and zinc, extruding the mixture at such a pressure that the interior of the extruded metal consists of separate particles of the zinc interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, metal casing capable of being worked, swaging the ex- -truded metal to shape it into a bullet having a rounded nose whereby the exterior casing is shaped to cover the nose of the bullet.

11. The method of making a disintegrating bullet which comprises forming a mixture of particles of lead and antimony, extruding the mixture at such a pressure that the interior of the v extruded metal consists of separate particles of the antimony interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, metal casing capable of being worked, swaging the extruded metal to shape it into a bullet having a rounded nose whereby the exterior casing is shaped to cover the nose of the bullet.

12. The method of making a disintegrating bullet which comprises forming a mixture of particles of lead and copper, extruding the mixture at such a pressure that the interior of the extruded metal consists of separate particles of the copper interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, metal casing capable of being worked, swaging the extruded metal to shape it into a bullet having a rounded nose whereby the exterior casing is shaped to cover the nose of the bullet.

13. The method of making a disintegrating bullet which comprises mixing substantially 80 percent of lead dust shot and substantially 20 percent of granulated zinc, extruding the mixture in a continuous length at such a pressure that the interior of the extruded metal consists of separate particles of zinc interspaced in a core of lead and the surface consists of a substantially continuous, non-brittle casing capable of being worked, cutting the extruded metal into bullet blanks of a desired size, and swaging the bullet blanks to shape them into bullets having a rounded nose with the exterior casing extending over

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3103171 *Aug 17, 1959Sep 10, 1963Leonard JansExplosive engine
US3123003 *Jan 3, 1962Mar 3, 1964 lange
US3898933 *Mar 21, 1973Aug 12, 1975Haut Rhin Manufacture MachinesTraining bullet for fire arms
US3911820 *Oct 12, 1973Oct 14, 1975Canon Jack YBullet
US3972286 *Nov 5, 1974Aug 3, 1976Canon Jack YBullet
US5443010 *Nov 1, 1993Aug 22, 1995Buffalo Bullet CompanyMuzzle loading rifle projectile
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US7322297Oct 24, 2006Jan 29, 2008International Cartridge CorporationCannelured frangible projectile and method of canneluring a frangible projectile
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US7422720May 10, 2005Sep 9, 2008Spherical Precision, Inc.Shot contains tungsten, and may be a sintered nontoxic shot pellet for ammunition with high accuracy in specific gravity and tight tolerance in size; agitating powdered constituents with a binding agent to form pellets; sintering the pellets to form projectile
US7581497 *Sep 21, 2005Sep 1, 2009The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavySelf-contained, non-intrusive data acquisition in ammunition
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Classifications
U.S. Classification102/529, 86/39, 72/54, 86/54
International ClassificationF42B8/02, F42B8/00
Cooperative ClassificationF42B12/74, F42B8/02
European ClassificationF42B12/74, F42B8/02