|Publication number||US2116020 A|
|Publication date||May 3, 1938|
|Filing date||Jan 25, 1937|
|Priority date||Jan 25, 1937|
|Publication number||US 2116020 A, US 2116020A, US-A-2116020, US2116020 A, US2116020A|
|Original Assignee||Gauvin Henri|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
H. GAUVIN May 3, 1938'.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Jan. 25, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet l 51/217701" HEIZRZ BEL/Um. BY fl m 27M H. GAUVIN 2,116,020
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING ELEMENTS THEREFOR May 3, 1938.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 25, 1937 I iLu L V l I l l l I l l I I I l l Patented May 3, 1938 UNITED STATES BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING ELEMENTS THEREFOR Henri Gauvin, ottawa, Ontario, Canada Application January 25, 1937, Serial No. 122,303
This invention relates to building construction and building elements therefor, particularly steel construction.
It has been the practice over the past .number of years to provide steel parts for houses, buildings and the like wherein the various parts making up the constructions are pre-fabricated in the factories, labelled and sent in knocked-down condition to the site where the parts are erected 10 to provide the desired type of construction.
While this provides for a-relatively strong construction which may or may not be erected more quickly than ordinary constructions, it still provides for a great deal of work in erecting the framework of joists, studs and the like and the application of various elements for completing and insulating the structure requiring representatives of the various building trades. Moreover, in a construction of this type to produce a strong,
well constructed and insulated building, the cost is necessarily high.
According to the present invention, and through the provision of a new type of building element to produce, for instance, strong unitary and insulated walls, it is possible to manufacture houses, buildings and the like to produce a strong, durable and attractive structure at a low cost, as for instance, substantially half the cost. This is made possible through the new type of building element produced under the present invention and the manner in which the elements are united to form buildings or the like. 7
The elements involved consist of pairs of steel sheets with reinforcing ribs in between connected to each sheet to form a double walled unit, the
ribs being preferably pressed from each sheet and connected to the opposite sheet when the element is formed and preferably a filling of the insulating material is disposed between the sheets and ribs.
The elements are simple in construction and may be fabricated in the factory in quantity, the construction being such that strong durable insulating elements are provided in general production at comparatively low cost, all of the elements being preferably uniform in character and suitable for use as wall floor, or ceiling units whereby houses or other building construction can readily be made. The structure is so designed that these elements can be easily put together in the factory, in units such as individual rooms, by any suitable method such as welding, riveting, bolts or screws to provide a strong, durable construction which may be transported bodily in a completed state to the site where the building is to stand, each unit being based by a suitable chassis and requiring but a simple joining operation to unite the units together to form a building made up of a number of rooms, if a multiple'room structure is desired. 5
The building element is, of course, applicable to other types of construction wherein strong, comparativelylight, insulated walls are required. For instance, it is readily applicable to tank construction, automobile trailer construction, tank trucks, etc.
It will readily be apparent from a consideration of the detailed construction as described in the a following specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings. 15
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary transverse section taken through a preferred form of the building element according to the present invention.
Figure 2 is a fragmentary sectional view of the 20 manner in which the end of the element may be sealed.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional viewof another manner in which the element may be sealed.
Figure 4 is a similar view taken through an 25 alternative form of construction.
Figure 5 is a fragmentary sectional perspective of the type of construction illustrated in Fig. 2.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary sectional detail of a rounded or curved element. 30
Figure '1 is a similar view to Fig. 4 showing alternative construction of this character.
Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional elevation of a house construction involving the building element according to the present invention, illus- 35 trating a manner in which the sections may be united together to form a house section or the like.
Figure 9 is a plan view of a preferred form of chassis upon which the building construction may 40 be mounted.
Figure 10 is a fragmentary section taken on the line Hl--lll of Fig. 9.
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary elevation of part of a building element according to the present inven- 45 -tion showing the manner in which its surface may be coated to provide an interior or exterior finish as desired, and
Figure 12 is a plan of a three-unit house constructed to form a multiple room house, according to the present invention.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to Figure l, A indicates a general construction of building element according to the present invention, which comprises opposed sheets i0 and ii instance, they might be spaced apart on each sheet a distance of, say, two feet so that in the completed element, having regard to the ribs of.
both sheets amused in staggered relation, there will be reinforcing ribs spaced one foot apart throughout the width of the complete element.
The sheets II and il formed with the ribs are united together to form an element, and in the case of an insulated element, insulating strips I! made from any suitable insulating material, such as wood, asbestos, building board, etc., are positioned between the end of each rib and theopposite sheet, the ribs of each sheet being constructed of a suitable depth so as to provide a desired thickness of building element when the insulating strips II are positioned as described. The ends of the ribs are then secured to the opp site sheet with the insulating material II interposed, the securing means being of any suitable character such as rivets, screws, bolts or the like. Assuming,
for instance, that bolts are employed, they might be projected-from the sheet through the insulating material and through the end of the rib so that the screw-threaded end proiects within the hollow interior of the rib. Nuts are then applied so that the opposed sheets are securely connected together as a unit. Insulating material ll of any suitable character, such as rock wool, cork, etc. is then introduced to the hollow interior of the ribs i2 and the open mouth of the ribs is then closed by sealing plate II which may be secured in position in any suitable manner, such as by screws, bolts, rivets or welding. In this connection it will be noted that each sheet II or II is formed with a shallow depression II on each side of the open mouth of the rib, the depression being of a depth to correspond with the width of the sealing plate I! so that when the latter is placed in position its outer surface lies flush with the outer surface of the sheet on which it is disposed, thus forming in the finished product a continuous smooth surface.
Suitable insulating material ll 'such as rock wool, cork or the like is disposed between the sheets in any suitable manner, as for instance. nlled in after the sheets have been united together, or disposed on one sheet prior to uniting the other sheet to it, so that as a result a strong, durable insulated building element is produced which can be manufactured economically in production and is light in comparison with other types of wall construction of corresponding area and depth. The sheet employed may be as thin as ZO-gauge, which due to the general construction of the element is reinforced to provide as strong a construction as required.
The ends of the elements may be sealed if desired in various ways. Two different ways are illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. In the case of Fig. 2, the end may be formed with a flat surface ll and bent inwardly as at ll so that the free edge of the metal lies in the end depression I. In thecaseofrigiiasimilarconstructionisemauaoso ployed but in addition the sheet II is formed longerthansheet ll sothat it maybebentto provide an end sealing plate II with a projectingakirt Ii. if desired to overlap with other elements in building construction.
It will be realised that the element produced is thorou hly insulated having regard to the filling of insulating material I in the ribs and ll between the sheets, while the positioning of the insulating-strips ll between the ends of the ribs and the opposite sheet prevents the transmission of any small degree of heat or cold that'might be transmitted from the ribs to the opposite sheet, as in the case where the ribs were connected in direct contact with the opposite sheet.
It is possible, of course, to provide an insulated construction wherein the interior of the element is not filled with insulating material, as forinstance, the interior of one or both sheets making up the building element may be sheeted with insulating material to produce satisfactory results. It is also possible to produce a strong and durable structure of this nature without pressing the ribs from the sheets but by interposing ribs preferably of this general construction between the sheets and securing them to each sheet, although such a constructionisnotasdcsirableandassimpleto manufacture.
In Hg. 4 there is illustrated an alternative construction preferably employed where insulation is not daired, although good insulating properties can also be obtained in this-type of element. Ac-
cording to the construction in Fig. 4, the sheets II and II are formed with integral ribs i2 disposed so that ribs from opposite sheets occur alternatively throughout the width of the element, the ends of the ribs bei g directly connected to the opposite sheet, as clearly illustrated and the open mouth of the ribs being closed by a sealing plate II as previously described. In Fig. 4, the
plates II are shown as riveted, whereas the ends of the ribs are shown connected to the opposite plate by means of metal screws, it being realised of course, that the construction lends itself to securing means of various characters throughout, as desired.
Inns. 5 the plates II are shown connected by metal screws, while the ends of the ribs are shown connected to the opposite sheet by means of metal screws, this being a very simple manner of obtaining a very strong and simple connection.
In Figs. 8 and l curved construction is illustrated. In Fig. 6 the ribs are shown projected from each sheet. disposed alternately with respect to each other, whereas in Fig. 7 the ribs project from one sheet only and their ends are connected to the opposite sheet. It will be realized that these types of building element, while very particularly adapted for house construction and the like may be employed for other purposes such as construction of storage tanks where a strong body is required and in which insulating properties may also be desired. It is also adaptable to the construction of truck tanks whether or not an insulatedbody is required, while it is also very applicable to automobile trailer construction, etc. and
' it lends itself to suitable interior and exterior finishes as will be described hereinafter.
A salient feature of the invention consists in the assembly of building elements of this character to form building units andthe production of buildings made up of said units. The preferred film of this general construction is illustrated in l lgsJ to 12 wherein a series of uniform building '75 elements comprising the: floor, walls and ceiling united together top rovide a-weatherproof, durable, easily constructed building or unit thereof is illustrated.
In addition to the building elements described,
there is provided for building construction such as houses or units thereof, a chassis B which is preferably made up of a strong, durable frame having marginal channel beams 22 and 23, the
ends of which, are mitred and welded or otherwise secured together as at 24 with brace plates 2| secured at the points of union. Extending across the framework, lying upon one flange of the channel members 22 and spacedapart from one another are steel box beams or-the like 2| which are secured in position by welding or the like, it being noted particularly-from Fig. 10
that the channel beams 22 and 23 are of such.
a depth that the depth of the box beams 2| is go only substantially one-half that of the channels,
thereby providing a space between the top of the box beams and the underside of the top flange of the channel beams substantially equal to the depth of the box beams and equal to the thickness of the building element of the character described. Consequently, one or more of said elements as'desired may be disposed to lie upon the box beams 28 so that the edges of said element or elements are engaged by the channel beams, as illustrated for instance in Fig. 8, thus providing a firm fioor for the building or building unit, constructed in a simple manner.
An important factor in respect to the preferred type of construction is that the building or building units making up the building are formed according to predetermined standard dimensions so that one whole building element forms the floor, one for each of the walls and one for the ceiling. Thus, a unitary small building may be easily formed while, in the case of a building made up of a series of units forming multiple rooms, the units are of the same size and may be fabricated completely in the factory so that the 5 mounted and according to the preferred construction the channel member 28 is riveted or otherwise secured to the upper flange of each channel 22 or 23, as the case may be, of the chassis with insulating material, such as a pad of felt impregnated with asphalt or the like 29 interposed between to break the steel to steel contact. The wall elements 30 are then mounted, the lower edges thereof being disposed within the channel of the channel beam 28 with suitable securing means, such as metal screws or the like 3i, being projected through the flanges of the channel into the wall elements. The ceilingelement 32 is then mounted. This may be so constructed, if desired to provide for a skirt 33 comprising an extension of the upper sheet of the element whichis bent down to overlap the wall 'elements 30, the skirt beingsecured in any suitable way, such as at 34 to the wall elements, while an intermediate layer of insulating material as indicated at 35 such as asphalt impregnated felt, is positioned between the ends of-the wall readily.
By employing and uniting elements of this character; therefore, certain of which have been formed with openings to provide for any doors and windows that may be required, a strong, compact and insulated house or house unit may be produced in the factory in a very simple manner, and at the same time provided with any suitable finish desired. For instance, preferably after the elements have been united to form small buildings or building units, thewalls may be sprayed with metal, for instance, to produce'a type of flnish desired. For example, as shown in Fig. 11, a substantially roughcast interior finish such as indicated at 36 may be provided through metal spraying, and it will be realized that the sealing plates are immediately covered to provide a wall of decorative and uniform appearance, while at the same time by employing a metal spray, the building or building unit is reinforced, as such a spray coat would have a welding eifect. 0n the other hand, the structure lends itself readily to'enamel coating which might preferably be employed in kitchen sections, bathrooms and the like. lis a matter of fact, such coatings are equally applicable to the outside of structure so as to produce an extremely weatherproof finish that will not readily deteriorate.
After each unit is completed, the floor may be covered with a suitable. covering such as a durable linoleum which might be conveniently laid in usual manner by means of a cementing agent such as a hot asphalt.
A typical form of house constructed according to the invention is illustrated in Fig. 12 wherein uniform house units are illustrated at C, D, E,
- and F. These units are constructed in the factory in a manner such as described and trans-. ported bodily to the site for assembly of the complete house asshown. For instance, unit C has its interior walls finished as desired, such as by spraying, painting and the like and provided with bunks or the like 31 if desired. Unit D and unit F are finished interiorly in an identical manner and are adapted to be joined together to form.one large unit to provide a living room. In this connection, the open side of the units D and F may be fitted with a suitable, light, skeleton framework for the purposes of bracing the structure during transport, the framework being readily removed when the two sections are to be joined together.
Each of the units C, D, E, and F are wired completely in the factory for the necessary electric outlets and fixtures, and unit E is in addition provided with the necessary plumbing fixtures to accommodate the sink 38 and the bathroom 3! which is disposed within section E and partitioned off in a suitable manner. The kitchen and bathroom housed in section E may readily be finished with porcelain in well known manner in the factory.
In uniting the sections together on the site where the house is to stand, the sections may be mounted in any suitable manner, such as by mounting them on a prepared foundation, if this is desired, mounting them on posts or pillars or disposing them in level arrangement on the lostteandplacedinpositionarethen number of workers, an insulating padding or the likebeingdisposedbetweenalljointsto eliminate metal to metal contact, where this is found desirable.
The exterior of the sections are either surfaced with suitable finishing material in the factory, suchas ametalsprayiinishporcelainflniahor the like. and theioints when the sections are assembled. may be similarly coated, or on the other hand the exterior may take place, if desired, after the sections have been assembled together, so that a completely weatherproof, highly insulated, clean, up-to-date construction is provided. If, in addition, particularly for the purpose of appearance, it is desired a roof ll illustrated in Fig. 8 may be supplied and readily mounted onthetopofthesectionsuchasby hinges 4|. Such a roof would preferably be'constructed from hollow metal elements suclras illustrated in Fig. 4, insulation not being required, whereas the exteriorfinish of the roof might merely be the outer metal sheets of such elements which could be suitably coated, sprayed or the like or have applied thereto a shingle simula structure, if desired.
A construction of this character lends itself to many varying types of house structure, as the unitsmaybevariouslyarranged andthebuyer may from time to time readily add to his house by obtaining additional sections to be joined to the structure already obtained. Moreover, it will be apparent that the structure is one which can g be moved from place to place without a great deal of difllculty, as the units would only have to be disconnected and transported to any site, the
work required for securing the units together being of minor character. It will be apparent also u that a structure of this character, due to the type of construction employed, will withstand the most severe usage and severest kind of weather.
'Itis of coursemanifestthat thestructureproduced is fireproof in addition to being compact g and strong. Moreover, it will be realised that the structure can be completely factory built along similar lines as the manufacture of automobiles, thus to fill a long-felt need, namely, a low priced, respectable dwelling for the workman of so low means. The structure also is very suitable for summer cottages and camps.
Various modifications may be made in this invention without departing from the spirit thereof or the scope of the claims, and therefore the.
as exact forms shown are to be taken as illustrative only and not in alimiting sense, and it is desired that only such limitations shall be placed thereon asaredisclosedin the priorartoraresetforth in the accompanying claims.
What I claim is:-
I. In building construction, a building element comprising'a pair of spaced apart metal sheets having substantially U-shaped hollow, intelral ribs pressed therefrom, the hollow portion of said 1; ribs having a mouth, opening on one face of each otberalcngeachsheet,saidribs proiectingfrom eaehsheettowardstheothersheetandconnected totbeothersheettoformareinforced element,
disposed in the spaces besaid sheets being formed with depressed areas adiacent the mouths of said ribs and sealing plates disposed in said depressions and covering the mouths of said ribs to lie flush with the level of each plate and means for securing said sealing P tes in said position.
3. In building construction, a building element comprising a pair of spaced apart metal sheets having substantially U-shaped hollow, integral ribs pressed therefrom, the hollow portion of said ribs having a mouth, opening on one face of each sheet, said ribs being spaced apart from one another along each sheet, said ribs projecting from each sheet towards the other sheet and connected to the other sheet to form a reinforced element, the ribs of each sheet being disposed alternately to one another throughout the element, insulating material disposed in the spaces between said sheets and ribs, insulating material disposed within the hollow portion of said ribs, said sheets being formed with depressed areas adjacent the mouths of said ribs and sealing plates disposed in said depressions and covering the mouths of said ribs to lie flush with the level of each plate and means for securing said sealing plates in said position 4. In building construction, a building element comprising a pair of spaced apart metal sheets, at least one of said sheets having substantially U-shaped, hollow, integral ribs pressed therefrom, the hollow portion of said ribs having a mouth opening on one face of said sheet, said ribs being spaced apart from one another along said sheet, said ribs projecting from said sheet towards-the other sheet and connected-to the other sheet, insulating material disposed in the spaces formed between said sheets and ribs, insulating material disposed within the hollow portion of said ribs, removable sealing plates connected to said sheet and disposed over the mouth of each rib and insulating strips disposed between the ribs and the opposite sheet to which they are connected.
5. In building construction, a building element the exterior surfaces of which are adapted to form a complete exterior and interior wall, comprising a pair of spaced apart metal sheets having integral ribs pressed therefrom and spaced apart from one another along each sheet, said ribs projecting from each sheet towards the other-sheet and connected to the other sheet to form a reinforced unit, said ribs being hollow,
each sheet, said ribs projecting from the hollow portion thereof having a mouth opening on one face oi each sheet and removable sealing plates disposed over the mouth area of said ribs and lying flush with the level of each sheet.
6. A device as claimed in claim 1, in which the depth of the ribs is less than the finished width of the element to space the ribs from the opposite sheet towards which they project and in which insulating strips are disposed between each rib and the opposite sheet to which that rib is connected.
'7. In building construction, a building element the exterior surfaces of which are adapted to form a complete exterior and interior wall, comprising a pair of spaced apart metal sheets, at least one of said sheets having integral ribs pressed therefrom and spaced apart from one another along the sheet, said ribs projecting from said sheet towards the other sheet and connected to the other sheet to form a reinforced element, said ribs being hollow and each having a mouth opening on one face of the sheet and a removable sealing plate fitted over the mouth of each rib and lying flush with the said face of said sheet.
8. In building construction, a building element the exterior surfaces of which are adapted to form a complete exterior and interior wall, comprising a pair of spaced apart metal sheets having ribs pressed therefrom and spaced apart from one another along each sheet, said ribs projecting from each sheet towards the other sheet and connected to the other sheet to form a reinforced element, the ribs of each sheet being disposed alternately throughout said element, said ribs being hollow, the hollow portion of said ribs having a mouth opening on one face of each sheet and removable sealing plates designed to fit over said mouth and lie flush with the said face of each sheet.
9. In building construction, a building element, the exterior surfaces of which are adapted to form a complete exterior and interior wall comprising a pair of spaced apart metal sheets having integra-PYibs pressed therefrom and spaced apart from one another along each sheet, said ribs projecting from each sheet towards the other sheet and connected to the other sheet to form a reinforced unit, said ribs being hollow, the hollow portion thereof having a mouth opening on a face of the sheet from which the rib is pressed, removable sealing plates disposed over the mouth area of said ribs, and means for removably securing said plates on said unit.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2420292 *||Oct 23, 1942||May 13, 1947||Guardite Corp||Airplane body|
|US2667949 *||Dec 15, 1951||Feb 2, 1954||Allis Chalmers Mfg Co||Clamping assembly having self-held pressure plates|
|US2678592 *||Mar 2, 1950||May 18, 1954||George P Wiedman||Island type foundation structure|
|US2757417 *||Aug 10, 1951||Aug 7, 1956||Woodall Industries Inc||Plenum chamber|
|US2789480 *||Mar 18, 1952||Apr 23, 1957||Falk Corp||Fabricated structure|
|US2858916 *||Sep 28, 1953||Nov 4, 1958||Arrowhead Steel Buildings Inc||Metal building construction|
|US2869751 *||Sep 3, 1954||Jan 20, 1959||Pfauder Permutit Inc||Insulated storage tank and method of making a storage tank|
|US3062337 *||Oct 30, 1958||Nov 6, 1962||Howe Sound Co||Insulated curtain wall structure|
|US3186525 *||Jul 27, 1961||Jun 1, 1965||Reynolds Metals Co||Interconnected panel constructions|
|US3204667 *||Jan 22, 1962||Sep 7, 1965||Zahorski Adam T||Fabricated panel and method for producing same|
|US3487600 *||Jun 10, 1968||Jan 6, 1970||Greene David||Swimming pool wall construction|
|US3634990 *||Mar 13, 1970||Jan 18, 1972||Pugh Thomas F||Double wall interlocking panel construction|
|US4671032 *||Mar 31, 1986||Jun 9, 1987||Philip W. Reynolds||Thermally insulating structural panel with load-bearing skin|
|US4694624 *||Jan 21, 1986||Sep 22, 1987||Juhas William M||Modular pre-insulated, pre-finished building block|
|US4844975 *||Mar 4, 1988||Jul 4, 1989||Bally Engineered Structures, Inc.||Reinforced composite sandwich panel assembly|
|U.S. Classification||52/793.11, 52/794.1, 220/918|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S220/918, E04C2/384|