US 2107568 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 8, 1938. FL A. HAIST 2,107,568
RRRRRRRRRRR CH Feb. 8, 1938. A. HAISTY RATCHET WRENCH Filed June 12, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 mvzflrron BY v W ATTORNEYS Patented Feb. 8, 1938' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE mil'ilmn amtxr i xf iszzz: 20,208" 4 Claims. (CI. 81-62) This invention relates to a ratchet wrench and more particularly to a two way ratcheting socket wrench in which the axis of rotation 01' the socket is perpendicular to the plane of movement of the handle.
The principal object of the'invention is to provide a wrench of the type which is stronger and simpler than those heretofore in use known and is, at the same time, just as smooth and positive in its action. A'further object of the invention is to provide a ratchet wrench of this type which will continue to operate satisfactorily even after being subjected to severe abuse and long continued use. Numerous other collateral objects of the invention and solutions therefore are shown in the herein patent specification, wherein:
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diminutive top plan of my improved wrench.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary, horizontal section through the head of the wrench, taken on line 2-2, Fig. 4.
Figs. 3 and 4 are fragmentary, vertical sections through the head of the wrench-taken on correspondingly numbered lines of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a perspective of one of the ratchet pawls and its companion dual-purpose spring.
Similar characters of reference indicate like parts in the several figures of the drawings.
For purposes of illustration, only one form of the invention has been shown in the accompanying drawings, but it is obvious thatconsiderable departures from this particular construction may be made without departing from the essence of the invention. The particular wrench illustrated is constructed as follows:
Thehead of the wrench consists'primarily of an integral, hollow, body member ID constructed of cast steel. Integrallyv connected with said body member is the usual long tapered. handle ll, preferably of I beam cross section as shown. Said body member i is vertically bored out (on an axis perpendicular of the plane of movement of the handle H) to form a relatively long bearing l2 in which are rotatably arranged the two journals I3 and l3l of a rotatable ratchet head I (see Fig. 4). The latter is suitably enlarged at its lower end to form an annular shoulder i which prevents upward displacement of said rotatable ratchet head relatively to the body Downward displacement of said rotatable ratchet head I4 is prevented by a screw collar l6 threaded onto the upper end of said ratchet head i4 and screwed tightly down against the upper annularshoulder II of said ratchet head It. This screw collar I! is preferably of hexagonal or other flat faced shape so as to be readily turned by a wrench. when the same size of. ratchet head It is used for a considerable period of time, it is desirable to very solidly clamp this screw collar IS in its screwed down position,
and this is effected in the present inventionby. splitting the screw collar It at i8 and clamping together the two ears 20 and 20a of said collar with a cap screw 2|.
The interior of said rotatable ratchet head I is coaxially cored or otherwise shaped to form a hexagonal or other desired formof fiat faced socket 22 at its lower end so as to engage with the nut or other object being turned by the wrench. The central and upper portion of said rotatable ratchet head 14 is suitably core'd or drilled coaxially to form a cylindrical hole 23 to enable the socket -22 to engage the entire area of the faces of the nut being turned, even though the threaded end of the bolt, upon which said nut is being screwed or unscrewed, extends a considerable distance above the upper face of said nut. This cylindrical hole 23 is also useful in enabling the operator to drive out the nut when it becomes jammed in the socket122.
The body member I0 is so cast as to provide an interior hollow portion or'chamber 24 which is .entirely enclosed by the metal of said body member In except where it opens into the central rear part of the bearing l2. This means that the extreme front portion 25 of said body member) is integrally connected with the rear portion 26 of said body member ID, and also integrally to the handle H, by horizontal webs 21 and 2. This renders the body member In and wrenches of this general type as heretofore constructed.
Arranged within the chamber 24 of said body member I0 is a pair of ratchet dogs or pawls 28 and 28a. The tail ends of said pawls are of semi-cylindrical form and are received or seated within companion. open, semi-cylindrical grooves 30, 30a. The form of these semi-cylindrical, open grooves is preferably less than half cylindrical so the whole head of the wrench much stronger than as'to enable the same to be expeditiously formed by coring.
Interposed between the other flat face of each of said pawls 28, 28a and the adjacent companion fiat face I! of the chamber 24 is a pair of sheet metal, curvilinear springs 3|, 3 whose front ends are curled at 32- to abut against the companion transverse wall 29 of said chamber 2 (see Fig. -2). The rear ends of each of these pairs of springs 31, '3 rest against therear portion. of the outer face of its companion pawl 28 or 28a, and each pair of said' springs is integrally connected with the rear end of a companion, sheet -metal restr'aining plate 33. The latter is flat and rests at all times flatagainst I the outer fiat face of its companionvpawl- '28 or 28a. The extreme front end of ,each of said re- Y straining'plates 33 is hooked at 34 over the front I endor nose of its companion pawl 28 or 28a.--This arrangement prevents each restraining plate from moving rearwardly relatively to companion pawl 28 or 28a. 8
The mathematical formula for the shape of the curvilinear springs 3|, 3H has not been determined, said curve having been obtained by a purely empirical or lay-ou method with the successfully attained object of preventing any slack- 1 ness at any time in the pivotal or rocking joint between the rear ends of the pawls 28, 28a and their companion semi-cylindrical, open grooves 38, 30a.
The front end of the one or other of said pawls 28, 28a is adaptedto engage with ratchet teeth 35 which are formed integrally and coaxially on the ratchet head l4intermediate1y of the annular journals l3, l3! thereof. These ratchet teeth 35 do not extend as far out from the axis of rotation of the rotatable ratchet head [4 as do the journals [3 and I 3| at the upper and lower boundaries of said ratchet teeth. In other words, the cylindrical plane which intersects the outermost portions of said ratchet teeth 35 has a smaller diameter than the diameter of said journals I3, l3l. This enables said ratchet teeth to be considerably burred or otherwise distorted (from use or abuse) but preventing such burred portions from jamming against the bore of the bearing 12, and thereby preventing the free rotation of the rotatable ratchet head M in the body member I 0.
When either the one or the other of the pawls 28, 28a. engages with said ratchet teeth 35, its rabbeted outer end engages simultaneously with a pair of said ratchet teeth 35. This rabbeted construction permits of ratchet teeth of small pitch, thereby enabling the pawl to take hold after the operator has only swung the handle H through a relatively small number of angular de= grees. It is true (generally speaking at least) that a single, small pitched ratchet tooth is weaker than a single large pitched ratchet tooth. This, however, is compensated for in the present invention by having each pawl engage with a pair of ratchet teeth simultaneously. This provides the strength that could have been obtained by the use of large pitched ratchet teeth, and, at the same time, the small pawl engaging movement of the small pitched ratchet teeth. In addition to this a sturdy pawl and ratchet construction. is effected by this arrangement without unduly thinning the metal wall between the root of the ratchet teeth 35 and the coaxial, cylindrical hole 23 of the rotatable ratchet head l4. Furthermore the strength of the connection between either of the pawls and the ratchet teeth is fully developed.
because of the fact that each pawl is pushed inwardly at a central point from its companion re-.
straining plate 33 by a pair of curvilinear springs 3|, 3 located adjacent the edges of their companion pawls and hence far enough apart to. pre-' vent any cocking of the pawl.
It will be noticed that the inner r'abbeted'step or tooth of each pawl is undercut. This posi-- tively prevents the pawl from becoming disenaiomee ,gaged after-it has takenhold. It will also be noticed that all of the longitudinal corners of each-pawl are generously bevelled. This enables the pawl to properly seatv itself and to swing squarely without possibility of interference from the fillets of the chamber 24.
-Means are provided for simultaneously throwingone of the pawls 28, 28a out of engagement and then permitting the other pawl toswing inwardlyinto operative position under the influence of its companion curvilinear springs 3|, 3. This 7 is Fefiected by means of a shipper 38 which is arranged in thechamber 24 intermediately of the inner faces of the pawls 28, 28a and vertically pivoted at 3'! and 31 l in the body member l8 and manually actuatable by an exterior, shipper handle 38. It will be noted that no resilient means are necessary to hold this shipper 38 in its one or other position. This is because of the disposition of the flat faces 40, 48 and 4|,4I of said shipper which contact with the inner, flat faces of the pawls, the effective leverage exerted against the one fiat face 48 of said shipper being less than the effective leverage exerted against the other flat face 4! of said shipper, despite the difierence in spring pressures exerted against the pawls.
Downward displacement of the shipper 38 is prevented by a head 40 which also has the func-' tion of preventing dirt from entering the chamber 24 through the upper shipper bearing 31. Upward displacement of said shipper 36 is prevented by a retaining washer 4| which is countersunk in the lower face of the body member ID and embraces a reduced shank 42 at the lower end of said shipper and bears upwardly against a shoulder 43 formed at the upper terminus of said shank 42. Said the protruding lower end of said shank 42.
Operation The operator applies the hexagonal socket 22 of the rotatable ratchet head I4 to the nut he desires to have turned. If the bolt to which this nut is applied happens to extend up above the upper face of said nut, it is accommodated in the cylindrical hole 23 of said ratchet head l4. If the operator desires to tighten said nut, he throws the shipper 36 to the position shown in the drawings. This throws the pawls 28 out of operation and the pawl 28a into operation. He then swings the handle ll back and forth in the usual way until the nut is tightened. If he desires to unscrew a nut, he reverses the position of the shipper 36 thereby throwing the pawl 28a out of operation and the pawl 28 into operation.
If the operator desires to use the wrench for a different size of nut, he loosens the cap screw 2! and unscrews the screw collar I8. He then throws the shipper 36 to its central position which throws out both of the pawls 28 and 28a and thereby facilitates the removal of the rotatable ratchet head l4. He then removes said ratchet head and replaces it with one having the desired size and shape of socket 22. He then screws back the screw collar Hi. If he expects to use any certain size and shape of ratchet head M for a considerable period of time, or for very arduous or its springs 3| 3| I and retaining plate 33 should become fractured or warrant inspection, this can be-efl'ected, without removing the shipper 38. The
ratchet head It andscrew collar can be removed as Just described. To remove either one of the pawls 28, Ila and its companion springs 3|, Ill
and integral retaining plate 38, the ratchet head It is removed as above described and then the hook it pushed outwardly away from the nose of its companion pawl 28 or Ila. The latter can then be easily slid forwardly through the chamber 2i and out'through the hearing if. The
springs ll, III with their integral restraining plate 33 can then be dropped out in the same way.
I claim as my invention:
l. A ratchet wrench comprising: a body member having a socket; a rotatable ratchet head journaled in said body member and having ratchet teeth; a pawl disposed at its rear end within said socket and adapted to engage at its front end; with said ratchet teeth; and restraining means for holding the front end of the pawl in engagement with the ratchet teeth and the rear end thereof-in engagement with the bottom of said socket comprising a plate engaging said socket and adaptedto engage at its front end and hooked over the outer end of said pawl; and
a curvilinear spring connected to said restraining plate and bearing with its outer end both laterally and longitudinally against said body member.
3. A ratchet wrench comprising: a body member having a socket; a rotatable ratchet head Journaled in said body member and having ratchet teeth; a pawl disposed at its rear end within said socket and adapted to engage at its front end with said ratchet teeth and having a flat face; a restraining plate arranged against said flat face and hooked over the outer end of said pawl; and a curvilinear spring connected to said restraining plate and having a curled foot at its outer end bearing both laterally and longitudinally against said body member.
same in said socket.
' FOSTER A. HAIBT.