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Publication numberUS2112264 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 29, 1938
Filing dateApr 16, 1931
Priority dateApr 16, 1931
Publication numberUS 2112264 A, US 2112264A, US-A-2112264, US2112264 A, US2112264A
InventorsEdward L Bowles, Jr Guy Howard Berard Smith
Original AssigneeFrank B Hopewell
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrodynamic apparatus
US 2112264 A
Images(5)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 29, 1938. E. 1.. BOWLES ET AL ELECTRODYNAMIG APPARATUS s .2 H 2 E. w m "r t o e 5 x m L w mw V r a n d r w d E Filed April 16, 1931 I Guy Howard Be March 29, 1938. E. L.. BOWLES ET AL ELECTRODYNAMIC APPARATUS Filed April 16, 1951 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Inventors.

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L I I lily/V YII'AVIIIIIIIII Elm/Mes March 29, 1938. v E. 1.. BOWLES ET AL 7 2,112,264

ELECTRODYNAMIC APPARATUS Filed April 16, 1931 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig. if 62 Fig.

Invenrors. Y Edward L. Bow\ es Guy Howard Berard Smnrh Jr.

March 29, 1938. A E. L. BOWLES ET AL 2,112,264

ELECTRODYNAMIC APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed April 16, 1931 lnverir'or s. Edward L. Bowlgs Guy Howard Berqrd Srmfh Jr.

I Aifya.

E. L. BOWLES ET AL 2,112,264 v YNAMIC APPARATUS March 29, 1938.

ELECTROD Filed Apri Fig. \Q.

-5 Sheets-Shae; 5

Bedrodynamic UnH' Device for Ahering Connecfiofls from Main 3 Phase. 5upp\y 1b each flecirodyncmic. Unii' to Cause Magnefic Fifld to Travel in Dired'ion Reauired For Accelera'l'ion pr necemrafion of Translator.

or ldfo Phq: Deceleroie r and To Cause a single 9. Magnetic. Flam *0 me Translofor.

Inventors. Edward L. Bow\es a Guy Howard Berqrd Smith Jr. I Yka/MSMMM Patented Mar. 29, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,112,264 ELECTRODYNAIWIC APPARATUS Edward L.

Bowles, Wellesley Farms, Howard Berard Smith, Jr., Best and Guy on, Mass, as-

signors to Frank B. Hopewell, trustee, Newton, Mass.

Application April 16, 1931, Serial No. 530,716

45 Claims.

any other defined path within limits or may result in the projection of the body into space or in 15 the retardation of the body arriving from space.

It requires a very carefully designed and constructed mechanism even to approximate these desirable results because the mechanical device is subjected to much wear and requires frequent 20 adjustment and because, as a practical matter, it is quite impossible by mechanical means satisiactory to eliminate the shock occasioned by rapid acceleration or deceleration of a body.

The present invention has for its object to pro- 25 vide an electro-dynamic apparatus operable to exert a unidirectional force upon a body within the influence of the magnetic field created thereby.

The object of the invention is further to provide an electro-dynamic apparatus operable to 30 project a body into space.

The object of the invention is further to provide an electro-dynamic apparatus operable to exert a unidirectional force upon a body along a defined path and between defined limits.

5 The object of the invention is further to initiate and rapidly to accelerate or decelerate by electro-dynamic means.

The object of the invention is further to pro- 40 vide an electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating, accelerating and projecting therefrom a body placed within the magnetic field created thereby.

The object of the invention is further to provide in aloe-m an electro-dynamic apparatus op- 45 erable to effect translatory movement of one of the loom elements.

The object of the invention is further to provide in a loom an electro-dynamic apparatus operable to pass the filling through the shed.

50 The object of the invention is further to provide in the loom an electro-dynamic apparatus for propelling, for checking, or for both propelling and checking a filling carrier of any type transversely of the s ed.-

55 These and other objects and features of the .the field to set invention will appear more fully from the accompanying description and drawings and will be particularly pointed out in the claims.

An apparatus embodying the invention and carrying out the method of the invention con- 5 sists essentially of an electro-magnetic system arranged to produce a useful, magnetic field distributed along a rectilinear or other defined terminated path thereto within the field acted upon electrodynaml- 1o ically by a unidirectional force tending to move it along or parallel with the said path and to project it from the field. In the application of the invention herein to be described, the electromagnetic element is illustrated as the stationary one and is termeda stator, while the element electrodynamically acted upon is illustrated as the movable one and is termed a translator. But the broad principles of the invention apply whichever of the two elements is the stationary one and the other the movable one.

The broad principle involved inthis invention is that the force acting upon the translator is created by the natural law which governs when an electrical conductor in which current is fiowing is located within a magnetic field. Under these conditions a force acts upon the conductor which tends to move it in a direction cutting the lines of force or flux of the field.

The present invention involves a novel adaptation of this broad principle and provides an electro-magnetic field created by a polyphase electric current with the exciting coils placed upon a core in a manner to create a field varying in intensity and in which the point of maximum flux density travels rectilinearly or between the limits of a defined path. Such a field, when acting upon an electric conductor, generates or induces a current therein and this induced current fiowing in the conductor coacts with the fiux of cause the conductor to move with the traveling field and with rapid acceleration to attain a speed approximating that of the field itself. As a. result of this relation of elements, an instrumentality is created by means of which an electric conductor free t move and placed within the field will be set in. motion along or parallel with the direction of travel of the field, and will at the limitof the path of the field be projected from thefield into space.

It has been stated previously that the apparatus creates a unidirectional force on the translator. By the use of the term unidirectional, it is intended .to define the characteristics 01' the apparatus which cause it to exert its total elecstick at each side of the loom and to vibrate these tro-dynamic force on a body placed within its picker sticks by a cam mechanism, thus to pick nections, however, may be caused to exert a force noise and vibration, with many undesirable rein the opposite direction. suits.

The same electro-dynamic apparatus consist- The present invention enables the required ing of stator and translator may be used also to velocity to be given to the shuttle or other filling 1O produce deceleration upon the translator. There carrier with an entire absence of shock and jar,

tered so that the field travels in the opposite high accuracy due to the embodiment of the 15 direction, a force in the op osite direction will be present invention therein.

In the drawings, a simple type of loom is shown may be decelerated, therefore, by subjecting it and translatory device of the invention is shown site to that of its movement. type. Since in the disclosure of a preferred form 20 The above method of decelerating the transof the present invention as embodied in a loom, lator contemplates the use of polyphase alterit is only necessary to consider an apparatus for hating current. Single phase alternating current and metho of propelling and Checking this 5 produce a magnetic field varying in intensity, to illustrate or describe other features of a loom but not traveling rectilinearly. such a field may n ruc n n p i n. u h a ur s all be employed to decelerate the translator. In genmay be of any desired type. It is unnecessary tion of the eddy currents set up in the translator niSmS or changing the operation of the loom 30 A third and possibly the most desirable method anlsms in themselves rm n p r of the pr sent of checking the translator is by the use of direct inv n i n nd m y be f ny p nd m y be current. It direct current is applied correctly adapted to a loom embodying the present inven- 35 to any or all of the coils, a stationary magnetic tion if and as de field is created. If the translator be moved In the drB'WlngSI through this field, its velocity is checked by the Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a lay equipped 40 translator which coact with the stationary field. 2 is a Cross Sectional View Of a 100m 40 The stator and translator elements may be coro yin the principles of the invention. related in any desirable manner, depending upon la 3 is a cross s ti na vi w n n 3-3. the efliciency desired and the particular function to be secured. The apparatus is of wid applL. Fig. 4is a diagrammatical view of the electrical cation and may be used in any situation where Circuits incorporated in the loom- 45 it is desired to produce translatory motion along Fig. 5 is a p V ew o the we section of the it to travel along a predetermined path under the Source of electric currentits own momentum. Figs. 6, 7, and 8 illustrate diagrammatically As one of the many specific embodiments of the Various methods of pp the p ip es of the principles of the broad invention, an application invention to the propulsion of 8 e- This embodiment of the invention also in itself e filling Carrier Shuttle is reciprocated in a 55 tageous in the carrying of the filling through the p a alternating Current 60 shed during the weaving operation. Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the In a loom, the filling must be passed through application of the invention in which the transthe shed of warps in order to form therewith the a o '5 propelled y a three-Phase e n g cloth being woven. This filling may run contincu en an C c by a Single phase.

or it may be taken from a supply located outside ed How of alternating current. of the shed, but in all cases a translatory motion Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic plan view illustrating in a defined limited path, usually rectilinear, an application of the invention to the propulsion 70 The apparatus herein disclosed as a preferred ing a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is embodiment of the invention in connection with usual to employ a mechanically-operated picker a loom for propelling a shuttle through the shed 75 and for checking the movement of the shuttle is shown in duplicate at each end of the lay, the construction being the same in each case. The apparatus comprises a core of two rectilinear laminated soft iron or steel sections of a length suflicient to produce the proper impulse upon'the shuttle. These two core sections are held in spaced relation to form an air gap by means of a supporting framework preferably designed to avoid undesirable dispersion of the flux from the air gap. One of the core sections is slotted to receive the exciting coils. The assembled unit which constitutes the stator is mounted lengthwise at the end of the lay preferably with the coils in the lower core section.

The effective translator travels rectilinearly in the air gap between the core sections. Electrical efficiency requires minimization of the reluctance to the magnetic flux across the air gap and the electro-dynamic efilciency requires that the translator moving in the gap shall have as high an electrical conductivity as possible to permit the flow of induced currents therein. The eificiency of the translatory operation also depends upon the weight of the translator 'or body to be moved. While, therefore, satisfactory results may be secured with any reasonable width of air gap by providing a composite or laminated translator both of highly electrically-conductive material to carry the induced current and of highly magnetic material to transmit the magnetic fiux and thus in efiect to reduce the air gap, the best results are secured by providing as thin an effective translator as possible of electrically-conductive material and consequently a narrow air gap. The term "electrically-conductivev body as applied to the translator herein, unless otherwisequalified, is of broad significance and includes either a simple or composite body, provided it has the capacity of having induced therein by the magnetic flux the currents necessary for the functioning of the apparatus.

If the effective translator is to carry with it a load of substantial bulk, such-as a shuttle body and a supply of filling, then" it is desirable that the thin plate or fin of electrically-conductive material constitute the translator traveling in the air gap between the core sections while the load is carried by the shuttle body outside of the core sections.

In the construction illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6 of the drawings, the shuttle is shown as designed to carry a bobbin containing the yarn supply. The body portion of such a shuttle may be formed of any suitable material and the effective translator is in the form of a fin or thin plate of electrically-conductive material, such as aluminum, projecting laterally therefrom. This fin may be secured to the shuttle body or the entire shuttle, including the fin, may be of the desired material, such as aluminum. The body portion of the shuttle is preferably positioned to run on the usual shuttle race of the loom with the fin projecting towards the fell of the cloth and into the air gap between the core sections. While the shuttle boxes and the apparatus of this invention are herein shown as mounted upon the lay, it

is of course not necessary that they should move with the lay, but instead. they may be mounted upon a separate mechanism or in fixed position on the loom frame with the lay acting simply to beat in the filling. It will be noted that the construction of the shuttle as above described lends itself readily to operation in the ordinary type of loom. The fin being relatively thin may project well forward of the shuttle body into the shed without danger of engagement with and damage to the warps.

The checking of the shuttle may be accomplished by the usual mechanical or other means, but it is herein shown as accomplished by one feature of the present invention. For that purpose the same electrical apparatus used to pick the shuttle is employed. In this case the coils of the core section of the stator are connected with the source of direct current as the translator of the shuttle enters the air gap in the core sections. Consequently as the fin or effective translator passes between the core sections, its velocity is checked by the damping action caused by the fin cutting the flux set up by the coils. In thus cutting the flux a currentis set up in the fin which coacts with the flux to gradually bring the shuttle to rest.

The traveling magnetic field is produced by a polyphase alternating current, preferably the usual three-phase current, and the magnetic field for checking the shuttle may be produced by a direct current. Suitable means are provided for controlling the timing of the operations of the apparatus, or in this case the timing of the picking and checking of the shuttle, and for that purpose there are herein shown a plurality of cams mounted upon a rotating shaft driven at the proper speed and properly adjusted on the shaft toclose and open switches at properly timed intervals with these switches placed in the electric circuits leading to the core sections of the stators.

Referring now to the construction shown in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, there is shown a loom in which the lay I with the exception of the shuttle boxes may be of standard construction having the swords 2 and 3 which are provided with the upright portions 4 and 5 to which the hand rail 6 is secured. The reed I is secured at its lower edge in a recess in the lay and at its upper edge in a recess in the hand rail. The lay is extended at both ends beyond the reed as is the usual practice, but in place of the conventional mechanical pick motion, the ends of the lay are shown as supporting an electro-dynamic apparatus of this invention designated generally at 8 and 9. The apparatus at each-end is similar in construction and electrically designed to move the shuttle in opposite directions toward the center of the lay. The core sections and coils of the apparatus may be arranged in any desired manner. A preferred construction consists of upper and lower laminated core sections l and l I, the lower core section being provided with transverse slots 12 to receive the coils I3. The core sections are of a length determined by the practical limits of size and weight of the parts and the required velocity of the shuttle.

The core sections are supported one above the other by any suitable means to form a narrow air gap l4. As herein shown they are supported by means of a metal frame Hi. The upper core section is secured to the frame by means of angle brackets I6 which may be integral with, riveted to, or fastened in any desirable manner to the frame 15, the downwardly depending portions of the angle brackets being secured to the core section by means of suitable rivets or bolts H. The lower core section is similarly secured to the frame l by means of angle brackets N3, the upward projecting portions being secured to the core section by means of bolts or rivets l9.

In order more effectively to support the upper core section, the frame I5 is extended rearward of the loom above the shuttle box. This extension is in the form of two or more girders 20 extending to and downward along the rear wall of the lay to which they are secured. The angle brackets l6 at the rear wall of the core section I0 are secured to the girders 20 by means of bolts or rivets 2|. The bolts or rivets l1 and I9 pass through those portions of the brackets 16 and I8 which lie along the side walls of the core sections and serve to add rigidity to the laminated core sections by clamping the laminations firmly between the angle brackets. But any suitable means may be employed to support the core sections.

The frame 15 is secured to the lay in any suitable way as by means of the bolts 22 passing therethrough and through ears 23 depending from the frame l5. The core sections desirably are so positioned with respect to the raceway that the rear face of the upper core section III constitutes the front wall of the shuttle box, and may be faced with fibre or leather as shown at 24. The rear wall of the shuttle box is formed with a shuttle guiding member 25 secured to the upper face of the lay. The travel of the shuttle is shown as limited by an adjustable stop 26 secured at the end of the lay and desirably faced with shock absorbing material such as fibre or leather to avoid any tendency of the shuttle to rebound. The core sections are mounted vertically on the lay in such position that the upper face of the lower core section is flush with the plane of the raceway 27 of the lay.

The projecting portions 28 of the coils l3 extend from the rear face of the core section I l into a recess 29 formed in the lay. The recess 29 is covered by a plate 30 secured in the lay upon which the shuttle rests when in the shuttle box. The frame I5 is formed to pass around the forwardly projecting portions 3| of the coils. The shuttle-guiding member 25 is faced desirably with leather or other suitable material as shown at 33, and is positioned to engage the rear wall of the shuttle when the shuttle is in the shuttle box, its forward face being flush with the face of the reed.

The body portion of the shuttle may be constructed of any suitable material such as wood while the fin 34 projecting from the front face must be of electrically-conductive material and for efficiency must have a low electrical resistance. A preferred form of shuttle from the viewpoint of both electrical and mechanical efficiency is a shuttle constructed entirely of the required material for the fin such as aluminum.

In the operation of the apparatus, currents of high amperage are induced within the fin in the form of eddy currents. In order for the apparatus to function efficiently, a low resistance path must be provided beyond the core sections to establish a closed circuit for these eddy currents. To provide for this the fin is extended forward an appreciable amount beyond the air gap. If the body of the shuttle is not of electrically-conductive material, the extension of the fin by which it is secured to the body of the shuttle must pro- Ject an appreciable amount rearward of the air gap to provide a path for the eddy currents.

As already pointed out, only those features of a standard form of loom with which a preferred and illustrated embodiment of the invention is shown are disclosed herein. The mechanisms for actuating the harnesses, the take-up and letoff and all the various adjunctive mechanisms of a loom are not here involved and may be of any desired type. In the construction illustrated, the swords 2 and 3 of the lay I are mounted on the a of the core section I 0 also usual lay rocker shaft 35 journalled in the loom sides 36 and the lay is actuated from the crank shaft 31 by the pitmen 38. The shed is formed by suitable shed forming mechanism including harness frames 39. As the cloth is woven, the warps are drawn from the usual warp beam 40, the finished cloth passes over the breast beam 4| and is wound up on the cloth roll 42.

The electrical connections to the shuttle picking and checking apparatus at the ends of the lay are made through three-wire cables 43 which are shown as extended down along the swords 2 and 3, and connected to an outlet box 44 upon each loom side by means 01' short sections of flexible cable 45. Cables 46 leading from the outlet box 44 are connected. to the contact arms 41 of a switching mechanism indicated generally at 48, and mounted upon a bracket 49 extending inward from the loom side 36. Situated upon the bracket 49 in position to be engaged by the contact arms 41 of the switches, are a. series of contact plates 50 which are in turn connected to the source of current employed to operate the apparatus, certain of the contact plates being connected to a three-phase, three-wire electric source, while the remaining contact plates are connected to a direct current electric source.

The contact arms .41 are engaged by a series of cams 5|, 52, 53 and 54 mounted upon a shaft 55 journalled in the loom sides 36 and driven from the crank shaft 31 by means of a gear 56 upon the shaft 55 meshing with a gear 51 on the crank shaft. To produce the proper timed relation for actuation of the switches the gears 56 and 51 have a 2 to 1 ratio.

In order to insure that the shuttle shall properly enter the shuttle box if accidentally defiected from its normal path, the inner corner 58 at the inner end of the upper slightly curved. The curved surface thus formed acts to guide the shuttle accurately into the shuttle box. The lower corner of the inner end is slightly curved as shown at 59. The curved surface thus formed acts to guide the shuttle by its fin into its proper horizontal plane should it have a tendency to rise from the shuttle race. A horn 60 is provided for each shuttle box and is situated above the path of the body of the shuttle and is secured preferably to the uprights 4 and 5 of the lay swords 2 and 3. The horns 80 serve to guide the body of the shuttle into its proper position within the shuttle box. These horns are shown broken away and may extend as far over the shuttle box to the end of the lay as is desirable.

The electrical design of the electro-dynamic apparatus must be such that a traveling magnetic field is produced within the core sections when the coils are connected to the polyphase alternating electric current, and the number and size of the turns in the coils must be sufficient to create the desired velocity of the shuttle. The actual design adopted to attain the desired result is immaterial. A desirable form is illustrated in the drawings wherein the coils l3 are set in slots l2. When the coils are energized, a magnetic field is created in the core section II. The lines of force or flux of the field traverses the air gap [4 and enters the core section l0 where it travels longitudinally and returns to the core section II at a point where the flux is of opposite polarity as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 6.

The coils may be arranged in any suitable manner to produce a traveling field. They are core section 10 is so arranged as desirably to produce a field which the shed and enters the right-hand shuttle box.

7, moves smoothly and with sufficient speed prop- The cam 54 then permits the contact arms II to erly to accelerate the shuttle. It has been deterspring into their open circuit position. At the mined that a polyphase alternating current proinstant the shuttle enters the right-hand box, the

duces a satisfactory field. It is possible, however, cam 53 causes the contact arms ll to engage the 5 to create a traveling field by employing direct contact plates 15 which are connected to the dicurrent used in connection with a mechanical rect current source I6. The contact arms ll are commutating means which would supply succesconnected by means of the wires 11 to two phases sively each coil of the winding with direct current of the right-hand apparatus. The stationary of proper polarity. In connection with the use field thus setup therein acts upon the fin .of the of polyphase current it is within the scope of the shuttle to retard the velocity thereof, and bring invention to employ a current of any suitable it gradually to rest within the shuttle box accordfrequency. ing' to the natural law applying to such a com- The particular design illustrated employs bination of elements. The intensity .of this field 15 three-phase alternating current which is conshould be sufiicient to retard the fiight of the 5 nected to the coils in the conventional Y circuit. shuttle to such an extent that it has a very slight The delta connection may be used however. movement when it reaches the stop 25.

There are shown herein two groups of coils, one When the shuttle has come. to rest within the group occupying the slots of one-half of the core right-hand box, the cam 53 permits the contact section II at one end thereof, while the other arms 14 to spring into open circuit position. 20 group occupies the remaining slots. Each group After the interval of time required for the beating contains a set of coils for each phase of the cirin of the filling, the cam 52 acts to cause the cuit, or three sets of coils in each group. Becontact arms 18 to engage the contact plates 19 cause the succession of slots terminates at the" two which are connected to the three-phase source ends of the core, it is desirable to use some such 13. The contact arms 18 are connected to the 25 unusual arrangement of coils as that shown, in right-hand apparatus which acts to eject the order to make use of all the slots, produce a good shuttle therefrom, and causes it. to enter the leftfiux distribution along the core, and fulfill other hand shuttle box. The cam 52 then permits the requirements of efficiency. contact arms 18 to spring'into open circuit po- The arrangement of coils is shown in Figs. 4 sition, and as the shuttle enters the left-hand 30 and 5. The first turn of the coil set Si is conbox, the cam 5| acts to force the contact arms nected to the wire 52 carrying the first phase of 80 into engagement with the plates 8| which are the circuit. The first turn of the coil set 63 is connected to the direct current source 16. The connected to the wire 6| carrying the third phase, arms 80 are connected to two phases of the coils the coils 63 being wound in a reverse direction to upon the left-hand apparatus by means of the 35 that of the coils 6|, thereby producing a reversed wires 82. The shuttle thereby is checked in the field. The first turn of the coil set 55 is conleft-hand shuttle box in thesame manner that nected to the wire 65 which carries the second it was checked in the right-hand shuttle box. phase of the circuit. The other ends of the coils The above sequence of operations is repeated to BI, 63 and 65 are connected, respectively, to the form a continuous weaving process.

first turn of the coils 61, 68 and 69 in the second .In order accurately to regulate the velocity of group, while the other ends of these coils are conthe shuttle, a rheostat 83is inserted in the three nected to the neutral point 10. The coils 68 are phase line 13. The rheostat includes resistances connected in a reverse direction in the same manfor each of the phases of the circuit with contact her as the coils 53. The phases are, therefore, arms, one for each resistance, which are movable 45 a w ll balanced a i possible, I in unison to adjust the resistance of the circuit The velocity required of the shuttle varies with the required amount to produce the correct velocdifierent types of looms, but the velocity of the ity of the shuttle. Likewise the checking of the field produced by a 60-cycle current with proper shuttle may be accurately adjusted by means of coil spacing is adequate to produce the highest the rheostat 84 inserted in the direct current line 50 reasonable speed of travel for the shuttle. 16. Other means, than the rheostats 83 and BI The preferred design of the coil system is may be employed to vary the force exerted upon shown in Fig. 5. Each coil is divided in two sec-- the translator. Any suitable means may be used tions which are connected in series, each coil secfor this purpose which is capable of modifying tion occupying different slots in the core section. the impulse exerted upon the translator. It is 5 By thus dividing the coils a better distribution of not necessary to .describe the operation of the fiux thro'ughoutthe core section is obtained, but remaining elements of the loom since they areor the coils may be divided into any desired nummay be of usual construction and function in 9. her of sections. The apparatus at both ends of manner well known to those skilled in the art.

the lay is sim'lar with the exception that the There are many methods of applying the pringo groups of coils are connected to the three-phase iplcs of h nv n i n to p p l a h l source in the proper order to propel the shuttle some fu Practical h ds will be outlined in opposite directions or toward the center of herein. As already pointed out, Fig. 6 illustrates the lay, diagrammatically at one point of its travel the The operation of the described apparatus is as path of the magnetic field resulting from the aro5 follows:-Assuming the shuttle to be at rest rangement of the elements above described in dewithin the left-hand shuttle box, the cam upon tail- A the design of the Parts digTeSSeS from the shaft 55 first engages the three-contact arms the fi yp of t as Shown in H of the switch mechanism 48, the arms 1| beproblem arises of designing a shuttle having the ing connected to the left-hand apparatus, and proper electrical and magnetic properties as well 70 the arms 1! are forced into contact with the conas suificient space'ior a bobbin or other filling tact plates 12 which are connected to the threecarrier. In addition to these qualifications, the phase source of current I3. The left-hand apshuttle also mustbe as light as possible. paratus is thereby energized and acts to eject the Fig. '1 illustrates one variation in which there shuttle therefrom. The shuttle passes through are two electro-magnetic members having core 75 structed of aluminum or other electrically-conducting material. .Such a while Fig. 8 shows a preferred design to be used in a double fabric loom for simultaneously actuating two shuttles. stantially the same length 01' the device.

shuttle 99 bearing he upper face of an electro-magnetic member I00, while the upper shuttle IOI bears section I02.

The sections I03 rality of electric conductors I04 disposed transversely of the sections I03 and welded or otherwise bonded at their ends to conducting plates created by the member I 01 passes downwardly sections I03 at the opposite throughout its path of travel.

While the translator, in the forms of the invention illustrated, is shown as itself carrying would still be applicable.

In the embodiments of the invention thus far illustrated, the traveling magnetic field has been shown as moving in illustration of Fig. 9.

In Fig. 9 a filling carrier I00 having an elec a circle. The ments are shown as of the limits of the path through travels.

tional resistance opposing its motion, if a slightly decreased power be supplied to the units when they act to decelerate the translator thereby to compensate for the friction encountered in traveling from one unit to the other.

This decrease of power can be obtained, for

. instance, by the direct mechanical action of the movement of the translator in its path upon a mechanical switching deviceinterposed in the electrical circuit. 7 a

An example of such an apparatus is diagrammatically illustrated'in Fig. 12 as applicable to the picking mechanism of a loom. There are illustrated two electro-dynamic units H6 and H! which may represent the electrodynamic picking devices at opposite ends of the lay with a translator in the form of a filling carrier or shuttle H8 having the thin fin H9. The supply l of three-phase alternating current has interposed in its passageto each of the electrodynamic units at each end of the lay mechanical switching devices indicated respectively at I2! and I22, each of which operates by the direct mechanical action of the movement of the translator to efiect the desiredv decrease of power supplied to the electrodynamic unit when it acts to decelerate the translator and to .efiect the restoration of the power supplyto the electrodynamic unit when it acts to-- accelerate the translator.

As previously explained, the deceleration or checking movement of the translator may be effected either by direct current, single phase current or multiphase current and an apparatus for effecting such deceleration by a threephase current is illustrated in Fig. 10. Therein the electrodynainic units are indicated at l23 and i24 alternately supplied with a three-phase current I25 through a device 126 for altering the connections from the main three-phase supply to each electrodynamic unit as required to cause the magnetic field to.travel in the direction required either for acceleration or deceleration of the translator. A further apparatus for effecting such deceleration by a single phase current is illustrated in Fig. 11. Therein the electrodynamic units are indicated at I21 and I28. In this case the three-phase alternating current I29 is connected to the device I30 which in turn is connected to the electrodynamic units and which acts to alter the connections from the main threephase supply 129 to each electrodynamic unit so as to cause the magnetic field to, travel when requiredin each unit in the direction required for acceleration of the translator and so as to cause when required a single phase magnetic field in each electrodynamic unit to be set up to decelerate the translator. I

Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new, and desired to be secured by Letters Patent, is: g 1. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising anelectro-magnetlc system having a core of rectilinear form presenting a coil carrying section anda return section separated by a narrow air gap, exciting coils on the coil carrying section, and a translator having a thin electricallyconductive non-magnetic fin fitting the air gap, means for connecting a polyphase alternating current to the said coils to cause the said system to produce, a flux of. variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core and which flux acts,

when the fin is within its field, to induce current therein and co-acts with the magnetic field ofsuch current to initiate and accelerate, the movement of the translator longitudinally of the core in the direction of said travel and also co-acts with the magnetic field of such current to decelerate the movement of the translator longitudinally of the core when the fin is moved within the field in the opposite direction.

2. An electro dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising an electro-magnetic system having a core of rectilinear form and exciting coils, and an electrically conductive body, means for connecting-a polyphase alternating current to-the said coils to cause the said system to produce a flux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core and which flux acts, when the body is within its field, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally of. the core in the direction of said travel, and means for connecting a direct current to said coils to cause the said system to produce a stationary flux which flux acts, when the body is moved withinits field, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to decelerate the movement of the body. 7

3. An 'electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and acceleratingand for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising an electro-magnetic system having a core of rac tilinear form and exciting coils, and an electrical: ly conductive body, means for connecting a poly-; phase alternating current to the said coils to cause the said system tov produce a flux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core and which flux acts, when thebody is within its field, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally of the core in the direction or said travel and means for connecting a single phase alternating current to said coils to cause the said which flux acts, when the body is moved within its field, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to decelerate the movement of the body.

system to produce a stationary oscillating flux,

4. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising an electro-magnetic system having a core of rectilinear form, pre-, senting a coil carrying section and a return section separated by an air gap, an electrically conductive body fitting'the air gap, and means for energizing the said coils to produce a flux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core in one direction only and which flux acts, when the body is within its field, to induce current therein and.

duce a flux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core in one direction only' and which flux acts,

when the body is within its field, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to cause the body to be projected from the field in the said direction.

6. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising an electro-magnetic system having a core of rectilinear i'orm, presenting a coil carrying section and areturn section separated by an air gap, a composite body of magnetic elements and of non-ma etic electrically conductive elements fitting t e air gap, and means for energizing the said coils to produce a fiux of variable density whose point 01' maximum density travels longitudinally oi the core in one direction only and which fiux acts, when the body is within its field, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to cause the body to be projected from the field in the said direction.

7. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating the movement of a body in a defined terminated path comprising an electromagnetic system having a. core presenting a coil carrying section and a return section extending along at opposite sides oi. and conforming to said path, an electrically conductive body, and means for energizing the said coils to produce a fiux of variable density whose point oi maximum density travels longitudinally of the core and in conformity to said path in one direction only and which flux acts, when the body is within its field, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to cause the body to be projected from the field in the said direction at the maximum speed attained by the body.

8. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with an air gap between the sections, an electrically conductive body fitting the air gap and extending well beyond the air gap at each side to provide free paths for the induced currents therein, an elec-- tro-magnetic means upon one of the core sections, and means for energizing the said electro-magnetic means to produce a fiux of variable density whose point oi maximum density travels longitudinally oi the core and which fiux acts, when the body is placed within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to move the body longitudinally within the air gap and project it therefrom.

9. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with a narrow air gap between the sections, a thin non-magnetic electrically conductive body fitting the air gap and extending well beyond the air gap at each side to provide free paths for the induced currents therein, an electro-magnetic means upon one of the core sections, and means for energizing the said electro-magnetic means to produce a flux of variable density whose point of. maximum density travels longitudinally of the core and which fiux acts, when the body is placed within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to move the body longitudinally within the air gap and project it therefrom.

10. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with a narrow air gap between the sections, a thin composite body of magnetic elements and of non-magnetic electrically conductive elements fitting the air gap and extending well beyond the air gap at each side to provide free paths for the induced currents therein, an electro-magnetic means upon one of the core sections, and means for energizing the said electro-magnetic means to produce a fiux or variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of. the core and which fiux acts, when the body is placed within the air gap, to induce current therein'and co-acts with such current to move the body longitudinally within the air gap and project it therefrom.

11. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with an air gap between the sections, exciting coils on the core, an electrically conductive body fitting the air gap, means for connecting a polyphase alternating current to the coils to produce a fiux of variable density whose point 01 maximum density travels longitudinally of the core sections and which fiux acts, when the body is within the air gap, to induce current therein'and co-actswith such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally within the air gap in the direction of said travel and to project it from the air gap, and also co-acts with such current to decelerate the movement of the body when the body is moved within the air gap in the opposite direction.

12. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path com prising a core having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with an air gap between the sections, exciting coils on the core, an electrically conductive body fitting the air gap, means for connecting a polyphase alternating current to the coils to produce a fiux oi variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core sections and which flux acts, when the body is within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally within the air gap in the direction of said travel and to project it from the air gap, and means for connecting a direct current to said coils to cause the said system to produce a stationary fiux, which fiux acts, when the body is moved within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to decelerate the movement of the body.

13. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core. having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with an air gap between the sections, exciting coils on the core, an electrically conductive body fitting the air gap, means for connecting a polyphase alternating current to the coils to produce a fiux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core sections and which fiux acts, when the body is within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally within the air gap in the direction of said travel and to project it from the air gap, and means for connecting a single phase alternating current to said coils to cause the said system to produce a stationary oscillating flux, which fiux acts, when the body therein and co-acts with such current to decelerate the movement of the body.

14. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core, having twoparallel sections of rectilinear form with a narrow air gap between the sections, exciting coils on the core, a thin non-magnetic electrically conductive body fitting the air alternating current to the coils of variabledensity whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core sections and which flux'acts, when the body is within the air gap, to induce current therein and coacts with the magnetic field of such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally within the air gap in therdirection of said travel and to project itfrom the air gap, and also co-acts with the magnetic field of such current to decelerate the movement of the body whenthe body is moved within the air gap in the opposite direction. 1

15. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with a narrow air gap between the sections, exciting coils on the core, a thin non-magnetic electrically conductive body fitting the air gap, means for connecting a polyphase alternating current to the coils to produce a fiux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core sections and which fiux acts, when the body is within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally within the air gap in the direction of said travel and to project it from the air ga and means for connecting a direct current to said coils tocause the said system to produce a stationary flux, which flux acts,when the body is moved within the air gap, to induce current therein and coacts with such current to decelerate the movement of the body.

16. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising a core having two parallel sections of rectilinear form with a narrow air gap between the sections, exciting coils on the core, a thin non-magnetic electrically conductive body fitting the air gap, means for connecting a polyphase alternating current to the coils to produce a flux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core when the body is sections and which flux acts, within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally within the air gap in the direction of said travel and to project it from the air gap, and means for connecting a single phase alternating current to said coils to cause the said system to produce a stationary oscillating flux, which flux acts, when the body is moved within the air gap, to induce current therein and co-acts with such current to decelerate the movement of the body.

1'7. An electro-dynamic apparatus comprising a stator and a translator, the said stator comprising a pair of terminated core sections equispaced by an air gap and a polyphase coil winding on the core, the translator comprisi g a nu oi nonother and which flux acts to gap, means .for connecting a polyphase co-acts with such current to to produce a flux to provide return paths for of the core from one end trically conductive -conductlve material fitting extending at both sides thereof paths for eddy currents, and

magnetic electric the air gap and to provide return having sections of magnetic material extending transversely thereof to form flux paths between the core sections, the said apparatus acting when a polyphase alternating current is connected to the winding to produce a magnetic flux traveling longitudinally of the core from one end to the induce current in the translator and move the translator therewith. 1 I

18. An electro-dynamic apparatus comprising a stator and a translator, the said stator comprising a pair of terminated core sections equispaced by a narrow air gap and a polyphase coil winding on the core, the'translator comprising a thin fin of electrically-conductive material fitting both sides thereof the air gap and extending at eddy currents, the said apparatus acting when nating current is connected produce a magnetic flux traveling longitudinally to the other and which flux acts to induce current in the translator and co-acts with such current to move the translator therewith.

19. An electro-dynamic apparatus for initiat ing and accelerating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising an electro-magneticsystem ha g a core of rectilinear formand exciting coils on said core, an electrically conductive body, means for energizing some of said coils to produce a flux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core, and

means duce a stationary flux, when the body is within itsfield, to induce current therein and co-acting with said current to initiate and accelerate the movement of the body longitudinally of the core in thedirection of the flux travel, and the latter fiux acting when the body is moved in its field to induce current therefor energizing other of said coils to proin and co-acting with such current to decelerate the movement of the body. v

a polyphase alterto the winding to the former flux actin 20. An electro-dynamic apparatus foracceler- I ating and for decelerating the movement of a body in a rectilinear path comprising an electromagnetic system having a core of rectilinear iorm and exciting coils on said core, an electrically conductive body, means for energizing some of said coils to produce a fiux of variable density whose point of maximum density travels longitudinally of the core, and means for energizing other of said coils to produce a stationary flux, the said fluxes acting electro-dynamically respectively to accelerate and to decelerate the movement of the body longitudinally of the core.

21. A loom having mounted thereon at the side of the shed an electro-dynamic apparatus comprising a pair of parallel rectilinear core sections extending transversely of the loom and separated by an air gap, a polyphase coil winding on said core -producing when connected with' a""corre-- sponding polyphase alternating current a magnetic'field traveling longitudinally toward the center or the loom and across the air gap, and a cooperating filling carrier presenting an electranslator extending through and beyond both sides of the air gap and acted upon electro-dynamically to be accelerated by the field and projected therefrom across the loom.

22. A loom having mounted thereon in alignment at each side of the shed an electro-dynamic 15 traveling longitudinally toward the center of the loom and across the air gap acting to induce curdirect current acting to induce current within the translator and co-acting therewith when the translator is projected into its field to bring the filling carrier to rest.

23. A loom provided at each side with an electro-dynamic means alternately energized by a co-acting therewith to project the filling carrier from said means and across the loom when ensingle phase alternating current and acting to induce current within an electrically conductive filling carrier and co-acting therewith to project the filling carrier from said means and across the loom when energized by the polyphase alternating current and to bring to rest the filling carrier projected from the opposite side of the loom when energized by the single phase alternating current.

25. A loom comprising a lay, means for swinging the lay forward and rearward, the said lay site end of the lay.

26. A loom comprising a lay, means for swinging the lay forward and rearward, the said lay having mounted each end and in to produce a magnetic field traveling longitudinally toward the center of the loom and across the air gap acting electro-dynamically upon the translator to project the filling carrier across the loom and each said apparatus when connected to the direct current acting electro-dynamically upon the translator projected into its field to bring the filling carrier to rest.

27. A loom comprising a lay, means for swinging the lay forward and rearward, the said lay having mounted thereon at each end an electrodynamic means alternately energized by a polyloom when energized by'the 28. A loom having the construction defined in claim 22, in which the means for alternately concurrent and the direct v operating the switches in timed relation to the operation of the loom.

29. A loom comprising the construction defined alternately energizing the said electro-dynamic means.

30. A loom comprising the construction defined in claim 24, together with a series of switches and means for operating the switches in timed relagizing the said electro-dynamic means.

31. A loom having the magnetic field.

34. A loom shuttle comprising a body portion and a thin fin o1 electrically conductive material 01' the shuttle through the coaction of said induced current with a traveling magnetic field.

' is induced therein to ternating current 36. A filling carrier comprisinga body portion and a thin fin of non-magneticelectrically 'conductive material projecting longitudinally of the body and laterally therefrom and capable when an electric current is induced therein to effect longitudinal propulsion of the filling carrier through the coaction of said induced current with a traveling magnetic field.

3'7. A filling carrier comprising a bodyportion and a thin fin of electrically conductive material projecting longitudinally of the body and laterally therefrom and capable when an electric current is induced therein to effect longitudinal pro.-

pulsion of the filling carrier through the coaction if said induced current with a traveling magnetic 38. A filling carrier comprising a body portion and a thin fin of magnetic elements and of nonmagnetic electrically conductive elements projecting longitudinally of the body and laterally therefrom and capable when an electric current effect longitudinal propulsion oi the filling carrier through the coaction of sfiaid induced current with .a traveling magnetic eld.

39. A filling carrier for a loom having a thin fin of non-magnetic electrically conductive material projecting longitudinally thereof and laterally therefrom and inserts of material of high magnetic permeability extending transversely from face to face of the fin the said fin. capable when an electric current is induced in the non-magnetic electrically conductive material thereof of effecting longitudinal propulsion of the filling carrier through the coaction of said induced current with a traveling magnetic field.

40. A loom shuttle comprising a body portion and a thin fin of non-magnetic electrically conductive material projecting longitudinally of the body and laterally therefrom and inserts of material of high magnetic permeability extending transversely from face to face of the fin the said fin being capable when an electric current is induced in the non-magnetic electrically conductive material thereof of effecting longitudinal propulsion of the shuttle through the coaction of said induced current with a traveling magnetic field...

41. A loom provided with eiectro-dynamic means comprising a coil-carrying core section and a return core section separated by a narrow longitudinal air gap and energized by a polyphase a1- and acting to induce current within an electrically conductive filling carrier extending into and movable in said air gap, the said means coacting with said induced current to project the filling carrier along the gap and out of said gap and thence across the loom and the said core sections projecting equally toward the center of the loom a substantial distance beyond the coils to minimize distortion of the paths of the flux generated by the end coils thus to insure the projection of the filling carrier from the air gap at maximum speed.

42. A loom provided with electro-dynamic ,said air gap,

means comprising a coil-carrying core section and a return core section separated by a narrow longitudinal air gap and energized by a polyphase electric current, a filling carrier having a thin fin of electrically conductive material movable within and extending at both sides of the air gap, the said means acting to induce current within the fin and coacting with said induced current to project the filling carrier along and out of said air gap and across the loom and the extensions of the fin at both sides of the air gap acting to provide return paths for eddy currents induced therein and thus increase the efiiciency of operation.

43. A loom provided with electro-dynamic means comprising a magnetic system having two parallel core sections spaced a. short distance apart to form a narrow longitudinal air gap, a polyphase coil winding on the core, and an electrically conductive filling carrier having a thin fin fitting the the said apparatus acting to produce a maximum electro-dynamic force upon the fin with a minimum number of ampere turns in the coils when the said coils are energized by a polyphase alternating current. I

44. A loom provided with an electro-dynamic apparatus for initiating and accelerating the movement of a filling carrier across the loom comprising a two-section core of rectilinear form, the sections thereof being held in parallel spaced relation to form an air gap, e1ectro-magnetic means acting to produce a magnetic field within the core passing transversely of said air gap and of varying intensity with its point of maximum density traveling longitudinally of the core, a filling carrier having a fin fitting the air gap and having one or more paths of high magnetic conductivity and also comprising non-magnetic elecand accelerating in opposite directions the movements of an electrically conductive body in a defined terminated path comprising an electromagnetic system having core sections at opposite sides of said path held in closely spaced relation toform a narrow air gap, the core section or sections at one side of the air gap carrying exciting coils, the core section or sections at the opposite side of the air gap constituting a return path for the magnetic flux, a thin non-magnetic electrically conductive body fitting the air gap, means for connecting a polyphase alternating current to said coils, and meansfor periodically shifting the connection of said current to cause a unidirectional force to act upon the thin non-magnetic electrically conductive body within the air gap and cause it to reciprocate in the air gap.

- EDWARD L. BOWLES.

G. H. BERARD SMITH. Js.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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US2831131 *Dec 20, 1955Apr 15, 1958IbmLinear-motor paper feed
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US4624287 *Jun 26, 1984Nov 25, 1986Isaak KakilashviliShuttle unit of a loom
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Classifications
U.S. Classification139/134, 124/3, 104/290, 310/13, 139/142
International ClassificationB65G23/00, H02K41/025, D03D49/44
Cooperative ClassificationB65G23/00, H02K41/025, D03D49/44, B65G2811/09
European ClassificationB65G23/00, H02K41/025, D03D49/44