Improvement in siphons
US 210965 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
2 Sheegs-Sheet 1.
W. G. RHOADS. Siphons.
No. 210,965. Patented Dec. 17,1878,
} I kg? 20 2 sheets-sheet 2. W. G. RHOADS. Siphons.
No. 210.965" Pa'tenced Dec. 17,1878.
NJEIERS, FNOTO-LITHOGRAFNER, WASHINGTON, D. c.
WILLIAM G. RHOADS, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
IMPROVEMENT lN SIPHONS.
Specification 'i'in'ining part of Letters Patent No. 210365, dated December 17, 1878; application filed October 12, 1878.
To all whom it may concern r Be it known that I, rLLL-mr G. Rnonns, of the city and county of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvementin Siphons, of which the following is a specification:
My invention relates to that class of siphons which are designed more especially for use in flushing and cleansing drain-pipes, waterclosets, sewers, &c., and for similar purposes; and its object is to produce an action of the siphon more simply and effectively than has hitherto been done.
It consists in connecting a trapped siphon of novel construction with a tank or reservoir to be discharged by its action, in such manner as that a column of air shall be automatically confined and compressed within the siphon by the rise of water in the tank as it is filled, so as to produce a ditt'erence of the fluid-level within and without its intalring-leg when the tank is full; and in the subsequent release of this confined air to permit a rise of the de pressed level, and thereby charge the siphon and bring it into action.
It consists, moreover, in the combination, with the trapped siphon, of devices for automatically maintaining the seal in its trap by refilling the same when it is exhausted by the discharge of the siphon, and also of devices for accomplishing and facilitating the release of the air at the proper moment, as desired.
In the accompanying drawings, Figures 1 and 2 illustrate my invention in its most complete automatic form. Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate the same in simplest form. Fig. 5 illustrates the combination of an external charging-tank with the siphon 5 Fi 6, a modification in the combination of vent-tube and charging-cup with the automatic siphon; and Figs. 7 and S, modifications of the invention, whereby the siphon is brought into action at will by hand, instead of automatically.
My improved siphon, as illustrated in Fig. 2 of the drawings, is constructed of a pipe, D, bent into the form of atrap, E F I), having its upper end inclosed and covered by a cap, 0. A cup, K, properly supported near to the upper open end of the trapped pipeE D, so as to project slightly above it. A small vent-tube, M, is connected to the bottom of said cup K, trapped by means of a suitable bend therein, and carried and connected to the upper outer bend of the main trap E F, at a point above its overflow-level, in such manner as that it maydischarge into its uptakearm F.
The dotted lines 0: 3 indicate,respectively, the sealing and overflow levels of the trap ef in the tube M, which must in all cases be so constructed as to have a less depth of seal than the main trap E F.
The charging-cup K is made of a capacity exceeding that of the traps in the main and venttnbes, so that its contents shall suffice to fill them both.
The covering-cap O, which constitutes, in fact, the shorter intake-leg of the siphon, may
I be supported by lugs J, serving as feet, to rest upon the bottom of the tank, or be otherwise secured to the siphon; and it is made to inclose the cup K, as well as the end of pipe E, suffieient space being left above each to permit a free flow thereinto.
A small tube, N, is inserted with a tight joint through the side of the cap (3, near its lower edge, and its two ends are bent upward within and without the cap C, that end which is left lowermost serving to determine the sealing-level 00 of the siphon or level at which an escape of air from its intakeleg O at ordinary pressure is cut ed by an accessof water thereto. This sealing-level so must be so adjusted with reference to the capacity of the int-ake'legO of the siphon and of the intake side 0 of the trap a fin tube M as that the capacity of the intake 0 of the siphon between its said sealing-level a; and its overflow-level 3 shall fully exceed the capacity of the intake side of the said trap between its sealing-level as and the customary upper level of its sealingcharge, which 1 dcnominate its charge level, and which ordinarily, although not necessarily, will coincide with its overflowlevel n.
The trapped siphon G D,formed by the bent pipe E F D and concentric cap or cover 0, is secured in place within a tank or reservoir, A, by carrying the lower end, 1), of the dischargepipe through. the bottom of the tank with a water-tight joint, care being taken that the distance between the top of the siphon and the uppermost fluid-level of the reservoir shall be greater than the depth m y of the trap in the vent-tube M.
The successful operation of the apparatus is promoted in proportion as the discharge-pipe D is lengthened and extended downward.
The reservoiris fed by a supply pipe, B,the
supply being regulated at pleasure by means of a cock insaid pipe.
The capacity of the siphon O D is, prefer ably, made to exceed that of the supply-pipe B, so as to carry oft the water and prevent an overflow of the tank when full, even should there be a full flow from said pipe.
In starting this apparatus for the first time the siphon must be flushed so as to overflow, or the traps at F and in M be otherwise filled. When these traps are duly sealed the siphon is ready for action. If water be now allowed to flow into the reservoir A, it will rise on the same level inside and outside the receiving-leg O of the siphon until it begins to run into the stop-tube N at w, and thus prevents any further escape of air-from the siphon. The water will then cease rising inside the cover, except slowly as the waterlevel in the intake of the traps E, F, and M becomes depressedbecause of increasing pressure thereon, until the water outside the cover 0 is high enough above the water inside to force the water out of the vent-tube M, which, because of the small diameter of said tube, will be effectually and instantly accomplished so soon as the column of air forced thereinto from the siphon reaches its lower bend. When this takes place the release of the air in the siphon through said tube M will allow the water within the cover 0 to rise toward the level of that in the reservoir, and cause such an overflow of the siphon as to start it into action. The siphon, being 110w at work, will rapidly lower the water in the tank until the waterlevel, simultaneously falling in the tube N,
passes below its bend, and, permitting an inflow of air, will thus quietly and suddenly stop the action of the siphon before its lower end is uncovered.
The water falling in the discharge-tube D will suck the water out of the traps at M and E F but the charging-cup Kwill be left full,
and its contents, flowing through the tube M, will refill both traps and leave the siphon in condition to be again brought into action by the filling of the reservoir, as before.
Although it will usually be more desirable to place the trap E F in close proximity to the top of the siphon, the apparatus will operate efliciently with a suitable trap formed at any desired point in the discharge leg or pipe of the siphon, however remote, if it be properly charged and sealed, as set forth.
In Fig. 1, I have illustrated a modification of my invention, in which a concentric trap is substituted for that formed by the bent pipeE F. (Shown in Fig. 2.) In this case the upper end of the discharge-pipe D is enlarged to receive .a cup, R, which rests therein upon suitable supportin g-lu gs, with its upper edge somewhat below the upper edge of said pipe D. The trap is completed by a short open-ended tube, E, supported centrally within the cup R, as shown in the drawing, by means of an encircling flange, t, projecting from the tube E, and screwing into the upper end of the pipe D, so as to close the same. The trapped vent-tube M passes through the side of the pipe D,near its upper end, with a tightjoint, and projects over the edge of the cup It, so as to discharge thereinto.
In determining and defining the proper proportions to be observed between the capacity of the intake-leg of the siphon and that of the intake of its trap when an automatic action'ot' the apparatus is required, any level which the water is made to assume or will naturally as. sume within the trap after the siphon is at rest will constitute what I herein term its charge-level. Ordinarily the charge-level will coincide with the overflow-level of the trap; but where a charging-cup, K, is used, as shown inFigs. 1 and 2, the volume of the sealing-fluid to be left in the trap when the siphon is at rest, and consequently its charge-level, will be regulated and determined by the size of said cup K, and may be fixed at a point much below that at which the trap will overflow.
In Fig. 3, I have illustrated the simplest form of my invention when adapted for automatic operation. It consists of a plainbent siphontube, 0 D, passing, with a suitable joint, through the bottom of the tank A, and trapped by means of an upward bend, F, in its longer or discharge leg, sothat a pneumatic seal will be produced and maintained in said'longe'r leg by means of a charge of water retained in said bend. The capacity of the intaking-leg O of the sip halt, between its sealing and overflow levels a; 3 must be made to exceed the capacity of the receiving or intake side E of the trap between its sealiug'level w and its chargelevel, which in this case will naturally coincide with the overflow-level y, so that when a column of air becomes confined in the siphon between the water in the trap and the water rising in the intake-leg of the siphon the volume of air in its intake-leg Gbelow its overflow-point y shall be enough greater than the volume of water then in the receiving side E of the trap above its sealing-point x as to insure a complete displacement of this water by the air before the water rising in the siphon has reached the overflow-point. (See, for illustration, dotted lines within the siphon and trap in Fig. 3.)
In this, as in all proper forms of my apparatus, the hydrostatic pressure of the column of water in the uptake or discharge side F of the trap or traps of the siphon will operate, through the intervening column of air, to prevent the water entering the siphon from attaining the level of the water outside of it, and this difference of level, maintained so long as the column of air is confined in the siphon, will, when destroyed by a release of the air, operate to flush and start the siphon.
In view of the factthat the trap E F mustbe sealed before the siphon begins to fill, in order to insure the confinement of a suitable column of air therein, a very small aperture, H, may be pierced in the siphon. above the trap, to communicate either directly with the reservoirA, below the sealing -level x of the siphon, as shown in Fig. 3, or otherwise, by means of a connecting-tube, H, with a separate independent reservoir, K, as shown in Fig. 5, so that a charge of water sufficient to seal the trap may invariably flow therein before it be comes essential that an escape of air from the siphon shall cease. The use of a chargingcup, K, placed within the siphon above the trap, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, is preferable where it is found desirable to avoid the slight waste of water which will result from a constant discharge from the tank A: through an aperture, H, as in Fig. 3. I
In the automatic operation of a trapped siphon constructed in simplest form, without auxiliary aiuveiit, as shown in Figs. 3 and 5, so soon as the trap E F is supplied with sufficient water to seal it, and the water slowly fiowin into the reservoir A. from its supplypipe B has risen far enough therein to cover the month of the siphon, the air caught between the column of water rising in the siphon and the water-level in the trap is confined and gradually compressed, and serves to transmit the weight and pressure of the rising column of water in the reservoir to the column of water in the intake side of the trap. As the wa' ter gradually rises, therefore, in the reservoir, its increasing pressure gradually forces the water out of the trap, as shown in Fig. 3, (see dotted lines,) and the displacement of the column of water in the intake side E, by depriving the column of water in the uptake or discharge side F of its counterbalancin g support, operates to transmit and transfer the entire weight and pressure of this uptake column of water to the water-column in the reservoir. The level of the water in the reservoir must therefore reach a height above the level of the water entering the siphon greater than the height of the uptake column of water in the trap, so as to wholly counterbalance it, before the water in the intake side can all be forced out. So soon. as this difterence of level between the column in the reservoir and that in the siphon attained, and the confined column of air in the siphon has, in its forced advance under pressure, displaced the water in the intake side of the trap, it will begin to passinto the uptake and be at once discharged. Its escape and discharge at this point, and the consequent immediate diminution of its volume and pressure within the siphon, will permit a corresponding inflow of water from the reservoir, the which, when the water-level in the siphon is near the overflow-point, will suffine and serve to produce such an overflow as will bring the siphon into active play.
It will be observed that the functions of the small auxiliary vent-tube M, employed in connection with the siphons shown in Figs. 1 and 2, for effecting a release of the confined air to start the siphon, are performed, in the simple automatic siphon shown in Figs. 3 and 5, directly through the siphon-tube itself.
In Fig. at a simple form of concentric siphon properly trapped, as above described, is represented, with an auxiliary vent-tube, M, connecting a point in the intake side of the siphontrap E F slightly above its sealinglevel with the discharge-pipe at the upper bend of said trap. The vent tnbe is, in this case, sealed in common with the main trap; but, having a less depth of seal, it will operate to suddenly discharge the air confined in the siphon before it hasreached the sealing-level oi the trap, sub stantially as is accomplished by means of the trapped tube M in the apparatus shown in Figs. 1 and In Fig. 6 a form of my apparatus is illustrated in which an auxiliary trapped venttube, M, is carried immediately to the outer air at top of the tank, instead of inediately to the dischargepipe, as in Fig. 2, and an independent chargingcup, K, is placed directly within the upper end of the discharge-pipe, the general operation of the device being similar to that of the forms of siphon shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
Figs. 7 and 8 illustrate siphons embodying a modification of my invention, to permit of its being operated at will by hand, instead of automatically, as also by means of afloat in the reservoir. In this form of my improved apparatus the discharge-pipe of the siphon is provided with a trap, E F, having an intake, whose capacity between its sealing and overflow levels 1: y exceeds that of the intake as y of the siphon, so as to prevent an automatic discharge of the air confined in the siphon; but the required difference of fluidlevel within and without the siphon having been produced by the confinement of air there in through the agency of the sealed trap E F of the siphon, substantially as is hereinbefore described, the release of the air-column within the siphon required to permita sudden rise of the water'level therein for the purpose of bringing it into action is produced either by means of an elastic bulb, S, or other equivalent air-exhausting device to be operated by hand, and which is connected with the venttube M, communicating with the air-space in the siphon, as shown in Fig. 7 or else by means of a cook or avalve controlling the vent tube M, and which may be opened to permit an escape of the confined air either by means of a cord or other suitable device to be open at'ed at will; or else automatically by means of a float and lever balanced by a weight, and
connected to the valve by a chain, so as. to suddenly lift the valve whenever the tank becomes full, as is fully illustrated in Fig. 8
I contemplate, likewise, adapting the form of apparatus shown in 'Fig. 4 for operation at will, instead of automatically and intermittently, by dispensing with the vent-tube M, deepening the trap, and so arranging the cap or cover 0 as that it may be lifted and dropped again at pleasure by means of any suitable mechanical device for the purpose whenever it may be desired to start the siphon after the tank is full, and a difi'erenee of level has been established within and without the intake of the siphon, as hereinbefore described.
I do not claim as new the combination, with a tank or reservoir, of a trapped siphon whose overflow-bend rises above the tank; nor yet a trapped siphon whose t ap does not admit of becoming or of remaining sealed after the flow of water through the siphon has ceased.
I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent- 1. The combination of a colunin of water covering the intakii'ig-leg and bend of a siphon with a column of water in the trap of said siphon, and with an intermediate confined and compressed column of air, to produce a differ ence of fluid-level within and without said in: taking-leg, for the purpose of bringing the siphon into action by the release of the air, and
the consequent How of the water toward a common level, all substantially as herein set forth.
2. The combination, with a reservoir, of a trapped siphon having its top'bend below the high level or'top of the reservoir, and so constructed. as that the capacity of its intaking-leg between its sealing and overflow levels shall exceed the capacity of the intaking side of its trap between. its sealing and charge levels, substantially as and for the purpose herein set forth.
3. The combination, with a tapped siphon,
of an air-releasing or vent tube, substantially as and for the purpose herein set forth.
4. The combinatioi'i, with a trapped siphon, of a charging cup or reservoir, for the purpose of refilling and sealing the trap after the action of the siphon has ceased, substantially as herein set forth.
V. G. RHOADS.
WILLIAM RUDOLPH, R0131. G. LOUGHERY.