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Publication numberUS2114655 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 19, 1938
Filing dateFeb 26, 1935
Priority dateFeb 26, 1935
Publication numberUS 2114655 A, US 2114655A, US-A-2114655, US2114655 A, US2114655A
InventorsWilliam E Leibing
Original AssigneeWilliam E Leibing
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for operating internal combustion engines
US 2114655 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 19, 1938, w. E. LE l BING METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR OPERATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed, Feb. 26, 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 April 19, 1938; w. E. LEIBING METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR OPERATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES s Sheet-Sheet 2 April 19, 1938. w. E. LEIBING METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR OPERATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Feb. 26, 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 ll I II I III QMS W Patented Apr. 19, 1938 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR OPERATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES William E. Leibing, Sausalito, Calif.

Application February as, 1935, Serial No. 8,378

liiclaims.

This invention relates to a novel method of operating internal combustion engines and novel apparatus tobe associateditherewith. More particularly my'invention relates to-a method of and apparatus for the control of the feed of fuel thereto for effecting the efllcient operation of internal combustion engines whereby the discharge therefrom of obnoxious, unhealthy and unburned vapors and gasesis prevented.

In the operation of the existing types of internalcombustion engines, as for instance in con,-

nection with buses, trucks and other heavy duty vehicles, the relatively low compression pressures existing in the cylinders at idling speed are insuiilcient for the proper burningeofthe charges of fuel being fed thereto at the corresponding speed. This is apparent from the manner in .which an engine of the type noted will foul up if left at idling speed for any extendedperiod of time.

Likewise, the lack of compression which exists in an engine of a bus or truck when the throttle is closed at high speed and the vehicle drives the engine, and also the shorter period of time in which the charge must burn, are entirely inadequate for anything approaching complete combustion.

Under both the above mentioned circumstances -gassing or a discharge of unburned vapors or gases from thelexhaust of the engine occurs 30 which is not only wasteful, but also obnoxious and undesirable from a health standpoint. This is highly undesirable particularly inbuses where large numbers of passengers are carried and frequent stopping and starting is necessary in trafflc congested districts. n

In overcoming these disadvantages of prior methods of operation, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a novel method and apparatus whereby the relatively low com- 40 pression pressures afore-mentioned are raised to a point where the fuel charges fed thereto are completely burned with resulting economies in' operation, and no discharge of unhealthy and obnoxious gases and vapors.

I have found this may be done in the present invention in a multi-cylinder engine by removing one or more of the cylinders from the'working class and converting them to air compressors only, whereby the compression pressure in the remaining cylinders is greatly increased with no increase in idling speed by reason of the lesser number'of working cylinders and the work or effort required of the same to drive the cylinders converted to air compressors.

It will be noted that the work of the cylinders converted to air compressors is entirely unlike that of the conventional air compressor wherein the air is exhausted at the end of the compression stroke and there is no driving effect from the air so compressed. Since all the valves of 5 an internal combustion engine remain closed at top dead center following the compression stroke,

the work required to compress the air on the compression stroke is virtually all returned to the engine by the expansion of the compressed air itself on the reverse stroke. The pumping out of such air into the exhaust system is done against atmospheric pressure only. Therefore the net expenditure of work of the engine when used as an air compressor is that lost due to friction and due to the heat of compression.

While it might be assumedthat poor economy and roughness of operation would result from the operation of a number of cylinders as air compressors with the ,remaining cylinders carrying on the work, it has been found in practice that the economy and smoothness of operation are improved and substantial savings are eifectedsince the expansion of the compressed air prevents roughness, and since in place of the full number of the cylinders of the engine working under low compression and hence under unfavorable conditions in the usual idling operation, there' is a lesser number of cylinders working under far better conditions in my improved arrangement.

While the foregoing method has been described as of advantage in only two conditions of engine operation, it can also be employed to advantage when an engine is not doing, useful work or when operating under light loads.

The engine cylinders, so converted, are preferably opened to air or a like non-combustible gas at atmospheric pressure or at a pressure suflicientlyhigh to avoid the creation of a relatively high vacuum in the cylinders. Otherwise,- the converted cylinders at the high vacuum would tend to foul by reason of the suction of oil past thepistons with little or no pressure to force the oil back to the crank case. By the elimination of the vacuum, there is no tendency to such oil from the crank case past the pistons and the compression in the cylinders effectively keeps the cylinders and spark plugs from fouling with oil.

A further object of this invention is to provide a novel method and means whereby an internal combustion engine, under conditions normally producing gassing, has the exhaust system including the muiiler and associated equipment thoroughly purged by the forced circulation of pure air or other suitable medium.

in such a manner that the fuel mixture is sup-- plied to all of the cylinders during the time that the engine is pulling a load and to only certain cylinders during shifting, coasting, braking and like operations.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a novel linkage, operable upon actuation of the throttle of an internal combustion engine which is adapted to close auxiliary'air inlets prior to the opening of the main throttle valve and auxiliary fuel cut-ofl' valves, and permits closing of the lattervalves prior to the opening of the auxiliary air inlets.

Another object of the present invention resides in the provision of means for automatically con: trolling the supply of fuel and air to an internal combustion engine in accordance with the intake vacuum pressure in such a manner that fuel mix ture is supplied to all of said cylinders when the intake vacuum is below a certain predetermined value and to only certain of the cylinders when the intake vacuum rises to or above said predetermined value.

A further object of the present invention is to provide an internal .combustion engine intake manifold with valves which are designed to interrupt the supply of fuel to certain cylinders and supply pure air thereto under other conditions.

Still further objects of my invention will appear as the following detailed description proceeds in conjunction with the appended claims and attached drawings wherein: Figure 1 is an elevational view showing a novel manifold and linkage utilized in one form of the present invention for controlling the valves provided in the manifold.

Figure 2 is an enlarged transverse sectional view taken on line 2-2 of Figure 1 showing one of the valves of Figure 1 and the? slip joint used to obtain the desired operation of said valve.

Figure 3 is an elevational view of the end of the valve shaft of Figure 2 showing the relative position of the shoulders .of the slip Joint used thereon." v I Figure 4 is an enlarged sectional view on line 4 4 of Figure 1 showing the shaft and slip joi nt used on the auxiliary air valves shown in Figure 1.

Figure 5 is an elevational view of the end of the shaft shown in Figure 4 showing the relation of the shoulders of the slip joint shown in Figure 4.

, Figure 6 is an elevational view showing a modified form of the invention with .the manifold broken away in part in order to more clearly il lustrate the device.

-Figure 7 is -a longitudinal sectional view of the end section of- Figure 6 showing the detailed arrangement of the valves and actuator.

Figure 8 is a transverse sectional view taken on line 8-4 of Figure 6 and shows the means for supporting the actuator and the transverse relation of the actuator and valves.

' Figure 9 is an elevational view, "partially in section, of a modified form of the invention wherein an automatic pressure responsive actuator is utilized to replace the throttle connected actuating linkage of the other forms of the invention.

' 24 of passage 22.

With continued reference to the drawings wherein like reference characters designate the same parts throughout the several figures, as shown in Figure 1, l0 indicates generally an intake manifold embodying the present invention. Manifold i0 is provided with a depending portion II which is provided with an annular flange i2. A carburetor i3 of anydesired known make having a flange l4 may be secured to flange l2. A gasket I4 is disposed between flanges I2 and l4which are securedtogether by bolts or studs Manifold |ll,-.as shown in the drawings, is adapted for a six cylinder internal combustion engine, and is provided with three outlet branches l6, l1 and I6. Each branch l6, l1, and I8 is provided with a flange l8 adapted to be secured in any suitable manner to the intake ports of the internal combustion engine cylinders. The manifold illustratedsupplies fuel to two of the cylinders of the engine through each branch.-

ders numbered 3 and 4,- and branch l8 may sup- I ply cylinders numbered land 2 as. in the well known Twin Coach Hercules" engine.

Carburetor I3 is provided with the usual butterfly control valve adapted to control fuel admission through passage'22 thereof. Valve 2| is carried by a shaft 23 extending across passage 22 and journaled in suitable bosses in the wall The projecting end of shaft 23 is an operating bell-crank 25 which has an arm 26 integrally formed thereon. Arm 26 is suitably threaded to receive an adjustable stop screw 28 adapted to abut a projection 29 integrally formed on the exterior of wall 24. Stop 28 functions in amanner to be hereinafter pointed out. The manifold illustrated in the drawings is of the well-known hot spot" type, and numeral 30 indicates the structure forming the hotspot.

tion 34 is provided and depending portion II is formed as anintegral part thereof. Section 34 is also provided with securing flanges 35 which are adaptedto be secured to flanges 36 of intermediate sections 3lby suitable bolt assemblies 38. A gasket 39 is disposed between'sections 34 and 3.I-to provide afluid tight joint between these parts.

Sections 31 adjacent flanges 36 are provided with butterfly valves 4| which are carried by suitably journaled shafts 42 and 42'. Valves 4| are adapted to be operated in a manner to be presently described to completely close passages 43 of sections 31, to prevent passage of the fuel mix- .ture from the carburetor to branches l6 and II of the manifold during predetermined operating periods and throttle positions of the internal combustion engine. The purpose of these valves will be described in greater detail as the description of the device proceeds.

Sections 31 are also provided with downwardly extending auxiliary air conduits 44. Passages 45 of conduits 44 are in direct communication with passage 43 at points between valves 4| and branches l6 and I! as clearly shown inthe drawings. Butterfly valves 46 carried'on suitably journaled shafts 41 are disposed in conduits 44 for the purposeof connecting the passage 43 directly to the atmosphere at all times when the valves 4| are in position to prevent a flow of fuel to outlet branches l6 and I8 of the manifold. Suitable flanges 44 formed on sections 31 are secured to well-known construction are provided for conduits 44 and the carburetor air intake 99.

The operating mechanism for the various control valves comprises an operating lever 99 iournaled on shaft 29, a bell-crank 99 iournaled on shaft 42, and a lever 91 'io'urnaled on a shaft 42'. Each of these levers is .adapted to rotate its respective shaft and the valves 2| and 4| through identical drive connections, only one of which will now be shown in detail. As shown in Figure 2, these drive connections comprise a shoulder 99 on each of said levers adapted to engage shoulders 99 formed on collars 99 secured to each of the shafts 29, 42, and 42' respectively by pins 9|, and so arranged that as'the respective levers are rocked in a clockwise direction from the position shown in Figure 1, the respective shafts and the valves 2| 94, arm 99 being preferably equal in length to arm v 91. Arm 92 is connected by means of pin 99 to clevis 99 of an adjustable connecting'link 91, the

opposite clevis 99 of which is connected by a pin 99 to the end of operating lever 99 for throttle valve 2|. Also connected to arm 99 by means of pin 99 is the clevis 19 of theusual throttle operating rod Ii actuated by the usual engine controlling accelerator (not shown). Rod 'II is normally urged to the left in Figure 1 by means of a restoring spring 12, secured at one end to extension 13 of rod I I, and at its opposite end to a suitable stationary support 19', in well-known manner.

An operating rod, 14, adjustably connected to clevis 19 which is in turn secured to arm 99 of.

bell-crank 99 by means of a pin 19, interconnects arms 92 and operating arm 91 of shaft 42' through clevis 19 secured to arm 91 by means of apin l9 and adjustahly connected to the opposite end of rod 14.

The linkage so far described will rotate valves 2 I and 4| in a clockwise directiononly in Figure 1. To rotate valves 2| and 4| in the opposite direction coil-like restoring springs 9| are provided for each shaft. As shown in Figure 2 springs 9| surround the ends of shafts 29, 42 and 42' opposite to that upon which collars 99 are mounted. Coll springs 9| are provided with longitudinally ext such a manner that they are wound up upon rotation of shafts 29, 42 and 42' in a clockwise direction under the influence of levers and collars 99. As a consequence of this winding up of springs 9|,

' shafts 29, 42 and- 42' are rotated ina counterclockwise direction upon release of rod 1|.

Springs 9|, when the valves and linkageare disposed in their idling position, are adapted to exert a suflicient counter-clockwise force'to retain the valves 2| and 4| in closed position. Since'shoulders 99 and 99 are not connected, levers 99 and. 91

and bell-crank 99 may be rotated in a counterclockwise diru-ction after valves 2| and 4| are com- I pletely closed without any movement of shafts 29,

42 and 42', and without binding of the linkage.

' Arm 94 of bell-crank 99 and lever 91 are each provided with a pin 91 securing like clevises 99 thereto at equal distances from shafts 42 and 42'. Clevises 99 adiustably receive operating rods 99 which are secured by clevises 99 and pins 9| to the ends or levers 92 which are Journaled on the ends of shafts 41. Each lever 92 is provided with a shoulder 99 (Fig. 4) which is adapted to engage a shoulder 94 provided oncollar 99 rigidly secured to each shaft 41 by'a pin 99. Shoulders 99 and 94 are so constructed that upon clockwise movement Shafts 41 are provided with coil springs 99 (Fig. 4), similar in construction to springs 9|. Springs 99 are provided with longitudinally extending tips IM and I92. Tips |9| extend into recesses I93 formed in bosses I94 integrally formed on the walls of members 44. Tips I92 engage pins |99 secured in suitable manner at the end of shafts 47. Springs 99 are designed to bias shafts" and valves 49 to closed position, or to rotate them in a clockwise direction as viewed in Figure 1.

Since links 89 are secured to bell-crank 99 and lever 51 respectively, it will be seen that, upon operation of rod 1| and rods 91 and I4 as hereinbefore described, rods 99 and levers 92 will be r0 tated in a clockwise direction. .In view of this fact it will be appreciated that springs 99 only need be strong enough to close ,valves 49. The entire operating linkage, it will be seen, is restoredunder the influence of the springs to the r positionshown in Figure 1, when rod II is released with the adiustable stop screw 29 mounted on stop extension 29 of throttle operating lever 91, engaging stop member 29 which is supported from the carburetor body.

The linkage is so adjusted, and the slip ioint connections thereof to the valves are such in operation, that on initial movement of the accelerator controlled rod II from the idling position the air inlet valves 49 are completely closed before the shoulders 99 of levers 99,19, and 91- engage shoulders 99 of collars 99. After valves causes the shoulders 98 of levers 99 and 91 to engage their collar shoulders 99, opening valves 4|. After valves 4| are opened the shoulder 99 of lever 99 engages its collar shoulder 99, .and throttle valve 2| is then opened and operated in the usual mannerv to control the engine speed.with

the manifold under normalconditions. When the accelerator pressure is released it will therefore be seen that the operation of the valves will occur in reverse order, throttle valve 2| being first closed, after which valves 4| will close, and then valves 49 will open. It will therefore be seen that the normal function of the motor is not disturbed in any way.

Idling op ration with the parts in idling position as shown in .Figure 1, fuel is supplied from idling 1st 199 of the carburetor to branch ll of the manifold only, due to the complete closure of the passage 49 by valves 4|. Under these conditions the branches l9 and ll of manifold l9 will not be supplied with fuel and nocombustion can take place in cylinders numbered 2, 9, and 9. Since the firing order of the cylinders of the particular motor illustrated is |9-99-24, it will be seen power to the pistons. On the exhaust stroke of each cylinder it is then forced out giving a complete air scavenging of each of these cylinders during each cycle of operation.

Due to the direct connection to the atmosphere at this time there will be no tendency fora low pressure to exist in the ends ofmanlfold I0. As a consequence it will be seen that the suction created by cylinders 3 and 4 is the only suction available for withdrawing fuel from .the carburetor, and the fuel withdrawn from the carburetor at idling speeds .will therefore be materially reduced from that used in prior idling operations.

While it may at first appear thatan engine, operating in the above disclosed 'manner, would fail to run due to the inoperativeness of the major number of its cylinders, it has been found that its operation is equally as good if not better than the prior idling operation. This result is due to the fact that the compression in cylinders 3 and 4 is increased with the result that combustion is complete. The increased power resulting therefrom, due to the more complete combustion of the fuel, together with the ex panding action of the air compressed in cylinders numbered strokes, causes the engine to run more smoothly than is the case when all of the cylinders are operating under reduced compression pressures. With a six cylinder motor having a 300 cu.-

inch displacement and a possible 5 to l compres- .sion ratio (determined by the ratio of the clearance space to the full cylinder volume) and the novel manifold of the present invention in place, the manifold vacuum during idling operation was reduced fro-m 20 inches (with the conventional manifold) to 8 inches. With 8 inches vacuum existing in the intake manifold the compression ratio was increased to, 3.6 to 1 and the charge drawn into the cylinders was found to be 11/15 or better than of the full charge. This equals 22;000 cu. inches per minute of mixture. The time permitted for the burning of the fuel at 400 R. P. M. still being 1/800 of a minute and the compression ratio being 3.6 to 1 complete combustion resulted and the exhaust was composed of substantially completely burned gases. The pure, fresh air exhausted from the four cylinders. which were not supplied with fuel mixed with the exhaust from the active cylinders at the rate of 48,000 cu. inches per minute, to thereby further reduce the gassing. The obnoxious gassing resulting from the use of the conventional form of manifold was therefor largely eliminated by the complete combustion and introduction of pure fresh air.

cleans out the exhaust system. Since the cylinders, which are not being used in the conventional manner, are vented directly to the atmosphere through relatively large ports, there is a l, 2, 5 and 6 during their power total absence of vacuum existing in the ends of the manifold and there will be no tendency for the oil inthe crankcase to be sucked past the pistons. The idle cylinders and the associated spark plugs will therefore not become gummed up with oil in the manner incident to conventional motor operation with the consequence that their proper operation is assured.

Decelerating operation In addition to its functions as a degasser, cylinder and exhaust purger, my invention effects a marked savingof fuel. This follows due to the fact that the engine with the conventional manifold drew 30,000 cu. inches of mixture per minute, a quantity of which was exhausted in an unburned or partly burned condition, whereas 'with the manifold of the present invention, the enginev drew only 22,000 cu. inches of mixture per minute and the mixture so drawn was completely burned. Therefore a reduction of 8,000 cu.'inches perminute in the amount of fuel consumed at idling was effected by the present invention and due to the raise in compression and consequent rais in efficiency approximately a 50% saving cfthe normal idling fuel requirements has bee accomplished in actual tests with the device. I

My invention is also effective as a degasser and fuel economizer, and to provide improved engine braking during the periods when the vehicle is coasting or being'decelerated with the engine connected to the driving wheels. During such periods of motor'operation due to its momentum, the vehicle frequently drives the engine at a speed much higher than idling speed with the throttle closed. The intake manifold vacuum under these conditions goesconsiderably above the idling vacuum, with the usual manifold constructions. This results in even worse combustion and worse. gassing than that which occurs during idling operation.

With the novel manifold construction of the present invention installed, the engine during deceleration received a fuel charge in only two cylinders as described in connection with the idling speed of the engine. Thespeed of the engine being- 2,000 R. P. M. during deceleration only 1/4000 of a, minute was allowed for combustion of the fuel. However, since only two cylinders were effective for drawing fuel from the carburetor, the intake vacuum was found to be about 10 inches instead of 26 inches, aswas found to be the case with a conventional manifold. The fuel supply was reduced to about 110,000 cu. inches per minute, about a 30% saving. The ratio of increase This incomplete combustion of the fuel mixture supplied to cylinders 3 and 4. I

The remaining cylinders during deceleration act to draw pure air through the auxiliary air ports and exhaust it through the exhaust system at a rate of approximately 240,000 on. inches per minute. This pure air purges cylinders I, I, 5, and 5 and mixes with the completely burned exhaust from cylinders 3 and 4. Since the exhaust from the operative cylinders contains little or no noxious gases, the addition of the large quantities of pure air thereto results in an exhaust which is practically free from obnoxious gases. vIn addition to'the advantage of the pure exhaust, it will be apparent that a considerable saving of fuel is also during deceleration.

Modified forms of invention In Figure 6 a modified form of myinvention is shown. Since the parts at each end of the manifold inthis form are for the most part duplicates, only one end is shown in complete detail in the drawings. Parts similar to those heretofore described have been designated by like reference characters and reference to the foregoing de-.

scribed in connection with the modification shown in Figures 1 to 5 are eliminated, and the successive operation'of the several valves is effected through the use of different types of lost motion connections and a novel internal cam' structure. I As shown in Figure 6, an end section IIII having a flange I II is secured to flange 85 by means of bolts 52. A suitable gasket H2 is interposed between flanges 85 and III to insure a leak-proof joint. A downwardly extending auxiliary air conduit 44 and an outlet conduit I8 are integrally formed oneach end section I III and connected .to each conduit 44 is an air intake cleaner 54. A butterfly valve 4|, adapted to close-off passage 48, is journaled forrotation upon a shaft H8. The ends of shaft II! are supported in the walls of section I I II and held against rotation by squaring one end, or in any other suitable manner.

Valve H is provided with a centrally disposed ear I I4- (Fig. 'I) in which actuating pin I I5 is supported. A boss III is formed on ear. II4 and provided with an aperture II1 (Fig. 8) through which one end of coil spring H8 is inserted. A set screw II8 threaded into the end of boss "8 secures the end of spring III in position. The

opposite end of spring H8 is secured to a pin I2I mounted in an aperture I22 in the end wall I28 of member; I I8. or is otherwise suitably secured.

Spring II8 is normally under tension between boss H8 and pin I2I, and'due to 'the location of.

boss I I8 below the centerof shaft III, the spring biases valve H to closed position. 7

' An air'inlet valve 48 is Journaled on shaft or red I24 in conduit 44. The ends of shaft I24 are r nn-rntatably supported in thewalls of conduit 44 in any suitable manner. A'centrally disposed ear I25 havin a boss I28 secured thereto is in- ]teirrallv formed on valve 48. A suitable aperture 121 adapted to receiveone end of a coil spring I28 is formed in boss I28, and set screw I25 holds springflIIl in aperture I21. The other end of so ring I28 is secured to a screw III threaded into the wall of conduit 44. Boss I28 is positioned upon ear I25 in such a manrier that spring-I28 I normally biases valve 48 to its closed position.

- A second I82 is formed on the opposite face of valve 48 andls provide'dwith an actuating pin m.

section Illl opposite'outlet is is provided with an opening I54 (FflgLBlwhichis closed by a cover plate I35. Plate: 1551s" retained in sealing relation {upon a Q gasket 11,88 interposed between the endof conduitifl and' 't'he face I81 of cover 185 a by means of machine screws I88 (Fig. 6) Cover plate I is"preferably provided with an eccen-.

' l 'tricallydisposed "I 88' inwhich a short shaft .I;4I'suppoi-tsa cam a v Ca 11319113 providedwith,.a hub I48 secured for rotatitShiWith shaft I by means of a pin I44.

' Cam I42 is further providedwith an'arm I45 to rotate valve 48 to its open position against the influence of spring I28. Asecond arm I48 is formed integrally with cam, I42 .and is adapted to engage pin II5 of valve H to open valve 41 against the'action of spring II8.

Cam I42 and shaft I are actuated through a linkage, that will now be described, by operation of the vehicleaccelerator I41 through one end of a cross shaft I48 which passes across in front of the 'motor to the left-hand side thereof where the operator is seated. Rigidly secured to and rotatable with the opposite end of shaft I 48 is a rocker arm I 48 secured to shaft I48 by means of a stud I5I which draws the ears I52, integrally formed on split hub I58 of the rocker arm, together around the end of shaft I48.

Arm I54 is provided at one end with a pin I58 to which a clevis I51 is rotatably secured. Throt tle actuating rod I58 is adjustably connected to clevisI-51 at. I58. The opposite end of rod I58 is adjustably received in a clevis. I5I which is slidably associated with pin 89 of throttleoperating lever by means of a lost motion slot I82.

An arm J83 issecured to rod 158 by a set screw I84 at any convenient point, and a suitable coil spring I55'is secured at one end to arm1 I58 and at its other end to a bracket I55 secured in any suitable manner on the engine. Spring I85 nor- -mally biases rod I58 to the right, as seen in Figthrough a lost motion slot I88 of the clevis I1I.

Clevis I1I'adjustably receives one end of rod I88. and the other end ofrod I88 is adjustably-received in a clevis I12 which is connected by means of a pin I18 to one arm of bell-crank I14 which in turn is non-rotatably secured to' the outer end of shaft Ill. 4

Secured in the end of the opposite arm of bellcrank I14 is a pin I15, which has connected to it a clevis I18.- clevis I18 adjustably receives one end of a tie rod I11 connected by means of a similar pin I15 and clevis I15 at its other end to the end of lever I18 secured to shaft I4I'. Shaft I4I' operates'valves 4I and 48 provided ed out, the valves and operating mechanisms in the end sections III] are similar. However, since valves 48 and H have been reversed in the left hand endsection with relation to cam I42 the cam has been reversed and the lever I18. designed to impart clockwise rotation thereto. L

Bell-crank I14 and-lever I18 are each provided withan ear I18 carrying a pin I8I upon which one end of a coil spring I82 is secured. The other end of each spring I82 is secured to a pin- I88 or other suitable projection formed on the side wall of each section III]. As shown in Figure 6, the pins I8I are positioned just below the cenv at this end of the manifold. As heretofore pointms of shafts m with the valves "and" in rocker arm I48 rotate in a clockwise direction, "moving. actuating rod I58 to the left, asyiewed 'in Figure '6, but the lever. 55 will not be actuated due to the sliding of pin 88 in slot I82. Throttle valve 2I will therefor remain closed during the initial operation of the vehicle accelerator.

At the same time that rod I88 is moved to the left actuating rod I88 will be moved to the right since pin I81 is in the extreme right-hand end of slot I88. This movement of rod I88 causes a counter-clockwise movement of arm I14 and clockwise movement of lever I18. Pins I8I as a consequence rotate past their dead center position at which time springs I82, which are under tension at all times, snap arms I14 and I18,

shafts "I and cams I42 in counter-clockwise and clockwise directions respectively at opposite ends of the manifold. This snap action is made possibleby slot I88 which is of suiilcient length to permit cams I42 to rotate to their open throttle position after pins I8I pass dead center without affecting arm I48.

Cams I42, due to their sudden rotation under.

the influence of springs I82, permit springs I28 to turn valves 48 to their closed positions. Im-

' mediately upon the closing of valves 48 arms I48 of cams I42 move out of contact with pins I88 and arms I48 contact pins II8 of valves 4I and open said valves against the action of springs II8. This entire actuation of cam I42 takes place between the initial actuation of the accelerator and the completion of the snap action under the influence of spring I82. Springs I82 are of greater strength than springs H8 in order that cams I42 may rotate valves H to their open position. Y

The successive movement of valves 4! and 48 from closed throttle position to open throttle position takes place prior to any movement of throttle valve 2i and as a consequence the engine passes through a period wherein it idles in a conventional manner prior to being. accelerated and while valves 4I and 48 are being actuated. This period of conventional idling, however, is only momentary since the accelerator is continuously pressed toward its-open position and the gassing incident to conventional idling is-not obtained. Throughout further actuation of accelerator I41 valve 2| is actuated in conventional manner. Since the action of spring I82 and arms I 14 has moved rod I88 totheright so that pin I81 rests in'the extreme left-hand end of slot I88 this continued clockwise rotation of shaft I48 and arm I48 under the influence of accelerator I 41 will not cause any movement of rod I88 or cams I42.

In decelerating the engine, the lost motionconnection provided by slot I88 permits the throttle valve 2i to be closed completely prior to operation of rod I88. After valve 2| is closed pin I81 will engage the left-hand end of slot I88 causing arm in to rotate in a clockwise direction. This clockwise rotation of arm I14 causes cams I42 toHrestore the parts to idling position, valves 4|, being first closed by the action of springs I28, and} then valves 48 are opened by the action of springs H8. The operation of the valves during deceleration is in reverse order from their operation during acceleration.

It is therefore apparent that during idling, ac-

celerating and decelerating operations this form of invention prevents obnoxious gassing, purges 1 the cylinders and exhaust system with air, and saves fuel without interfering with the normal acceleration of the engine when desired, in the same way that these functions are secured in the form of invention shown in Figures 1 to 5.

In Figure 9 of the drawings a further modification of the invention is disclosed embodying an automatic device for operatingthe valves 4| and 48. In this form of the invention the manifold is manufactured in two sections 28I and 282. Suitable'flanges 288 are secured in assembled relation with a gasket 284 therebetween by means of bolts 288. Section "I supplies fuel to cylinders numbered 4, 8, and 8 through outlet connections 288, 281 and 288, while section 282 supplies cylinders numbered I, 2 and 8 through outlet connections 288, 2, and 2I2. Each outlet connection is independent of every other outlet and is provided with an attachment flange 2I8.

Section 282 is furthermore provided with an auxiliary air inlet conduit 44 upon which air cleaner 84 is secured in the manner and for the purpose described in connection with the previous forms of the invention. A single shut-off valve 4I and air control valve 48 with an operating spring and cam mechanism identical with the construction to the valves and operating mechanism therefore shown in Figures 1 and 8 are utilized in this form of the invention. Since the details of these valves and the operating mechanism therefore have been described in detail, it will not be here repeated.

Only one set of valves 4I and 48 is utilized in the present form of invention. These valves are mounted in section 282 adjacent flange 288, as shown, and operation thereof will cut cylinders I, 2, and 8 oil from the fuel supply and will connect them to atmosphere through cleaner 84,

since the control valves are disposed between said 1 cylinders and the throttle'valve 2|. As a result of this arrangement cylinders 4, 8 and 8 will be supplied with fuel mixture from the carburetor during idling and deceleration of the engine while cylinders I, 2 and 8 will alternately compress, expand and discharge air. As'the flring order of the engine utilized with this form of the invention is l8-8--82-4, when cylinders I, 2 and 8 are cut out, uniform flring takes place since alternate cylinders will fire.

The outer end of cam shaft MI is connected to a bell-crank 2 which is a reproduction of the lower part of rocker arm I14 of Figure 6. Ear I18 thereof is provided with pin I8I which receives one end of a coil spring I 82a. Spring I82a diifers from spring I82 only in length. The opposite end of spring I82a is secured to pin I88 on the side wall of section 282.

. Pin I18 carried by lever 2 receives a clevis 2I8, preferably having a lost motion slot 2I8 therein. Although slot 2I8 is preferably provided, it will be understood that such an arrangement is not essential to satisfactory operation of the present modification. Clevis 2I8 is formed on-one end of a rod or link 2". The other end of link 2I'1 is connected by means of an adjust iable'clevis 2I8 to a pin 2I8 carried by rod 228. Rod 228 is threaded to receive nuts 221 and 222 between which a flexible diaphragm 228 of a pressure responsive actuator 224, secured in any suitable manner to section 2!, is positioned. The edges of nuts I and 222, which contact diaphragm 228, are suitably rounded to prevent cutting of the diaphragm. 7 If desired suitable plates, of well-known construction rounded at their edges, may be disposed between diaphragm 228 and nuts 22I and 222 instead of rounding the edges of said nuts.

The outer edges of diaphragm 228 are secured between an annular flange 228 formed on housing 228 and a securing ring 221 by means of nut and bolt assemblies 228. Housing 228 is, of dished form and isprovided with a centrally disposed recessed box 228, the recess of which receives 7 be seen that lever 2. due to its counter-clock-- one end of coil spring 23!. The opposite end of spring 23! surrounds the protruding end 232 of rodf22l and abuts nut 222. The other end of spring 23! abuts the end wall 233 of boss 229.

5 Spring 23! is placed under suilicient compression to force diaphragm-223 and link 2!! to the right (as pressures are holding the diaphragm in position shown).

Chamber 234 formed between diaphragm 223 and housing 226 is connected to the interior of manifold section 2!!! by means of a conduit 23!. Due to this connection chamber 234 is subjected to the pressures existing in the intake manifold Y section These pressures, as they vary. cause diaphragm 223 and the parts connected thereto to move in a well-known manner. Since the manifold pressure never exceeds atmospheric pressure, diaphragm 223 is urged to its normal position by spring 23! alone at all times. Therefore, link 2i'8, lever 2 and valves 4! and 48' will assume their open throttle or inoperative positions with valve 4! open and valve 43 closed, until the pressure in section 23! falls below a predetermined value dependent upon the compression of spring 23!.

Since it is desirable for the engine upon which the present device is used to always be capable of ready acceleration in the most eiilcient manner, the tension of spring 23! is adjusted so that the intake vacuum pressure incident to idling speed of the engine is just sufficient to overcome spring '23! and to cause the closing of valve 4! and the opening of valve 43. It is because of this adjustment that the adjustable clevis 2l3 heretofore described is provided.

To effect the desired adjustment, with the device of the present invention in place and valves 4! and 46 properly adjusted, link 2!! is backed 08 from clevis 2!! until lever 2!4assumes center line of shaft !4!. The engine is then started and adjusted to its properidling speed.

Then with the engine idling link 2!! is adjusted in clevis 2!! until 'pin !3! is raised to a point just belowthe center of shaft !4!. Since the intake vacuum in section 2!!! at this'timeis 8 inches, as heretofore pointed out in connection with the idling speed of the modification of Figures 1-5, it will be seen that the pressure operator 224 is adjusted to function when the vacuum in section 20! drops to '8 inches or below.

' Assuming that the engine is operating at idling speed and the operator 224 is in the position shown imFigure 9, upon actuation of the accelerator the lever" and valve 2 I, due to movement of rod III to the left as shown in Figure 9, will be rotated in a counter-clockwise direction and .opened. As valve 2! opens. the pressure in section 2!! I. and in chamber 234 increases, and .spring 23! through diaphragm-223 and'iink 2!! moves lever 2 !4 in a counter-clockwise direction against the influence of spring !32a until pin ll! reaches a point just above the center of shaft !4!. .At this moment spring i321: becomes effective to rotate lever 2" in a counter-clockwise direction and snaps lever 2 into its open throttle or normal engine operatingposition in the manner heretofore described in connection with-'lflgures 8 to' 8. This snap action is permitted due to lost '70 motion slot us.

As heretofore pointed outiever 2 is connected for rotation with shaft !4! which carries cam I42. Cam I42 in turn operates valves 4! and 43 in the same manner described in the modifica- 75 .tion, shown in Figures 8 to 8. It will therefore its operative position with p'in I8! below the.

wise rotation under influence of spring 23! and later spring 2a, will close valve 48 and open valve 4! to thereby connect cylinders I, 2, and 3 to the fuel supply. Due to expansion of spring 23!; pin I13 will be disposed in the left-hand end of slot 2H5. Since the accelerator will, under ordinary. operating conditions, be continuously actuated to accelerate the vehicle, the engine will under the influence of atmospheric pressure on.

the outside of-the diaphragm and against the resistance. offered by spring 23!. The initial movement of link 2!! first takes up the lostmotion in slot M6 and then actuates pin I13 to impart clockwise rotation to lever v2!4 until pin it! passes below the cen iof shaft !4!. As soon as pin ll! reaches this ff center position spring 132:: will snap the lev r 2!4 and valves 4! and 48 into their idling p0 tion with pin I15 in the extreme left end of slo 2l8. When the intake pressure within section 2!!! drops below the normal idling pressure slot 2H3 will permit further diaphragm movement as shown in Figure 9 to provide for a practical margin of adjustment.

In this form of. the invention all of the advantages of the constructions shown in Figures 1 to 8 are secured in the way of freedom from obnoxious gases, fuel economy and air purging during idling and deceleration of the engine. and the following further desirable operation is secured. To accelerate a motor vehicle from rest to a desired running speed normally requires the full motor power output, but to maintain the run- 'ning speed after acceleration for ordinary operation requires only a comparatively small part of the motor horsepower. It is now the common practice to accelerate to the desiredrunning speed, and then to throttle the engine in order.

'to effect the necessary reduction of horsepower to prevent further acceleration. Thisthrottling" of the engine, however, causes a reduction of the compression with reference to atmospheric pressure and an increase in the manifold vacuum, and as a consequence the motor cylinders normally operate in an inemcient manner under such conditions. Under such conditions with the present invention installed on the engine whenthe manifold pressure reaches idling pressure as very frequently occurs, diaphragm 223 will be actuated to close valve 46 and to open valve 4!, and the engine will then operateon half of its cylinders under very eflicient compression and combustion conditions. It'will, therefor, be appreciated that the present invention greatly improves the operation of the internal combustion engine during all phases of lts operation.

While the automatic operation of valves 4'! and 46 has been described in connection with an engineha'ving separate manifold outlets for-each branch, it is to be understood that it may be utilized in conjunction with other type manifolds with very slight alterations. For example the operator 224 may be utilized on the manifold shown in Figures 6-9 by merely connecting rocker arm. I I14 to link- 2!!, removing link I63 and the upper section of ro cker arm I43, and connecting con- In the event that it is found desirable to eliminate the snap action the lost motion'connection provided by clevis US may be replaced by a positive connection and the spring-.23l may be relied upon toactuate arm 2 M in one direction and the vacuum pressure will cause operation thereof in the opposite direction. v

The invention may be embodied in other specificforms without departing from-the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. a The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within .25 the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein. 4

What is claimed and desired to be secured by United States Letters Patent is:

1. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies in a multi-cylinder engine, means operative when said engine is idling or at .or below light load for increasing the compression in certain of said cylinders to increase the efliciency of combustion of the fuel fed thereto, and meansto impose a load upon the remaining cylinders to increase the load upon the cylinders being fueled, said plurality of means being arranged to be sequentially operated.

2. In an apparatus for eflecting fuel economies and preventing gassing in the operation of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, particularly at idling speeds and at or below light load'conditions, means for increasing the compression in certain of said cylinders to increase the efflciency of combustion of the fuel fed thereto, mean'sto impose a load upon the remaining I cylinders to increase the load upon the cylinders being fueled, and means to render said latter means inoperative prior to said first means when said engine is desired to operate at a higher speed or under increased. load.

3. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies and preventing gassing in the operation of a multi-cylinderintemal combustion engine, an

intake manifold haying a fuel inlet and a plurality of outlets to said cylinders, means to re- I strict the flow of fuel from said inlet to a pre-/ determined number of outlets to restrict the feed B0 of fuel to certain of said cylinders to increase the compression therein and increase the efficiency of combustion'of the fuel fed thereto, means to permit a relatively unrestricted flow of inert gas to the remaining cylinders to increase 5 the load upon said cylinders being fueled, and

' of outlets to the several cylinders, of fluid inlet,

.means associated with said manifold-to .intermeans to close said latter means prior to opening said fuel-restricting means whereby a relatively high vacuum is created in said unfueled cylinders prior to the admissionof fuel thereto.

4. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies and preventing gassing in the operation of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, a throttle, means operated by movement of said throttle toward closed position for increasing the 7 compression in certain of said cylinders to-increase the emciency of combustion of the fuel fed thereto, means operated by movement of said throttle toward closed position to impose a load upon the remaining cylinders to increase the load upon the cylinders being fueled, said plurality of means being connected to said throttle in a manner whereby on moving said throttle toward open position, saidlatter means is rendered inoperative prior to said throttle operated means.

, 5. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies and preventing gassing in the operation of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, means for increasing the compression in certain of said cylinders todncrease the emciency of combustion of the fuel fed thereto. means to impose a load upon the remaining cylinders to increase the load upon the cylinders being fueled, and means responsive to vacuum conditions in the inlets of said cylinders to operate said means.

6. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies and preventing gassing in the operation of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine particularly at idling speeds and at or below light load conditions,-means for increasing the compression in certain of said cylinders to increase the efficiency of combustion of the fuel fed thereto, means to impose a load upon the remaining cylinders to increase the load upon the cylinders being fueled, and means responsive to the vacuum conditions in theinlet to said cyllnders to sequentially operate said plurality of means.

'7. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies in the operation of multi-cylinder internal combustion engines particularly when operating at means having a fuel inlet and outlets to the several cylinders, a valve in said means between said fuelinlet and an outlet, a second inlet in said means between said valve and said outlet, a valve in said second inlet, and means respon- 'idling and at or below light load .conditions sive to the vacuum in said outlets to the several cylinders for operating said valves.

8. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies in the operation of multi-cyllnder internal combustion engines particularly when operating at idling and at or below light load conditions, a

manifoldwithv a fuel inlet and outlets .to the several cylinders, a throttle valve in said fuel inlet, a secondvalve in said manifold between said throttle valve and an outlet, a second inlet in said manifoldbetween said valve and said outlet for the introduction of a relatively inert gas, a valve in said second inlet, and means associated with said throttle valve to close said valve in said second inlet-and subsequently open said second valve.

9. The combination as claimed in claim 8 wherein said throttle valve is opened subsequent- .ly to the opening of said second valve.

10. In an'apparatus for effecting fuel econ-- omiesin the operation of multi-cylinder internal combustion engines, particularly at idling speeds and at or below light load conditions, comprising a manifold having 'a fuel inlet and a plurality intheoperationofnmlti-cylinderintermleomlimiionengines-particularlyatidlinsspeqiland atorbelowlightloadconditionscomprlsingan intakemanifoldhavingafuelinletandaseries d outlets-to the several cylinders, a'throttle valveinsaid outl movemaitthereotinrotatingsaid arranged-tooperatesald and llo. 241L655.

It i'sherebyeertlfied that error-appears in the printed ema ls-rams or-egnnscnor.

mm .12; IEIBIIG.

speedsandatorbelowlightloadswhiehcomprisesthestepsofconflningthefeedoffuelto certain of said cylinders, freely admittingarelatively inert gas to the remaining cylinders when the pressure'in the intake of said cylinders reaches a predetermined value, and supplying" fuel to all of said cylinders when said intake pressure rises above said predetermined value.

14. In an apparatus for eifectingi'uel economies in a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine. means eifeetlve at predetermined throttie positions for increasing the compression in certain of said cylinders to increase the emciency of combustion of the fuel fed thereto. means to exclude fuel from and unrestrietedly feed a'relatively non-combustible gas to the remaining cylinders to impose loads thereon and increase the load upon the cylinders being fueled, andmeanstodilutetheexhaustgasesfromsaid cylindersbeing flmled with non-combustible gas.

15. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies in the operation of mum-cylinder internal combustion engines particularly when operating at idling speeds and at or below light load conditions, means having a fuel inlet and outlets to discharge fuel to the several cylinders, a valve in said means between twoof said outlets, an inlet designedtoadmitinertgasinsaidmeansbetween said valve and one of said outlets, a valve ;in said last mentioned inlet and means for sequentially operating said valves.

. 16, In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies in the operation of multi-cylinder internal combmtiou engines, particularly when operating at idling and at or below light load conditions,

meanshavingafuelinletandoutletstodisehargefueltotheseveralcylinderaavalvein saidinlet,apairofvaivesinsaidmeansbetween latter valves.

Willi-TAKE. LEIBING.

Lpa'11 19, 1958.

specification thonbove number-ed patent correction as follows: Page -8, spend line 66, claisl 10, for '0:- seeond WmOfM a; indnfliat aim Letters Patent aneum l a nun nus correction therein nut "conform to the record or the ease inthe "signed an sealed 1m- 21 th day or 116 s. n. 19 8.

Henry van Arable; Acting oi.

intheoperationofmflti-cylinderintermleomlimiionengines-particularlyatidlinsspeqiland atorbelowlightloadconditionscomprlsingan intakemanifoldhavingafuelinletandaseries d outlets-to the several cylinders, a'throttle valveinsaid outl manned to sequmtially operate said valves agahltsaidbiuingmeanaalcverontheouter endolsaidlhaittooperatesaidactuatona aaaodatedwlthsaidlevertoeflectasnap movemaitthereotinrotatingsaid arranged-tooperatesaid and lio. 241L655.

rt'rsnersa ururia that error-appears in the printed curls-rams or-egaascnoa.

mm .12; IEIBIIG.

speedsandatorbelowlightloadswhichcomprisesthestepsofconflnlngthefeedoffuelto certain of said cylinders, freely admittingarelatively inert gas to the remaining cylinders when the pressure'in the intake of said cylinders reaches a predetermined value, and supplying" fuel to all of said cylinders when said intake pressure rises above said predetermined value.

14. In an apparatus for elfectiugi'ulel economies in a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine. means eifectlve at predetermined throttie positions for the compression in certain of said cylinders to increase the emciency of combustion of the fuel fed thereto. means to exclude fuel from and unrestrictedl'y feed a'relatively non-combustible gas to the remaining cylinders to impose loads thereon and increase the load upon the cylinders being fueled, and means to dilute the exhaust 1:: from said cylinder-slicing flmled with non-combustible gas.

15. In an apparatus for effecting fuel economies in the operation of mum-cylinder internal combustion particularly when operating at idling speeds and at or below light load conditions, means having a fuel inlet and outlets to discharge fuel to the several cylinders, a valve in said means between twoof said outlets, an inlet designedtoadmitinertgasinsaidmeansbetween said valve and one of said outlets, a valve ;in said last mentioned inlet and means for sequentially operating said valves.

. 16, In an apparatus for effecting fuel econarmies in the operation of multi-cyllnder internal combmtiou engines, particularly when operating at idling and at or below light load conditions,

meanshavingafuelinletandoutletstodischargefueltotheseveralcylinderaavalvein saidinlet,apairofvaivesinsaidmeansbetween latter valves.

Willi-TAKE. LEIBING.

Lpa'11 19, 1958.

specification thonbove number-ad patent correction as follows: Page -8, spend line 66, clain 10, for '0:- soeond ocmrronoo read a; indnfliat aim Letters Patent summ ts nun this m ratron therein an: "conform to the record or the ease lathe "signed and sealed 1m- 21 th day or 116 a. n. 19 8.

Henry van Arable; Acting oi.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2574694 *Mar 5, 1945Nov 13, 1951Carter Carburetor CorpMethod and means for facilitating engine starting
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US4204514 *Nov 30, 1978May 27, 1980Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaSplit operation type multi-cylinder internal combustion engine
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US4296719 *Sep 20, 1979Oct 27, 1981Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.Multiple cylinder internal combustion engine having mixture cut off means
US4331113 *Feb 19, 1980May 25, 1982Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.Device for selective combustion in a multi-cylinder engine
US4359979 *Sep 10, 1979Nov 23, 1982John DolzaSplit engine control system
US4380977 *Nov 24, 1980Apr 26, 1983Edward HolsteinDevice for selectively controlling the number of operative cylinders in multi-cylinder engines
US4502435 *Sep 6, 1983Mar 5, 1985Mazda Motor CorporationIntake system for multiple cylinder internal combustion engine
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/184.39, 123/319, 123/198.00F
International ClassificationF02D17/02, F01L13/00, F02M3/04
Cooperative ClassificationF01L2760/003, F02D17/02, F02M3/043, F01L13/00
European ClassificationF01L13/00, F02M3/04J, F02D17/02