US 2106724 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
B. H. COPE CONNECTER Feb. 1, 1938.
Filed March 16, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTQR W, H W B I M ATTORNEY B. H. CGPE Feb. 1, 1938.
CONNECTEE riled March 16, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR 9A3; JhCrfu/ W Mal-m ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 1, 1938 PATENT OFFICE CONNECTED Burton H. Cope, Smithfleld, Ohio Application March 16, 1935, Serial No. 11,476
My invention relates broadly to connecters, and in some of its more specific aspects to means adapted to firmly connect in conductive rela-" tionship two or more conductors to each other, or a single conductor to a terminal connecter, or branch lines to a main conductor.
My invention eliminates the necessity of using screws, bolts or wedges employed in many prior devices, which loosen with changes in tem-& perature and with vibration to which most conductors are subjected in use, due to wind, trafllc and other causes, thus causing the connecters exposed to atmospheric conditions to gradually corrode and progressively diminish the contact areas and conductivity of the connection, resulting' in destructive arcing, electrolysis, disturbance 01 radio sets, heated connections, increased resistance, losses in transmission, interruption of service and danger to pedestrians.
My invention also eliminates the necessity of using solder, corrosive fluxes, the inconvenient solder pot, costly in time and labor, and the excessive heat of soldering, destructive of the original strength of the wire and creating the weakest link, easily broken under strain, resulting in interrupted service, short circuits and hazards to those in its proximity.
My connecter also has the advantages of simplicity of design, low cost of manufacture and maintenance, ease and rapidity of installation by,
a, small, simple and inexpensive tool, small, symmetrical and smooth outside surface, facilitating taping, adaptability to-all sizes and combinations of sizes of both solid and stranded wires, and to all purposes required of connecters, full contacting surfaces not subject to corrosion, applicable to live wires without interruption of service, nonbreakable, and making a permanent connection not affected by vibration, yet easily disassembled for future use without damage to wires or connecters.
It has heretofore been proposed to employ a connecter comprising an outer split cylindrical sleeve slightly tapered from one end to the other,
adapted to receive a pair of conductors between which is placed a correspondingly tapered plug or wedge provided with deep longitudinal grooves at opposite ends of a diameter to receive the respective conductors, a portion of which conductors projects slightly beyond the periphery of the wedge to insure contact with the sleeve when the wedge is driven home. This construction is open to the serious objection that the projecting conductors cause a separation of the surfaces of the sleeve and wedge, which results in corrosion when exposed to the moisture of the atmosphere. Moreover, it is quite expensive and practically impossible to design the grooves in a tapered wedge so that uniform contact with the conductors throughout the length of the sleeve and 5 wedge is obtained.
It results that usually the grip at the smaller part of the tapered plug or wedge is the stronger, which creates an unequal stress, causing the parts of the connecter, when subjected to vibration, to work loose. Practise has proven that this will occur from the usual vibrations regardless of how tight the wedge is originally driven. There is, therefore, present always the possibility that one of the conductors will become disconnected, and I5 falling on a power or transmission line will endanger life.
The tapered construction is not only diflicult to design accurately, but also requires a relatively long sleeve and wedge, which is expensive, and renders the cost of manufacture a serious objection to its use.
My connecter overcomes all these objections by the provision of the parts or the connecter with parallel surfaces throughout, so that not only can the connecter and its parts be made materially shorter, thus greatly economizing in material, but also there is eliminated, under vibra-- tion, the possibility of the existence of any components of force which would tend to dislodge the insert from its position within the shell. This construction also permits me to provide channels in the opposed parallel faces of the shell and insert, uniform throughout their length, which greatly simplifies the designing of a connecter and greatly reduces the cost of manufacture. The opposed channels in shell and insert are preferably so designed as to correspond jointly to the circumference of the conductor which seats therein, so that the contact between conductor and connecter is complete around substantially the entire periphery of the conductor, and the connection is thus sealed against corrosion.
One type of my invention contemplates the forcible introduction of the insert into the shell,- in which the conductors have been already placed, in such manner as to cause a strong clamping action to be maintained on the conductors after the parts are in place.
I have devised various expedientsior introducing the insert in a manner'to achieve these results without the necessity of resorting to ta pered sleeve and wedge, thus eliminating this feature from the connecter with all its attendant ills. For instance, the parts may be assembled by first placing a pair of conductors within the shell at a slightly divergent angle to each other, placing the insert in the wider portion of the angle between the conductors, adjacent the end of the shell, and forcing the insert along the inclined guideways provided by the conductors, into position between the sides of the shell. It is thus seen that the conductors themselves are caused to perform the function of the tapered wedge heretofore deemed essential to connecters of this type, the disadvantages of which are avoided by my invention.
Other forms which my invention may take will appear from the detailed description.
In the accompanying drawings, showing for purposes of exemplification, but without limiting my invention or claims thereto, certain practical embodiments of the principles of my invention;
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of one form of my invention showing the position of the parts at one stage during the process of assembly.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the parts assembled.
Fig. 3 is a View similar to Fig. 2 showing the shell with a plain base in lieu of the arched base in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a similar construction showing a slightly modified form of insert.
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the form shown in Figs. 1 and 2 modified to permit the connection with a plurality of side conductors by means of a single connecter.
' shown in Fig. 5, partially in section, and showing the parts in an intermediate stage of assembling. Figs. 7 and 8 are top plan views of a modified form of my invention adapting it to a terminal connecter, Fig. 7 showing the parts in the act of assembling and Fig. 8 showing the completed assembly.
Fig. 9 shows my invention applied as a connecter for the adjacent ends of separate conductors, and
Fig. 10 similarly shows it employed to connect a pair of service lines to a main line.
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view of my shell or clamping device knurled or serrated on its inner surface to prevent slippage of the conductor.
Figs. 12 and 13 show a modified form of my invention in the preliminary stage and final stage of assembling, respectively.
Figs. 14 and 15 similarly show the respective stages of a further modification.
Figs. 16 and 1'7 show my invention provided with positive locking instruments to prevent separation of the parts.
Fig. 18 shows a further modified form of my invention.
Figs. 19 and 20 show a still further modified form in the stages of assembling and final as sembled condition, respectively.
Figs. 21 and 22 show the same stages applied to a still further modified form of my invention.
Figs. 23 and 24 show, respectively, two further modifications of my invention.
Figs. 25 and 26 show a further modification in the preliminary stage of assembly and in its final assembled condition, respectively, and
Figs. 27 and 28 show the same respective stages in a further modification of my invention.
Referring to the drawings, there is shown in Figs. 1 and 2 a connecter comprising an outer resilient shell or clamping member I, provided with a longitudinal arched base portion 2, and legs or side portions 3 bent to the dimensions of substantially one-half of the circumference of the conductors 4 to be retained therein. There is further provided an insert or key member 5 of substantially the length of the shell member. The sides of this key member, as well as the legs or side portions of the shell, are parallel to the axis of the connecter and the side surfaces of the key member are provided with substantially semi-circular channels of the contour of the conductors, respectively located therein. While these conductors are shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as being of substantially the same diameter, the connecter can readily be designed for conductors of different diameters. The provision of the longitudinally arched base portion greatly increases the resiliency of the clamp and affords a much larger factor of safety against permanent distortion or cracking of the base member when forcing the conductors into place. It also renders the cross sectional outline of the assembly more symmetrical and facilitates taping by effecting a firm contact at substantially all points of the periphery between the tape and the connecter while at the same time greatly improving the design of the finished connecter. It further has the important advantage that it greatly facilitates manufacture and insures greater accuracy of fit between the parts when assembled by dispensing with the sharp knifeedge formed between the base of the insert and its side pockets for the conductors, shown in Fig. 3, and by providing instead a wide angle between these parts, as shown for instance in Fig. 2.
Moreover, it affords a much more advantageous angle of bend for the shell than the flat base since the latter when the sides are bent by forcing the conductors into place bows upward along its longitudinal median line, making more difficult the introduction of the insert.
The insert 5 is shown with an opening 1, in
- which may be inserted any desired form of locking means such as a cotter pin or the like, which would also pass through the base, or a set screw forced against the base. The parts should be made of non-corrosive and highly conductive materials of a character which will retain its shape and condition permanently after assembling. The parts are conveniently assembled by placing the conductors within the shell at a slight angle to each other, locating the insert between the widened portions of the conductor at the outer end of the shell with the conductors located in the channels 6, and then by any appropriate tool or even by means of a hammer, forcing the insert into the position shown in Fig. 2 in which it is coextensive with the shell and forcibly presses the conductors against the side portions of the shell, contact'being made by the connecter parts with substantially the complete periphery of the conductors.
While I have shown the conductors as circular in cross section, it will, of course, be obvious that both the conductors and the channels may be given any other desired configuration in this and in the succeeding modifications of my invention.
Fig. 3 shows a similar construction save that the base I2 is fiat and the side portions l3 and insert [5 are shaped, respectively, to take conductors l4 and H of different diameters which, in this figure, are shown as stranded.
Fig. 4 shows a construction similar to Figs. 1 and 2 save that the insert or key member 5' is of somewhat difierent shape permitting assembly ing the side portions of the shell apart by means of a suitable tool preliminary to inserting the insert or key member 5 between the conductors.
Figs. 5 and 6 show the form of connecter illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, one of the side portions being shown provided with openings i6 adapted to receive conductors I! which pass therethrough and have their ends l8 bent parallel to the axis of the connecter.
Figs. 7 and 8 show a connecter similar to that shown in Fig. 3, in which the base is provided with a terminal extension l9 and an insert 2o I conveniently provided at one end with a channeled extension 2i, about which is passed the free end of the conductor as shown in Fig. '1', said conductor and key member thereafter being forced into their final position shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 9 shows my connecter utilized to connect the free adjacent ends of conductors 24 and 24', whose free ends, after passing the connecter, are wrapped about their respective adjacent conductors.
Fig. 10 shows my connecter used to connect two service lines 24" to a main or bus line 4.
Fig. 11 shows the shell or clamping member provided on the inner surface of its side portions 3 with a knurled or serrated surface A to prevent slippage of the conductors, and the inner edges of its ends bell-shaped or rounded at 3' to prevent scoring or cutting the conductors when vibrated.
Fig. 12 shows a shell similar in contour to that shown in Figs. 1 and Zbut'made' of a material after being turned into contact f'portion to lock the insert to the shell.
Fig. 17 shows a similar construction in which 1 which will take a strong permanent set when bent and firmly hold the parts within its side portions 23 together. The insert or key portion 25 may be conveniently made of non-corrosive block steel with a channel 25' in its center, the parts being loosely assembled, as shown in Fig. 12, and thereafter the side portions are forcibly pressed together by an appropriate tool into the position shown in Fig. 13. The resiliency of the insert 25 in its distorted condition, exerts a strong pressure, permanently holding the conductors in close contact with the side portions 23 of the she'll.
Fig. 14 shows a similar modification in which, however, the slotted insert 35 is provided with beveled ends 35 and the insert is inverted and forced by pressure, appropriately applied, from its "position shown in Fig. 14 into its position shown in Fig. 15, thus locking the parts firmly together. In this modification the shell 33 is preferably made of resilient material.
Fig. 16 shows a somewhat similar construction in which, however, the insert 45 is provided with a narrowed lower portion with beveled edges 45 capable of being forced between the conductors, said portion being continued in a tongue 45" adapted to pass through an aperture 45" inths base of the resilient'shell 43, the tongue therewith said base a bolt and nut construction 46 is employed to lock the parts together.
Fig. 18 shows a modification in which the resilient shell is provided with a base portion 52 and side portions 53, the base portion being bent upwardly along its longitudinal center to form guiding surfaces 52' for the prongs 55' of an insert or key member 55 made of soft material,
which will permit its prongs 55' to be guided along the curved surface 52' into engagement with their respective conductors, the material being such as to retain permanently the set thus given it.
In the form shown in Fig. 19, the shell member is provided with side portions 63 provided at their upper ends with overturned flanges 63' between which flanges and the conductors resting upon the base 62 is provided an insert 65 of resilient material bowed longitudinally so that it will offerin appropriate channels 66 and 66' in the insert,
and the shell, respectively. There may also be provided the aperture 6! through which can be inserted an appropriate locking means as in Figs. 1 and 2.
Fig. 21 shows a similar arrangement modified to secure the end of a conductor to a terminal extension, there being shown a box-like shell 13 on the base of which the conductor rests; preferably in a channel as in Fig. 19, and against which bears the insert similarly channeled, said insert being bowed longitudinally and adapted to be forced inwardly from its position shown in Fig. 21 to its assembled position shown in Fig. 22,
[ there being a stop member 15' provided at the outer end of the insert to engage the seal 15" in the top of the shell. The shell is also provided with the extension connecter 19.
In Fig. 23 the resilient shell is adapted to receive one-half of a split insert 85 in the recess provided by one of its side portions 83, aft- .er which the conductor is inserted in a channel 36 provided in said half of the insert. The other half of the insert 85' may be inserted in the shell by placing one of its ends between the conductor and the corresponding side portion 83, used as guideways and forcing said half of the insert between said conductor and said side pormade of resilient material, comprises the side portions 33 and also integrally therewith the intermediate member 95, corresponding to the insert of the other forms, beveled on its outer edges 95, the inner edges of the side portions 93 being similarly beveled. The parts are assembled by placing one conductor between the beveled edges on one side and forcing it between a corresponding resilient side portion 93 and the intermediate portion 95, the second conductor being similarly forced into place between the other side portion 93 and the intermediate member 95.
Fig. 25 shows a modification somewhat similar to that shown in Fig. 12 but with the insert I05 provided at its lower portion with a projection I05 passing through the base I 02 of the shell and retained in position therein conveniently by turning over the end of the projection to form a head I05", the side portions I03 of the shell being initially bent outwardly to enable the conductors to be located in the longitudinal channels in the insert I05, after which the side portions I03 are forced firmly inwardly into the position shown in Fig. 26, in which the resilient U-shaped insert forcibly presses the parts permanently together, it being understood that the side portions I 03 are made of a material which, though bendable, strongly maintains its shape when once bent.
Since the insert and shell may be permanently connected together by means of the projection H15, and its head I05" prior to the introduction of the connecters, it will be seen that I have provided a one piece connecter which will greatly simplify the operation of installing it in place.
Fig. 27 shows a further modification of my invention in which the insert H5 is made in two parts having inclined serrated edges H5, one of the parts being provided with retaining lugs H5" adapted to engage seats H5' to hold it in place about one of the conductors, the other conductor being placed against the opposite side portion H3, and thereafter the narrow end of the other part of the insert is placed between the first part of the insert and said second conductor and, guided by the engagement of its channel H6 with said conductor, is forced by. an appropriate tool into its final position as shown in Fig. 28, the parts being firmly locked together by the serrations H5 and the lugs H5" in engagement with their seats H5'.
While I have described the best forms of my invention known to me; it will be understood that changes may be made in the forms disclosed, without departing from the spirit of my invention, and that certain features may sometimes be used to advantage without corresponding use of other features, and that my invention may be adapted to various uses, in addition to those shown, it being my intention to cover in the claims all equivalent structures capable of analogous uses, such terms as conductor and the like, being intended to embrace the use of rods, bars or wires, of whatever shape and use, in association with which the connecter functions to join together parts in the manner disclosed or in an equivalent manner.
1. A connecter comprising awlamping mem- -ber having a base portion with a central longitudinal downwardly eccentrically arched portion and two side portions adapted to receive a pair of parallelly-arranged conductors therebetween, and an insert with parallel sides, shaped to be guided between and along said conductors from a point outside said side portions when said conductors are initially inclined slightly to each other to form an inclined guiding camway for said insert, said insert, when forced into final position, being adapted to press said conductors against said side portions and maintain all contacting surfaces of said conductors, side portions and insert in position parallel to the axis of said clamping member.
2. A connecter comprising a clamping member having a base portion and two side portions adapted to receive paralleliy-arranged conductors of predetermined size therebetween, and an insert with parallel sides, shaped to be guided between and along said conductors from a point outside said side portions when said conductors are initially inclined slightly to each other to form an inclined guiding camway for said insert being of such size and shape that said insert, when forced into final position, presses said conductors against said side portions and maintains all contacting surfaces of said conductors, side portions and insert in position parallel to the axis of said clamping member.
3. A connecter comprising a clamping member having side portions to receive at least one conductor of predetermined size therebetween, and insert means of such size and shape to cooperate alone with said conductor and sides to efiect by endwise movement of said insert a cam action causing a forced connection of said conductor to said connecter with the sides of the connecter and insert in final assembled position lying parallel to the axis of said connecter, whereby no resultant disengaging forces will arise due to vibration or other extraneous causes, after the parts are assembled.
4. A connecter comprising a clamping member having side portions to receive at least one conductor of predetermined size therebetween, and insert means of such size and shape to cooperate alone with said conductor and sides to effect by endwise movement of said insert a forced connection of said conductor to said connecter with the sides of the connecter and insert in final assembled position lying parallel to the axis of said connecter, whereby no resultant disengaging forces will arise due to vibration or other extraneous causes, after the parts are assembled.
5. The combination defined in claim 4 in which the clamping member is provided with a longitudinal eccentric downwardly arched portion.
6. .The combination defined in claim 4 in which juxtaposed channels are provided in the connecter shell and. the insert to directly engage the conductor at substantially all points about its periphery.
7. The combination defined in claim 4 in which at least one side portion is provided with one or more apertures through each of which a conductor may extend, the internal end or ends of said conductor or conductors being bent parallel to the axis of said connecter and being clamped portions and an insert member with parallel sides, in operative position about two conductors of predetermined size to be firmly connected together, which consists in inserting said conductors between the side portions of the shell at a slight inclination to each other, placing the insert in the wider portion of the angle-between them, and forcing said insert along the inclined guideways provided by said conductors into position between said side portions, said insert being of such size and shape as to eifect a forced connection of said conductors to said connecter with the sides of the connecter and insert in final assembled position lying parallel to the axis of said connecter. v
9. A connecter comprising a clamping member having a base portion and two side portions, each side portion being provided with a pocket adapted to receive, respectively, one of a pair of parallel conductors of predetermined size, said side pockets being of substantially the same radius of curvature as said conductors and adapted to directly contact said conductors about a portion of their periphery and an insert with parallel sides provided with side pockets of substantially the same radius of curvature as said conductors and adapted to directly contact said conductors about substantially the remain ing portion of their periphery which is supplementary to that engaged by said side portions,-
said insert being adapted to be guided between said side portions when said conductors are ini' tially inclined slightly to each other to form an inclined guideway for said insert being of such size and shape that said insert when forced into final position presses said conductors against said side portions and maintains all contacting surfaces of said conductors, side portions and insert in position parallel to the axis of said clamping member.
10. A connecter comprising a clamping member having a base portion with a central longitudinal downwardly arched portion and two side portions, each side portion being provided with a pocket adapted to receive, respectively, one of a pair of parallel conductors, said side pockets being of substantially the same size as said conductors and adapted to directly contact said conductors about substantially half of their periphery and an insert with parallel sides provided with side pockets of substantially the same size as said conductors and adapted to directly contact said conductors about substantially the half of their periphery which is supplementary to that engaged by said side portions, said insert when forced into final position being adapted to press said conductors against said side portions and maintain all contacting surfaces of said conductors, side portions and insert in position parallel to the axis of said clamping member.
BURTON H. COPE.