US 2108226 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 15, 1938. w s JOHNSTON 2,108,226
COMPOSITION TILE Filed Jan. 6, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 `.l5 I l 12 714: 15.17 J5 f7 2/ f8 f4 Patented el.v 15,
COMPOSITION TILE wenn s. Johnston, chicago Heights, In., as-
signor to The Tile-Tex Company, Chicago Heights, Ill., a. corporation of Illinois applicati@ January '6,- isae, serial No. y57,773
, 4 Claims.
This isa continuation in part of my copending application for United States Letters Patent, Serial No. 647,755, iiled'December 17, 1932.
This invention relates to improvements in sur- Y 5 faces constructed of moulded Acomposition tile and the composition tile forconstructing such surfaces, and refers specifically to a composition tile surface comprising composition tile of desired shape encompmsed by a border or a. border and l back of similar composition of a contrasting color whereby said border, when the surface is laid,I
simulates a mortar joint 4between adjacent tile or blocks.
, Heretofore, composition tile `floors and walls l5 have suiered'in appearance in comparison with the usual ceramic tile constructions, due to the' fact that incident to layingrceramic tile a mortar joint, of necessity, is provided between adjacent tile which materially contributes to the appear- 20 ance of the finished surface. Composition tile laid in the usual manner, of course, requires nov joints of this nature and the monotony of appear ance of the surface could only be broken and a contrast obtained by the variations .of color of g5 adjacent tile.
Y It has heretofore been proposed to provide rela-v tively narrow strips of composition tile which are laid between adjacent tile and of a contrasting color to that of said tile to simulate the mortar 30 joints of ceramic tile. However, the laying cfa `iioor or other surface in this manner requires skillful labor and is a tedious, expenslve'task, particularly in View of the fact that relatively long and narrow strips of composition tile, for instance,l
35 an Aasphalt asbestos composition, tend to curl up at the ends and are relatively frangible. l
As a. feature of my invention, a floor or otherl above, but which may be manufactured and la'id .for a fraction of the cost.
One of the important features of my invention resides in a surface constructed of composition 45 tile some of which are of composite construction and are provided with separate mortar-simulating joints united thereto, said composite tile being so laid with respect to plain or unbordered tile as to provide a mortar-simulating joint between 50 desired individual tile.
Briefly. described, my invention comprises a, composition tile block which includes a plurality of contrastingly colored portions so moulded and united as to present a block or tile unit embraced 55 by a mortar-simulating joint or border. In con structing my improved tile surface, composite tile, that is tile embeddedirn and/or being embraced on all sides by mortar-simulatingv borders, is so laid with respect to plain or unbordered tile as toprovide joints or. borders between desired ad- 5 jacent' tile. In this manner, a. surface presenting the appearance of ceramic tile with mortar joints is simulated, the surface, by virtue of the relative positioning of the bordered tile with respect to the unbordered tile, being constructed only of a portion of bordered tile and a portion of the less expensive unbordered tile. y
Other objects and advantages of my invention` will be apparent from' thel accompanying drawings and following detail description.
In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a topplan view of a portion of a tile covered surfaceillustrating the simulatedmortar joint. y I Fig, la is a similar view illustrating a, larger section of the composition tile floor comprising my invention.
' Fig. 2 is aperspective view of a tile unit having a mortar simulating border and diagonally cut corners. n y Fig. 3v is a sectional view ta v'en on line 3-6 25 of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1 embodying a modied form of tile.
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a .tile unit em bodied in the surface shown in Fig, 4. A Y
Fig. 6 isa sectional view taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 4. Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing a surface covered with another modified form of tile.
Fig. 10 is a diagonal sectional view of a die for 40 cutting the vcomposite tile.
Referring in detail to the drawings, I indicates a composition tile surface constructed of composite units 2 and the usual or plain units 3 disposed in edge abutting relationship. Each composite unit 2 may comprise a'block 4 embraced by back 5 and encompassed on all sides by a. continuous mortar joint' simulatingborder 6. 'Ihe units 2 and 3 may be staggered or checkered with respect to each other when laid to form surface l, the arrangement being such that a unit I is positioned adjacent each edge of a composite unit 2, eachblock 4 being spaced from the four adjacent units 3 by a mortar `joint simulating portion 6. In this manner one half ;of the units comprising the surface will be composite units and the other half plain units.
In disposing the units 2 and 3 in staggered or checkered relationship, the corners of a composite unit or block 2 in one tier will abut the corners of the composite units or blocks in the next adjacent tier. In order to impart an appearance of regularity to the surface I and to make the mortar joint simulating border 6 continuous, the oorners may be formed at an angle of` 45 to the edges 1 of the border 6 as shown best at 1 in Figs. 1 and 2. It can readily be seen that the surfaces formed by so cutting the corners of a composite unit or block in one tier will abut similar corner surfaces of the block diagonally opposite in the next adjacent tier. The surface dimensions of the units 3 and the inlaid tile^4 may be equal so thatlthe edges of said units and blocks may be disposed in alignment. The thickness of. each unit 3 may be equal to the sum of the thicknesses'. of each back 5 plus the thickness of an inlaid tile 4 so that the surfaces of the blocks 2 and units 3 may be disposed in a substantially common plane. A
If desired the face of units 3 and blocks 2 may be positioned above the surface of the mortar joint simulating border 6 or said faces may be depressed below r ush with the surface of the joint. Further, if desired, the surface of the units 3 and blocks 2 may be irregular or slightly undulating to simulate pitted stone, stratification marks or rough hewn stone and the surface of the joints may also be irregular to simulate roughly troweled mortar.
Referringparticularly to Fig. la, a surface I is illustrated comprising composite blocks 2a similar to blocks 2 with border 6 and back 5 and tile units 3a similar to tile 3. For purposes of illustration the inserted tile in the blocks 2a is colored red, whereas the plain or unbordered tile 3a is indicated as blue.
of bordered blocks, only half of the surface comprises bordered blocks, the complementary pieces being plain tile 3a. This appearance is brought about by the novel juxtapositioning of the bordered blocks with respect to the plain tile wherein the border of one composite block serves as the borderfor one side of four plain pieces. In this manner'a predetermined surface area may be attractively covered by composition tile substantially one-half of the surface being made up of the lessexpensive plain tile.
Referring particularly to Figs. 4, 5, and 6, a slight modication of my invention is shown wherein 8 indicates a tile surface constructed of composite units or blocks 9 and the usual plain units 3. The blocks 9 may be substantially sim- 'ilar to the blocks 2 and may comprise a tile 4 embraced by a back and encompassed by a mortar joint simulating border I0. 'Ihe blocks 9 and tile 3 when laid to form surface 8 may be disposed with respect to each other in a manner similar to the disposition of the blocks 2 and tile 3 comprising the surface I. That is, the comjposite blocks 9 may be staggered 'or checkered with respect to each other, the usual plain units 3 being interpositioned between the staggered blocks 9.
In order to form continuous mortar simulating joints I0 throughout the entire surface 8, diagonally opposite corners II of each of the composite blocks 9 may be recessed to a depth equal to the width of the joint IIJ. It can readily be seen that when said blocks and tile units are laid.,A the corners of each of the composite It will be observed that although L the surface area appears to be made up totally may'be added to produce the desired color.
blocks 3 in one tier will register with and be positioned within the recesses II provided in the corners of composite blocks 9 in both adjoining tiers. In this manner the joints I0 may be continuous throughout the entire surface 8 and the edges of the tile inserts 4 and units 3 will be disposed in alignment.
In this modification, inserts 4 are shown as being flush with the surfaces of units 3 and joints I0. It is to be understood, of course, that said inserts may extend above the surface of joints ID in which case the surfaces of units 3 will also extend above the surface of said joints, thereby imparting to units 3 and inserts 4 an appearance of uniformity and symmetry.
Referring particularly to Figs. 7, 8, and 9, a slightly modied form of my invention is shown wherein I2 indicates a composition tile surface constructed of composite blocks I3 and units I4. Each of the blocks I3 may comprise one or more inserts I5 which may be embraced by back I6 and encompassed by mortar simulating joints I'l which, conforming to the irregular contour of the inserts I5 are irregular in shape. Each of the blocks I3, if desired, may be provided with a regular defining border or joint portion I8 and each joint portion of each of the composite blocks may be similar.- The units I4 may comprise tile 3 identical in construction with those described in conjunction with the forms of my invention shown in Figs. 1 and 1a.
The surface I2 may be made up throughout a portion of its area of composite blocks I3', interspersed with tile 3, the composite blocks I3 being disposed in corner abutting relationship and the tile 3 being in edge abutting relationship with respect to the borders of the composite blocks.
If desired, the edges of the blocks I3 may be ,depressed as shown best at 2I in Fig. 8, and the width of said depressed portion may be substantially equal in width to the mortar joint simulating portions 6 and Ill shown in Figs. 2 and 5, so that when the blocks I3 are positioned in edge abutting relationship with the units 3, the distance between adjacent upraised portions 3 and 22 will be substantially equal to the distance between a tile 4 and a unit 3 in the form shown in Figs. 1 and 4.
By the word composition as used in the specification, and claims, is meant a mixture comprising a binder, filler and pigment. The binder, although preferably of an asphaltic nature, may be any animal or vegetable pitch or natural or synthetic resin such as rosin, paracoumarone, phenolic, glyptol resins, and the like.
AIt is to be understood, of course, that these binders may be used separately or, if desired, suitable mixtures or combinations thereof may be used. The ller may comprise asbestos, saw dust or the like and, of course, suitable pigment In general, the composition may be such that the finished tile will not soften when exposed to room or atmospheric temperatures, nor will it crack or crumble when subjected to ordinary room tramo, yet the binder must be such that it can be rendered pliable or doughlike when subjected to temperatures above atmospheric or room temperatures and can be molded or pressed in a mold or' die when in said pliable state.
The binder and filler utilized is normally very inexpensive and in some cases the pigment rep# resents the major portion of the cost of the composition. This is particularly true where light colored tiles are used inasmuch as a relatively ystitute the minor4 portion thereof.
` Y v message 'large proportion of pigment .is necessary tol change the normally dark binder-'4111erv mixture to a lighter shade. Especially is this so when asphalt isused as a binder since the same isv normally -very dark in color land is: very inexpensive in itself. Obviously, darker 'colored tile requires a relatively small amount of pigment since the V.pigment is supplemented by the usual dark natural color of the binder.
'Ihis inherent characteristic of the material comprising the tile can be utilized to advantage by my invention. For instance, if the major por.
ted that the relatively dark material interspersed by rela-- tive light colored material, blocks 4, 9 or I6, bel ing of relatively-inexpensive material; may constitute the major portion ofthe bulk or volume of the unitswhereas 'backs 5, or I6 may con- In other words,.in this latterinstanceunits 4, 3 or I6 maybe relatively thick whereas the respective` backs may becomparatively thin.
As a matter of taste or` preference, lighter colored surfaces seem to be predominantly more popular. l This condition seems to obtain for all type `wall or oor surfaces whether of ceramic vtilelinoleum or composition tile. In the case of ceramic tile, the appearance 'or the tile is enhanced by'interspersing the unit tile with rel'- atively dark colored mortar joints. In my invention, byconstructing the tile in the manner lhereinbefore described, itA has been found under some conditions substantially asf economical to construct afsurface having the interspersed mortar simulating j oints as to construct the same surface area of plain light colored tilg. In the former case a relatively larger proportion of the bulk of the compositiorbcomprlsing the surface may be relatively inexpensive `dark colored'composition whereas, in the latter case, the entire volume or bulk of the tile must, of necessity, be constructed of .relatively expensive light coloredmaterial. In other Words, the dilerence in material costlin one case substantially balances the cost of handling in theA other. In all cases the cost of a tile surface constructed from tile comprising 'myinvention compares favorably with the cost of plain, unbordered cornposition tile and, is 'extremely more economical than a composition tilelsurfacepresenting the desirable appearance herei-nbefore described but made in any `other manner. -In addition, by laying the composite blocks and unbordered tile in the manner taught by my invention a surface of predetermined area may be laid wherein only a portion of the pieces comprise the composite blocks. Yet the relative arrangement. of` thel blocksV to the tile is such that each tile unit to appearances is encompassed by a border.
In constructing composition tile, utilizing 4a binder of asphalt, for example, asphalt of desired characteristics as to melting point and hardness may befmixed with suitable proportions of asbestos or lother like filler. The mixture may be heated and milled orv kneaded, to-
units 2, 9, I3,
oi the units getherwwith a suitable pigment. to a dough-like consistency and the resultant material may subsequently be' rolled into slabs, cooled and out to desired. form. The slabs when cut are maintained ina relatively warm condition Iso that cracking or chipping will not take placev during the cutting operation.
-All forms of my invention may be manufacturedin substantially the same manner, but for thev sake of clarity inY description and in the .'drawings, the manufacture of the form shown in' Figs. l, 2, and 3 will be particularly described.
' In manufacturing composite blocks 2 and units .3V comprising surface I, units 3 may be formed in the manner herelnbefore described. Similarly units 4 maybe formed, units 4vbeing relatively thinner than units 3. 'I'he thickness o! units' 4,
of course, may be governed by the relative cost of the pigment. used for said units and the cost v.of pigment used for backs 5 and joints 6.
Slabs of material maybe prepared, as here- ,inbefore described, the color thereof being that desired to contrast with units 3 and tile 4. Re-
ferring particularly to Fig. -10, a unit tile 4 may be positioned within depressed portion 34 of the lower die or mold 35., The unit 4 when so positioned may be cold or may be slightly 'warm to` prevent possible cracking or rolling of the edges when pressure is applied. 'I'he slab prepared to serve as the back and joints of the tile may at lower-.die or mold 35 and'upper mold 36 and the molds may be brought together under pressure. In this manner back 5 and joints t may be formed, the latter comprisingan integral portion of the former. A asmuch as the unit i and back 5 are united under 'pressurefunit ft being encompassed. by joints 6, a unitary composite block will be formed.
The bonding action which takes place between the tile El and back and joints t may be attributable to the fact that both elements are brought together under pressure taken in conjunction with the fact that the back and joints being relatively hot, tend to heat the inlaidV tile t thereby causing a bond which approaches cohe sion'in character. In addition, as hereinbeiore described, the slab from which back t and joints thisperiod be warm enough to permit deforma- It can readily be seen that int are -formed, is at arelatively higher tempera ture than unit i even though some ofthe heat from the former may` be'conducted to the latter.
Consequently, upon cooling, back 5 and joints' in vthe other modications of my invention, may
be Aof ,a material entirely diiierent in character from the .composition comprising the back and joints. For instance, said units may be constructed'of metal or other relatively rigid material.
.Corners 'l and recesses II may be formed bythe upper mold 36. In the case of units I5, shown in Figs. 7, 8, and 9, said units maybe appro- Apriately spaced in recess '34 of the lower mold 35 prior to the molding oi the back I6 thereon. If desired, all of the composite blocks comprising the various forms of my invention may inlaid tile will be substantially the depth of the mold and the borders or mortar simulating joints will be molded around the tile. Further, in the modification shown in Fig. 8, the inlaid tile may;
backing and border constructed of a diierent composition, and the remaining tile pieces comprising unbordered, unbacked tile blocks constructed of a material similar to said first-mentioned tile blocks, the rst-mentioned tile blocks A being of a lesser thickness than the unbo-rdered, unbacked tile blocks, said first-mentioned tile pieces being in checkered relationship with respect to unbordered, unbacked tile blocks and being in corner abutting relationship with re- .spect to each other.-
2. A composition surface comprising tile blocks of predetermined composition imbedded in cup- I shaped members of a di'erent composition which form a border and backing for said tile blocks, and unbordered, unbacked tile blocks, said imbedded `tile blocks being of a lesser thickness than said unbordered, unbacked tile blocks,
be constructed without a back. In this case the' said bordered and backed tile blocks being disposed in checkered relationship with respect to the unbordered, unbacked tile blocks, and being in corner abutting relationship with respect to each other.
3. A composition surface comprising tile blocks of predetermined composition imbedded in cupshaped members of a different composition which form a border and backing for said tile blocks, and unbordered, unbacked tile blocks, said imbedded tile blocks being of a lesser thickness than said unbordered, unbacked tile blocks, said bordered and backed tile blocks being disposed in checkered relationship with respect to the unbordered, unbacked tile blocks, and being in corner abutting relationship with respect to each other, the corners of the borders formed by said cup-shaped members being truncated to abut the truncated corners of diagonally adjacent cupshaped members.
4. A surface comprising composition tile pieces, some of which include composition tile blocks embraced by cup-shaped backings and borders of composition material and of contrasting color with respect to said blocks, and the remaining tile pieces comprising unbordered, unbacked composition tile blocks,r the rst-mentioned tile blocks being of, a lesser thickness than the unbordered, unbacked tile blocks, said first-mentioned tile pieces being in checkered relationship with respect to unbordered, unbacked tile blocks and being in corner abutting relationship with respect to each other whereby the surface constructed of such tile pieces comprises approximately 50% unbordered, unbacked tile blocks.
AWALTER. S. JOHNSTON.