US 2114274 A
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April 12, 1938. w. HUPPERT TUBULAR BRAID Filed Nov. 27, 1937 INVENTOR M W i Y E N R O T A Patented Apr. 12, 1938 UNITED STATES I PATENT OFFICE TUBULAR BRAID aware Application November 27, 1937, Serial No. 176,792
This invention relates to tubular braid, and more particularly to tubular braid for use, among other purposes, in the manufacture of hair dressing accessories, such as foundations, curlers,
5 rollers, and the like.
These articles have heretofore generally been made of round tubular braid of relatively still threads, such as artificial horsehair or the like, branded with the threads crossing over and under 10 one another but ununited at their crossing. The braids have been made either of single threads, or a plurality of threads braided as one, the latter being commonly known as diamond" braid. Such braid is generally ofopen mesh construction, the meshes being substantially square in shape, with two of their opposed right angles extending in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the braid. The braid is highly stretchable lengthwise with a consequent objectionable deformation. In some instances, to reduce their stretchability, the articles have been made of round tubular lace braid wherein the threads are interlaced or interwoven at their junction or crossing.
Both types of braid, however, are subject to numerous disadvantages, particularly that they do not have sumcient body and that they do not maintain their shape in use but tend to flatten or deform, especially when stretched or when subjected to lateral or radial compression.
I have found that a marked improvement in round tubular braid for the purposes mentioned may be effected by incorporating in the braiding unbraided elastic warp threads under considerable tension.
Tubular braiding having unbraided elastic warp threads has many advantages: it has considerable body and is not easily deformed in use; it has greater resistance to lateral or radial compression, both in its unstretched and its stretched condition; it is not easily crushed or collapsed; when subjected to tension it will not flatten but will maintain substantially its. original braided form; and its stretchability is limited and controlled by the elastic warp threads.
My improved tubular braid may be made with the usual braiding machines according to ordinary. braiding technique. A braiding machine that may be used conveniently is one of the sinuous-orbit type in which the bobbin carriers are moved in intersecting paths. The elastic warp threads are carried on stationary underbobbins and, during the braiding operation, they are drawn off the bobbins under tension and incorporated in the braid on the form or mandrel on which it is made.
In the accompanying drawing I have illustrated the invention more 'or less diagrammatically.
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a round tubu- 5 lar braid embodying unbraided elastic warp threads incorporated under tension; and
Fig.2 is a view of a section of the tubular braid on an enlarged scale.
Having reference now to the drawing, l0 indicates the round tubular braid generally, while Ii and i2 indicate the interbraided threads. For simplicity of illustration I have shown a braid in which each strand consists of a single thread, but it is to be understood that the strands may consist of two or more separate threads braided as one as in diamond braid. The strands or threads H and H are preferably of artificial horsehair, generally consisting of threads of a suitable cellulose derivative or a regenerated cellulose, although they may be of other relatively stiff and inelastic material suitable for use in a braiding machine.
The elastic strands or threads i3 maybe of rubber or other suitable elastic material. These strands may consist of an elastic cord covered with a winding of textile thread, or they may consist of uncovered elastic threads. Preferably,
I employ covered threads in which the elastic or rubber core has been incorporated under tension.
In the braiding operation, the threads ii and 92 are drawn under normal braiding tension from the bobbins on which they are carried over a suitable form or mandrel, generally of cylindrical shape, in such manner that the threads will cross over and under one another in opposite helical directions. In the particular form of braid illustrated, the threads H and i2 are unconnected at the points where they intersect or cross.
The elastic warp threads I 3 extend the entire length of the tubular braid, and are preferably spaced apart equal distances circumferentially of the tube. During the braiding operation these elastic warp threads are drawn oif the stationary under-bobbins, on which they are carried, under considerable tension, preferably such as to stretch them substantially to their full extent. Any suitable tensioning devices, either weight actuated or spring actuated, may be employed.
It will be noted that the elastic warp threads I 3 as shown are not interbraided with the braided strands H and I2, but that they preferably lie between these strands and are frictionally held thereby. For instance, on referring to Fig. 2, 55
where the elastic warp threads l3 are shown in their normal or unstretched condition, it will be observed that the strands ll extending helicaily in one direction pass over eachof the elastic threads l3, while the strands I! that extend in the opposite helical direction, pass under each elastic thread.
In Fig. 2 the elastic threads are shown as disposed in the tubular braid to lie at points where the braided threads H and I2 cross each other, and in the braiding operation they are ordinarily so incorporated. However, when the braid is delivered from the machine, the elastic warp threads generally tend to slide slightly sidewise to one side 'or the other of the crossing points.
As braided, the meshes of the tubular braid I!) are substantially square-shaped. When, however, the braid is delivered or removed from the ma chine, the elastic warp threads l3, which as hereinbefore noted, are incorporated in the braid in stretched condition, spring back to their normal length and thus contract the meshes into substantially rhombic form It shown in Fig. 2. Each rhombiform mesh has two acute angles l5 and two obtuse angles IS, the acute angles l5 extending in planes substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tube. By reason of the contracted form of the meshes, the tubular braid in unstretched condition has far greater resistance to lateral or radial compression than a similar braided tube made without elastic warp threads. The braid is also more resistant to compression when stretched because of the greater tension of the elastic warp threads in their stretched condition. Should the braid be compressed, it will immediately upon releaseof the compressive force return to its normal shape, due to the elasticity of the warp threads.
The tubular braid may be of different diameters and of different forms or shapes. For use in the manufacture of hair dressing accessories, I generally make the braid in round tubular form and in diameters of from three-eighths to seveneighths of an inch, although the tube may be made of larger or even of smaller diameter.
The contraction of the meshes H, in the unstretched condition of the braid, is a characteristic feature of my invention; however, it will be understood that the braid may be made of meshes of different sizes so as to form a tubular braid of.
either a finer or a coarser mesh. The braided threads, as well as the elastic warp threads, for
braid as particularly suitable for the manufaccomprising interbraided strands of relatively stiff and inelastic material, and unbraided warp threads of elastic material, whereby said crosssectional shape is substantially maintained.
2. As a new article of manufacture, a tubular braid of a predetermined cross-sectional shape comprising interbraided strands of relatively stiff threads extending helicaily in opposite directions and crossing over and under one another. and unbraided initially tensioned elastic warp threads extending longitudinally and passing between the oppositely extending braided threads at or near points where the latter cross, whereby said cross-sectional shape is substantially maintained.
3. As a new article of manufacture, a tubular braid of a predetermined cross-sectional shape comprising interbraided strands of relatively stiif threads extending helicaily in opposite directions and crossing over and under one another, and unbraided initially tensioned elastic warp threads extending longitudinally, said elastic warp threads lying between the oppositely extending braided threads at or near points where the latter cross and being frictionally held between said threads, whereby said cross-sectional shape is. substantially maintained.
4. As a new article of manufacture, atubular braid comprising an open mesh braiding of relatively stiff material including unbraided initially tensioned elastic warp threads, the meshes of the braid being contracted in the direction of the axis of the braid by the elastic warp threads,
6. As a new article of manufacture, a tubularbraid of predetermined cross-sectional shape comprising interbraided threads of relatively stiff material, and unbraided elastic warp threads extending between the interbraided threads in the direction of the axis of the braid and spaced apart substantially uniformly circumferentially of the braid, whereby when the braid is elongated, its
predetermined cross-sectional shape is substantially maintained though reduced in area.
7. A tubular braid of predetermined crosssectional shape comprising relatively stiff braided threads and elastic warp threads having a predetermined maximum stretch, whereby the original cross-sectional shape of the braid is substantially maintained when stretched but with a limited reduction in its cross-sectional area.
8. A tubular braid of substantially circular cross-sectional shape comprising relatively stiff braided threads and elastic warp threads having a predetermined maximum stretch, whereby the original cross-sectional shape of the braid is substantially maintained when stretched but with a limited reduction in its diameter.