US 2116965 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 1Q, 1938.
- A. SCHOOREL ET AL RADLOCK CONS TRUCTION Filed Nov. 1, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 TATE.
Z INVENTORS 2/ Adam Schoorel Henry E Keil BY jw am 19M ATTORNEYS May 10, 1938. A. SCHOOREI. ET AL 2 9 inujnocx CONSTRUCTION Fiied Nov. 1, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS (Adam SC/ZOOreZ Henry EKeiZ BY (7M,
ATTQRNEY Y May 10, 1938.
A. SCHOOREL in AL .PADLOCK CONSTRUCTION 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed NOV. 1, 1935 Z a M lv mm PM N 5 N m d A May 10, 1938. A. SCHOOREL ET AL PADLOCK CONSTRUCT ION Filed Nov. 1, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTORS Adam Schoorei Henzy F Keil ATTORNEYS Patented May 10, 1938 UNITED STATES gusset PATENT OFFEQE PADLooK CONSTRUCTION Application November 1, 1935, Serial No. 47,762
This invention relates to padlock construction. One of the subjects of this invention is to provide a simple, durable and inexpensive padlock construction. Another object is to provide a padlock construction which will be of inexpensive manufacture and which in particular is characterized'by great ease and simplicity of assembly, all without detracting from dependability. and strength in practical use. Another object is to provide a padlock construction in which certain parts thereof may be readily die cast. Another object is to provide a foolproof padlock construction and particularly to provide a padlock construction that will be Well adapted to meet the Widely varying conditions of hard practical use. Other objects will be in part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangements of parts as will be exemplified in the structure to be hereinafter described and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims.
In the accompanying drawings, in which we have shown two of the various possible embodiments of our invention,
Figure 1 is a vertical central sectional view through a padlock construction utilizing pin tumblers, the construction being shown with the parts in locked position;
Figure 2 is a view like that of Figure 1 but it shows the parts in unlocked position;
Figure 3 is a central vertical sectional view, similar to that of Figure 1, but showing only the main body portion of the casing or the casing structure itself;
Figure 4 is an end elevation, as seen from the left in Figure 3;
Figure 5 is an end elevation, as seen from the right in Figure 3;
Figure 6 is an plan View, as seen from the top in Figure 3;
Figure 7 is a perspective view of a closure member or companion piece to the casing structure of Figures 3-6;
Figure 8 is vertical transverse sectional view, as seen along the line 8-8 of Figure 1;
Figure 9 is a vertical transverse sectional view, as seen along the line 9 -9 of Figure 1;
Figure 10 is a central vertical sectional view, like that of Figure l, but showing a padlock construction utilizing the Wafer or disk type of tumbler means, embodying our invention;
Figure 11 is a vertical transverse sectional View, as seen along the line I ll i of Figure 10 Figure 12 is a perspective view of a closure or companion member to the casing structure embodied in the padlock of Figures 10 and 11;
Figure 13 is a fragmentary sectional View, as seen alongthe line l3-l3 of Figure 10, showing a possible or preferred form of wafer tumbler and its relation to the key plug;
Figure 14 is a central vertical sectional view like that of Figure 1 showing a modified form of padlock construction;
Figure 15 is a transverse sectional view along the line I5|5 of Figure 14;
Figure 16 is a detached perspective View of a closure member or companion piece to the casing structure of Figure 14;
Figure 17 is a central vertical sectional view like that of Figure 1 showing another form of padlock construction;
Figure 18 is a central transverse sectional view of the casing construction of Figure 17, certain parts being omitted, and
Figure 19 is a detached perspective view of a closure or companion piece to the casing structure of Figure 1'7.
Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
Referring first to Figure 1, we first provide a casing structure generally indicated at 2B and shaped and dimensioned, all as is later fully de scribed, to carry and have related thereto certain other parts, such as a U-shaped shackle 2!, a key plug 22, and a casing closure or companion member 49 coacting with these and other parts. To better understand the construction and coactions of the various parts, reference might first be made to Figure 3 of the drawings where the casing structure 20 alone is shown in central vertical cross-section.
The casing structure 20 is preferably die cast and hence preferably is of unitary or integral construction. It has a front end wall 24, and opening through it is a bore 25, the latter being preferably cylindrical and thereby providing a cylindrical bearing surface for the key plug 22 (Figure l). The bore 25 extends to the left (Figure 3) but terminates short of the rear end wall 26, communicating with a transversely extending chamber 21 which is rectangular and preferably square in cross section, as is better shown in Figmunicates with a longitudinally extending channel 29 which is preferably rectangular in shape, (see Figure 3), being bounded (Figure 6) by the upper ends of the side walls 30 and 3| and of the end walls 24 and 26, all for a purpose later to be described.
The rear end wall 26 (Figure 3), which forms the left-hand boundary of the chamber 2?, is provided with two round holes 32 and 33 (see also Figure 4), positioned adjacent the respective ends of the wall 26 and thus communicating with the chamber 21. As is better shown in Figure 3, there is formed or cored out, in the metal between the lower end of the bore 25 and the bottom wall 28, a cylindrical recess 34 preferably of the same diameter as the diameter of the hole 33 and juxtaposed to and in alinement with the latter. Through the hole 33 and into the recess 34 is to be slidably and rotatably received the long leg 2| a of the U-shaped shackle 2| (Figure 1), while the short leg 2| thereof is to be entered through the hole 32.
In the relatively thick metal or wall portion between the upper part of the bore 25 (Figure 3) and the horizontal channel 29, we provide a suitable number, illustratively four, of tumbler-receiving recesses 35, 36, 37 and 38, these being preferably cylindrical and alined along the central plane (see Figures 3 and 6) of the casing structure 20. As is shown in Figure 3, they are open at both their upper and lower ends, being thus exposed to the bore 25 and also to the channel 23. Forwardly of the row of tumbler recesses 35, 36, etc., and hence to the right, as viewed in Figures 3 and 6, there is formed or cored out a vertically extending channel 39 preferably of rectangular cross-section (see Figure 6) and of substantial length and breadth.
In Figure '7 we have shown in perspective a closure member 40 or a counterpart to the easing structure 20; and it too may be die cast if desired. It comprises a plate-like part 4| which is virtually to become the upper end wall of the casing 2|), being shaped to be tightly seated into the channel 29 (Figures 3 and 6) and, when so seated, to merge with the remaining upper or top portions of the casing structure 20 to simulate in appearance the exterior of the bottom wall 28 (compare Figures 5, 8 and 9).
Toward its right-hand end (Figure 7) the member 46 has depending therefrom a part 42 which is rectangular in cross-section and. shaped to fit into the above described channel 39 in the casing structure 20 (Figures 3. 6 and 1). At its left-hand end the member 40 has depending therefrom a part 43 which, when member 4| is seated into the channel 29, enters the upper open end of the channel 21 (Figures 3. and 6) and snugly interfits therewith. The preferred method of interfitting these parts is later described.
Again referring to Figure '7, the under face or side of the depending part 43 is co-ncaved as at 44, preferably in a true arc whose radius is equal to he radius of the hole 32 (Figure 3), thereby forming virtually half-cylindrical extension of the walls of hole 32. The depending part 42 (Figure '7) is longer than the channel 39 (Figure 3) and at its lowermost end it has a slot 45 whose depth is such that, when the member 40 is assembled to the casing structure 26, as in Figure 1, only the extensions 46-41 to either side of the slot 45 project into the bore 25.
To the right of the depending member 52 is an end portion M of the part 4| which is adapted to seat into the angle 29 in the right-hand end 'of the channel 29 (Figures 3 and 1), the portions of the part 4| intermediate of the parts 42 and 43 seating against the upper face of the metal wall portion 48 in which the tumbler-receiving recesses 35, 36, etc., are formed.
In the right-hand end. or terminus of the recess 34 (Figure 3) we form a slot 49, and into this slot 49 is seated the right-hand end (see now Figures 1 and 2) of a flat or ribbon-like spring 50, the latter being of substantial length and extending inwardly along and centrally of the cylindrical recess 34. The right-hand end of spring 56 we anchor in the slot 49 in any suitable manner, as, for example, by pressing the metal at the sides of the slot 49 inwardly to clamp the spring 5|] in place.
Next there is inserted into the recess 34 and through the hole 33 a helical spring 5| extending about the spring 50. The structure is now ready to have related to it the U-shaped shackle 2| (Figures 1 and 2).
The long leg 2| (Figures 1 and 2) of the shackle 2| has an inner end part 2| that is slidably and rotatably carried by the cylindrical walls of the recess 34 and extending centrally and transversely of the long leg 2| and throughout a substantial distance from its right-hand end is a slot 53 into which the free end of the flat spring 56 is received and thereby the two are related telescopically.
By this arrangement, when the shackle 2| is free to swing about the axis of the leg 2P any such swinging thereof twists the flat ribbon spring 50 and stores in the latter sufiicient energy to return the shackle 2| to the position shown in Figure 2 and hence with the short leg 2| juxtaposed to the hole 32.
To the left of the end portion 2| (Figure 2) the long leg 2| is undercut as at 2|, preferably throughout approximately half of the periphery (see Figures 2 and 8); but extending to the left and on the inner side of the long leg 2H, the latter is flattened off, as by milling or cutting, as at 2| to terminate in a recess 2| deeper than the undercutting 2| With the parts thus far assembled, there is then dropped in through the open end of the transverse chamber 21 (Figures 3 and 6) a ball 54, the latter being preferably of hardened steel and, where, as in the preferred case, the chamber 21 is square in cross-section, being of a diameter to be snugly received between and within the four walls of the chamber 21, being thereby snugly guided for movement lengthwise of the chamber 21 and with inappreciable play in a transverse direction.
The ball 54 (Figure 2) will be seen to be of appreciable diameter, relatively speaking, and the recesses 2| and 2| in the long leg 2| of the shackle 2| are preferably of curved walls whose radius is substantially equal to the radius of the ball 54.
With the parts thus far assembled, the key plug 22 may now be set into the bore 25. The key plug 22, which may also be a die casting, is received within the bore 25 and has a key slot 55 of any suitable or appropriate transverse configuration in order correspondingly to receive a key 56, as indicated in Figure 2. Communicating with the key slot 55 are tumbler-receiving recesses, preferably the same in number as the tumbler-receiving recesses 35, 36, etc. in the casing structure 2|! (Figure 3); accordingly, there are provided four recesses 65, 66, 61 and 68 of diameters preferably equal to each other and equal also to the equal diameters of the tumbler recesses 35, 36, etc. and similarly spaced. In the tumbler recesses 65, 66, etc. are the tumbler pins 15, 16, TI and 78, respectively, of appropriate lengths, according to the code or cutting of the key.
The left-hand or inner end of the key plug 22 (Figures 1 and 2) has an extension 51 integrally formed therewith, this extension being, in cross-section, preferably square (see Figure 8) and its transverse dimension, as viewed in Figure 8, is substantially equal to the transverse width or dimension of the chamber 21, into which the extension 51 projects or enters, the interfitting of these two parts dependably holding the key plug 22 against rotation about its own axis or the axis of the bore 25.
The end of extension 5'! (Figures 1, 2 and 8) has inclined or cam faces 58 and 59 between which is a cylindrical recess 60 into which is received and frictionally held one end of a helical spring ti which abuts against the inner face of the end wall 26 of the casing structure (Figures 1 and 2) and it always tends to push the key plug 22 to the right or outwardly of the bore 25.
The key plug 22, with the spring 6| secured thereto and with the plug tumblers 'I5'l6, etc. already related to it, is now slid into the bore 25 from the right-hand end thereof, as viewed in Figures 3, 1 and 2, the extension 51 entering or projecting into the chamber 21, as already above mentioned.
The key plug 22 (Figures 1 and 2) has extending crosswise of its upper part and near the right-hand end thereof a slot 62 (see also Figure 9) this slot being of a depth or vertical dimension, as seen in Figures 1, 2 and 9, at least as great as the length of the extensions 46-4'l of part 42 (Figure 7) and it has a dimension in the direction of the length of the key plug 22 (Figures 1 and 2) slightly more than twice the thickness'of the part 22 (Figure '7). Slot 62 can and in the present embodiment does intersect tumbler recess in the key plug 22 so that tumbler l8 partially projects into the slot 62.
Another ball 63 (Figure 2) is dropped into the chamber 21 but it falls no further than about the position shown in Figure 2, since the extension 51, or the spring 6!, or both, prevent the ball 63 from joining the ball 54.
The channel 29 (Figure 3) still uncovered so as to expose the tumbler-receiving recesses 35. 36, etc, the next step is to drop tumblers 85, B6, 6')! and 82 into recesses 35, 36, 31 and 38, respectively, the inner ends of which are closed by the key plug structure now already seated in the bore 25. Then springs 95, 96, 91 and 98 are seated on top of the casing tumblers 85, 86, 81 and 86, respectively, allowing their upper ends to project into or through the channel 29 (Figure 3).
The member ii) of Figure '7 is now assembled to the casing structure 2!) and related parts; part 43 (Figure 7) enters the open end of the channel 2'! (Figure 3), part 42 enters the channel 39, and part (it closes the channel 29. These parts are given such relative dimensions that the three parts of member 46 become respectively forcefitted with respect to the walls with which they are to engage. For this purpose, it may be desirable to give the faces of the parts H, 42 and of the member 48 of Figure '7 a taper of such a character or angle that these three parts are wedged into place or, where the chamber 21 (Figure 3), channel 29, and channel 39, are already given a slight taper, as is usually the case if the casing structure 20 is die cast, the parts 43, 4!
and 42 of the member 46 are preferably given a slightly greater angle of taper than the taper of the recesses 21, 29 and 39 into which they are to be wedged, respectively. Also, and in such instances, casing structure 20 and member 40 are made of the same kind of metal or alloy or of metals or alloys having closely similar or equal temperature coefficients of expansion.
Fitting the member 40 into the casing structure 20 is preferably carried on with the aid of a suitable press. When that is done, removal of part 40 is, under ordinary circumstances of use of a padlock, as good as impossible. Furthermore, part 43 of member 40 (Figure '7), with its half cylindrical wall 44, has the latter brought into alinement with the wall of the hole 32 to form an extension of the latter for neatly guiding and receiving the short leg 2| of the shackle 2| (see Figure 1), while the part M of member 40 closes the tumbler recesses 35, 36, etc. and holds the springs 95, 96, etc., and related parts, reliably in assembled relation.
The part 42 is thus wedged into and through the channel 39 and its two spaced extensions 46, 41 project into the bore 25 (Figures 1, 2 and 9) and into the slot 62 in the key plug 22, thereby precluding removal of the key plug 22 from the bore 25 while, of course, permitting the necessary movement of the key plug 22 to control the balls 54 and 63. The slot 45 (Figure '7) of the part 52. of a width slightly greater than the diameter of the tumbler or tumbler pins in the key plug, is positioned to accommodate the tumbler 18 (Figure 3) when the key plug 22 is moved toward the right under the action of the spring 6|.
In operation, the slot 62 (Figures 1 and 2) in the key plug 22, in coaction with the rigid parts 46-41, limits the range of sliding movement of the key plug 22. With the padlock in unlocked condition or position, spring 5| (Figure 2) holds the shackle 2i outward and with the short leg 2| out of the hole 32, while the spring 6! forces the key plug 22 to its extreme right-hand position, as shown in Figure 2, stop parts 464l being engaged by the left-hand wall of the slot 62 in the key plug 22 and the outermost plug tumbler pin l8 being at least partially accommodated in the slot 55 between the stop parts 464'| (Figure 2).
The plug tumblers l5, 16, etc, and the casing tumblers 85, 86, etc., are now out of alinement with each other, but the displacement of the key plug 22 to the right, as viewed in Figure 2, is so stopped or limited that the walls of the plug tum bler recesses and including the partitions between the latter, prevent the casing tumblers 85, 86, etc. from descending into the bore 25 under the action of their respective springs, while the plug tumblers l5, 16, etc. are blocked against being projected out of their recesses in the key plug 22 by the walls of or partitions between the casing tumbler recesses 35, 36, etc. Thus, this plug 22 may slide toward the left.
In this condition of the parts, stop parts 46, 4! limit the displacement of the cam face 59 (Figure 2) in a direction to the right under the action of spring 6| such that ball 54 is confined to a position where it must project into the recess 34 in which the long leg 2 l is slidable, and hence ball 54 projects into the peripheral recess 2 I. Thereby the ball 54 blocks shackle 2| against movement to the left beyond the position shown in Figure 2, and maintains the assembly of the parts. However, shackle 2! may be swung about the axis of the long leg Zl throughout an angle of preferably about 180 and preferably about 90 toeach side of the plane in which shackle 2! is shown in Figure 2. Such swinging is permitted by the half-peripheral cut away portion 2I (note Figure 8), thereby making the short leg 2! of the shackle readily available for connection to or disconnection from the parts to be locked. Also, the torsion to which the spring 56 (Figure 2) is subjected when the shackle 2! is thus swung is limited and thus the spring 50 cannot be overstressed, the spring insuring the return of the shackle 2! to the position shown in Figure 2 and thereby positioning the short leg 2! in substantial alinement with the hole 32 in the end of the casing.
To look the construction, the key plug 22 (without the key since it is not needed) and the shackle 2! are forced toward each other. Shackle 2! slides to the right, as viewed in Figure 2, and key plug 22 to the left, finally assuming positions as shown in Figure 1.
During this transition, several actions take place. For example, as the long leg 2I with its end portion 2 I guided along the cylindrical guiding channel or recess 34, moves toward the right, the short leg 2! enters the chamber 21 through the hole 32, to position the concave recess 2i opposite the ball 63, concave recess 2 I being juxtaposed to the ball 54, these movements being permitted by the straight-sided slot or cut away part ZI the latter acting, through the ball 54, to prevent key plug 22 from being completely pushed to the left until these concave recesses are substantially juxtaposed to their respective balls. Thereby, key plug 22 cannot assume a locked position until the proper recesses in the legs of the shackle are already entered into the casing and properly juxtaposed to their respective balls to be engaged thereby. If desired, this successive action may be achieved or may be aided by caus ing the spring 6! to interpose a greater resistance to movement of the key plug 22 than the resistance of spring 5! to inward movement of the shackle 2!. Also, during such inward movement of the latter, the inner end of the long leg 2I through its slot 53, telescopes over a greater length of the flat spring 50 (Figure 1).
Having thus substantially juxtaposed the concave recesses 2| and 2! to the balls 63 and 54, respectively, the short leg 2! incidentally, limiting inward movement of the shackle 2! by engaging the inner side wall of the chamber 21, the key plug 22 is now moved to the left or the movement in that cfirection completed. This movement results in the cam faces 58 and 59 (Figure 2) camming or wedging the balls 63 and 54 away from each other and into the shackle recesses 2 I and 25 respectively. And preferably, the parts are so proportioned and shaped that the key plug extension 51 (see now Figure 1) becomes completely interposed between the two balls 63 and 54 engaging the latter in its upper and lower flat faces and thus precluding any outward pull on the shackle 2! (see Figure 1) from causing the balls to have any camming action on the key plug 22; in fact, this arrangement insures that any external forces thus applied to the shackle 2! exert, through the balls 63 and 54, only a force of compression upon the key plug extension 51.
As the key plug 22 is moved as above described, the theretofore misalined casing tumbler recesses and plug tumbler recesses become alined, respectively, as shown in Figure 1, whereupon, under the action of the tumbler springs, the casing tumblers 85, 86, etc., enter the tumbler recesses in the key plug 22 to such extents as permitted by the plug tumblers themselves. Whereupon movement of the key plug 22 in a direction to release the balls and hence the shacklet can take place only under the control of an appropriate key.
When the key 56 is inserted into the key slot 55 of the key plug 22, the respective sets of tumblers are lifted against their respective springs so as to bring the junctions of casing and plug tumblers in alinement with the bore 25, thus freeing the key plug 22 for sliding movement and promptly, under the action of spring 6!, plug 22 is moved from the position shown in Figure 1 to the position shown in Figure 2. Preferably the spring 6! has sufificient strength to effect this movement with a sort of snap action, for thereby it is possible to snap the key 56 out of the key plug and in any event the operator is given a positive reminder not to leave the key in the unlocked padlock.
The extension 51 now no longer forms a barrier to the movement of the balls 53 and 54 toward each other, but the balls are now free to assume the positions shown in Figure 2; in fact, they are cammed into that position by the righthand curved ends of the shackle recesses 2! and 2! under the action of spring 5! which ejects the shackle 2! to the extent permitted by the coaction of the stop members 46--41, slot 82, cam face 59, ball 54, cut away part 2 I, and related parts.
In Figures 10, 11 and 12 we have shown our invention carried out with a wafer or disk type of tumbler construction and we again employ shackle 2! shaped exactly like that above described in connection with Figures 1 and 2 and hence having different portions and parts, all as described above in detail, including the shackleejecting spring 5! and the torsion spring 50 telescopically related through the slot 53 with the long leg 2I for swinging the shackle back into position to cause its short leg to enter the casing.
The casing structure, generally indicated at I 20, comprises what again is preferably a die casting, having a front end wall I24, the casing structure I having formed or cored therein a cylindrical bore I (Figures 10 and 11) which opens through a stepped round opening I24 in the front wall I24. The bore I25 extends toward the rear wall I26 but terminates considerably short of the latter, communicating with a vertically extending chamber I21 open at its upper end. Chamber I21 corresponds to chamber 21 of Figure 3, is preferably square in cross-section and dimensioned to snugly receive therein the balls I63 and I54. Underneath the cored out bore I25 and extending parallel to it is a cylindrical recess I34 (like the recess 34 in Figure 3) juxtaposed or in alinement with a hole I33 in the rear wall I26, thereby to receive and rotatably and slidably mount the long leg 2! of the shackle 2!, with the springs already mentioned and as described in connection with Figures 1-3. Rear wall I26 also has .a hole I32, like the hole 32 of Figure 3, through which the short leg 2I of the shackle may pass and thence into the upper end of the chamber I21.
Immediately above the bore I25 (Figure 11) and communicating with it is a channel I29; this channel I29 virtually intersects, at its left-hand end, the upper part of the chamber I21, and as is better seen in Figures 10 and 11, channel I29 virtually exposes the bore I25 along its upper portion and throughout its entire length.
Channel I29 is to receive the casing counterpart or closure member I40, shown in perspective in Figure 12. Member I40 will be seen tobe a relatively heavy and solid part, also capable of being die cast, and its upper part I4I may be considered to be somewhat plate-like to form a closure at the outer end for the channel I29, being shaped (see Figure 11) externally substantially to match the contour and appearance of the bottom wall I28 of the casing structure I20.
Depending from the left-hand portion of closure part MI is a part I43 which closes off the upper end of the chamber I21 and part I43 is, on its under side, concaved as at I44 with a radius of curvature substantially to match that of the round hole I32 and thus to form an extension inwardly of the latter for guiding and seating the short leg 2 I of the shackle.
The remainder or right-hand portion of the part I4I has depending therefrom a part I42 which fits into and occupies the lower half portion of the chamber I29 whose inner side walls are stepped as at I29 and I29 to form a ledge against which is seated the right-hand portion of member I4I (see Figures 12 and 11), whose thickness is slightly greater than the thickness of the depending part I42.
The under face I42 of the depending part I42 (Figure 12) is given the same radius of curvature as that of the bore I25, so that the bore I25 becomes completed by the arcuate under face 142 Where the key plug I22 is to have five tumblers, we give depending part I42 (Figure 12) five tumbler-receiving slots I35, I36, I31, I38 and I39. Adjacent the innermost slot I35 and projecting downwardly from the cylindrical face I42 is a stop member or part I46, which is to project into the completed bore I25 (see Figures 10 and 11).
The key plug I22 is provided with a key slot I and tumblers I15, I16, I11, I18 and I19, which are of the so-called disk or wafer type, being of apertured sheet metal and a configuration better shown in Figure 13. Each tumbler is pressed upwardly by a spring housed in a suitable recess in the key plug itself; in Figure 13 spring I80 is shown in relation to the tumbler I15 and the key plug I22.
Thus, again referring to Figure 13, it will be seen that tumbler I15 is guided for transverse sliding movement in a slot or tumbler-receiving recess I65 that extends completely through and transversely of the key plug I22; communicating with the tumbler recess I65 and alongside of it is a cylindrical recess I8I in which the helical tumbler spring I80 is positioned, its lower end resting against the bottom of the recess I8I and. its upper end resting underneath a lateral pro jection I15 of the tumbler I15.
While the spring recess I8I is open at the upper side of the key plug I22, we provide a radially extending recess I82, round in cross-section, opening from the under side of key plug I22 (Figure 13) but positioned to be intersected by the tumbler recess I65. Recess I 82 is provided so that a ball I83 may be dropped into it through the central opening I15 of the tumbler I15 when the latter is pressed downwardly against the action of spring I80 to a sufiicient extent to cause this opening I15 to be exposed beyond the lower portion of the periphery of the key plug I22, thus permitting the ball I83 to be dropped into the channel or recess I82. Subsequent release from that position of tumbler I15 allows the spring I80 to move the tumbler I15 upwardly to a point such that ball I83 collides with one of the longitudinally extending ribs of the key slot I55, the rib and the ball acting as a stop to limit the movement upwardly of tumbler I15 under the action of spring I80.
The remaining tumblers are similarly provided with springs, balls, and accompanying channels or recesses in the key plug I22, and hence, the tumblers normally (with the key not in the slot) project upwardly beyond the periphery of the plug I22 to such varying extents or degrees as is permitted by the appropriately coded or proportioned vertical dimensions of the tumblers themselves; a typical or illustrative proportioning of these parts is shown in Figure 10.
To facilitate dropping the balls I83 into their respective channels or recesses I82, as already above described, we prefer, as is better shown in Figure 10, to provide, in the key plug I22, a longitudinally extending channel or slot I22 which extends lengthwise along the under side of the key plug I22, intersecting all of the radial channels I82 and being of a width (see Figure 11) equal to or slightly greater than the width of these channels. Channel I22 thus forms a convenient guiding channel for entering the balls into their respective radial recesses or channels.
Referring again to Figure 10, it will be noted that the lower wall of the bore I25 is provided with recesses 235, 236, 231, 238 and 239 to which the recesses I35, I36, I31, I38 and I39 (see Figure 12) of the part I42 of the casing counterpartlmember I40 become juxtaposed when this counterpart is, as is later described, assembled to the casing structure I20. These recesses are of the same Width or dimension crosswise of the casing as are the recesses I35, I36, etc., this dimension being the same as the width of the lower part of the channel I29.
These lower recesses 235, 236, etc. are thus dimensioned to receive the tumblers I15, I16, etc., respectively, should any of them be projected downwardly.
- The key plug I22 (see Figure 10) has an extension I51 which in transverse cross-section, like the extension 51 of Figures 1-9, is preferably square and is transversely dimensioned to be snugly received between the vertical side walls of the chambers I21, thereby preventing the key plug I22 from partaking of rotary movement. It had cam surfaces I58 and I59 and, a recess I60 receiving a helical spring I6I.
Having first assembled the shackle 2| to the casing I20, after first putting spring 5| in the recess I34 (Figure 10) but leaving the shackle sufficiently projected from the casing structure I20 so that its short leg 2| does not obstruct the upper end of chamber I21, ball I 54 is dropped into the chamber I21, and then key plug I22, with, however, a key thrust into the key slot I55 (in order thereby to bring all of the tumblers I15, I16, etc. out of projecting position) is slid lengthwise, in a direction to the left, as viewed in Figure 10, into the bore I25. Key plug I22 is thrust completely home, spring I6I being thereby compressed. Then ball I63 is dropped into the chamber I21, the plug extension I51 barring it from joining ball I54 at the bottom of the chamber.
Then the companion casing piece or closure member I40 is put into the chamber I29, key plug I22 having a slot I62 at an appropriate point along its upper part, conveniently just to the left of the innermost tumbler I15. This slot I62 is of a width sufficient to receive the stop member I46 (Figure 12) and of a length greater than the thickness of stop member I46. The walls of the chamber I29, both above and below the shoulders I29 and I29 of Figure 11, may be and preferably are slightly tapered, particularly where the structure is die cast, and to a corresponding and preferably slightly greater degree we taper the faces or side walls of the member I46 of Figure 12, the latter being thereby or otherwise dimensioned to be receivable into the channel I29 with what may be termed a forcefit or a press-fit.
Thus we force-fit or wedge the member I 40 into the channel I29, the extent of entry being limited by the longitudinal shoulders I29 and I29 in the side walls thereof and the corresponding ledges in the side faces of member I46 (see Figures 11 and 12).
When thus forced home, stop member I46 is entered into the slot I62 of the key plug I22 (Figures 10 and 11) and the slots I35, I36, etc. of member I46 (Figure 12) become respectively juxtaposed to the tumblers I15, I16, etc. or to the tumbler-receiving recesses of the latter, and thus become themselves tumbler-receiving recesses into which the tumblers may move.
The key may now be withdrawn, for the coaction of stop member I46 and slot I62 (Figure 10) prevents removal of the key plug I22.
In action, the construction of Figures 10-13 is very much as was described in detail in con nection withFigures 1-9, as will now in view of all of the foregoing be understood. It might be added, however, that, with the parts in the positions shown in Figure 10, the insertion of a proper key into the key slot I55 withdraws all of the tumblers I15, I 16, etc. from the tumbler-receiving recesses or slots I35, I36, etc. in the member I40, and thus the spring I6I is freed to move the key plug I22 to the right, preferably with a snap action for purposes already above described. This movement of key plug I22 is limited by the stop I46 and slot I62 to an extent sufficient first to remove the extension I51 sufiiciently to cause the balls I63 and I54 to release the shackle 2I, whose spring 5| snaps it to the left but to an extent limited by the coaction of the extension I51, ball I54, and cut away portion 2| of the shackle 2|, and secondly, to prevent, displacement of the tumblers I15, I16, etc. to the right (Figure 10) beyond the partitions of part I42 (Figure 12) intervening successive slots I35, I36, etc, thereby to prevent the tumbler springs I80. (Figures 11 and 13) from causing the tumblers to interengage with any of the recesses I35, I36, etc.
To lock the padlock, shackle 2I and key plug I22 are moved toward each other, as will now be clear, but again such a succession of the movements of these two parts relative to the casing takes place that shackle recesses 2| and 2I are first juxtaposed to the balls I63 and I54, respectively, before the inward movement. of key plug I22 is completed so that the two balls are moved into interlocking relation to the two recesses. Here again, the narrowest part of the extension I51 (Figure 10) is bounded by substantially parallel faces so that any possible carnming action of the shackle recesses on the balls, due to external efforts to strain or force the padlock, is taken up by the extension I51 as forces of compression rather than to be resolved into components tending to, exert axial thrusts upon the key plug I22 and related parts.
When the movement of the key plug I22 toward the left is concluded, the tumbler springs snap the tumblers into their respective recesses I35, I36,
etc. of the casing, thus holding the extension I51 in the above described relation and requiring a proper key to remove them out of locking relation.
Certain features of our invention may, however, be carried out in a padlock construction wherein the key plug, instead of partaking of a sliding movement as above described, partakes of a rotary movement; under some circumstances, such a construction might be preferable. Accordingly, and to illustrate how certain features of our invention are thus carried out, reference may now be made to Figures 14-17 in which one such embodiment is illustrated.
In Figure 14 the casing structure 20, shackle, and ball members of Figure 1 are reproduced, for these parts may be made substantially identical throughout as was described above in connection with Figures 1-6 inclusive; accordingly, these parts, and their various details of construction, all as already above described, are shown in Figures 14 and 15 and similarly identified by the same reference characters.
The key plug 222 of Figure 14 is of a construction generally similar to that of key plug 22 of Figures 1 and 2, being provided with a key slot 255 for the reception of an appropriate key 256.
These tumbler pins 85, 86, etc. are springpressed downwardly by springs 95, 96, etc., respectively.
Adjacent its forward or right-hand end, the key plug 222 is provided with a circumferentially extending groove or slot 262 (Figure 14), for a purpose described, and at its rear of left-hand end it is provided with a cam extension 251 which, when the key plug 222 is in proper position in the bore 25 just about clears the inner face of the rear end wall 26 of the casing structure 20, as is better shown in Figure 14.
The cam extension 251 is, in cross-section, shaped as is better shown in Figure 15, being in general rectangular in cross-section, its faces being slightly curved if desired, and the longer or major axis of its cross-section being substantially in the plane along which the tumbler recesses 65, 66, etc. of the key plug 222 are alined.
The construction of Figures 14-15 is provided with acasing closure or companion member 240 which is better shown in Figure 16, shaped exactly like the member 46 shown and above described in connection with Figure "1, with one exception. It has, therefore, parts 24I, 242, 243 and 244'corresponding to the parts 4|, 42, 43 and 44, respectively, of the member 40 of Figure '1, but the lower end of the depending part 242 (Figure 16) which is to enter the channel 39 is curved at its lower edge as at 246. The peripheral slot 262 (Figure 14) of the key plug 222 is of an axial dimension snugly to receive the lower end of the depending part 242 (Figures 14 and 16) and the curvature of the end 246 substantially matches the curvature of the bottom of the peripheral slot 262.
In assembly, the shackle 2! is first related to the casing structure 26 by inserting the long leg 2P thereof into the recess 34 and interrelating its inner end with the springs 5I and 59; then ball 54 is dropped into the vertical chamber 21, whereupon the key plug 222, with the tumblers 15, 16, etc. therein, is slid into the bore 25. Ball 63 is now dropped into the upper open end of the chamber 21, coming to rest on the cam extension 251 which is given, by rotating the key plug 222, a position degrees from that shown in Figure 15, thereby permitting the short leg of the shackle to be entered through the hole 32 into the chamber 21. I
Then the tumblers B5, 86, etc. are dropped into the tumbler-receiving recesses 35, 36, etc. of the casing structure 20, springs 95, 96, likewise dropped into their channels, and then companion casing member 240 is forced into the position shown in Figure 14 in a manner as was described above in connection with the. assembly of member 40 to the casing structure 20 of Fig ures 1 and 2. Thereby, the depending member 242 enters the peripheral slot 262 (Figure 14) of the key plug 222, preventing movement of the latter in axial direction while permitting freedom of rotation.
To lock the construction, shackle 25 is driven home against the action of spring 5!, spring 50 insuring that the short leg 2 I comes into proper alinement relative to the hole 32 in the end wall 26; key plug 222 is now rotated by the key 256, through an angle of degrees, and into the position shown in Figures 14 and 15, thereby alining the tumbler recesses in the key plug with the tumbler recesses in the casing structure 20 so that, upon the ensuing withdrawal of the key 256, the casing tumblers 85, 86, etc. enter the tumbler recesses 65, 66, etc. in the key plug 222 and hold the latter against rotation.
The above described 90 rotation has caused the cam extension 251 to move the balls 63 and 54 apart from each other and into the shackle recesses 2 I and 2 I with a reliable holding action that is now clear in view of the earlier descriptions above set forth.
To unlock the structure, the key 256 is inserted to lift the tumblers and thereby to permit a 90 rotation of the key plug 222, a rotation which is, of course, partaken of by the cam extension 251 which now assumes a position 90 degrees from that shown in Figure 15, its major axis extending horizontally instead of vertically. Thereby the balls 63 and 54 can move toward each other, being given that movement by the cam action of the shackle recesses 2I and 21 because the spring 5i promptly comes into action to force the shackle 2! to the left or outwardly.
But the cam extension 251 has a minor axis or thickness so dimensioned with respect to the diameter of the ball 54 and with respect to the depth of the straight-sided slot or cut away part 21 in the long leg 2! of the shackle 2! that continued rotation of the key plug 222 be yond the above described 90 rotation in unlocking direction cannot take place and so that, also, the ball 54 just about exactly fits in between the cam extension 251 and the bottom of the cut away part 2 I? to prevent the shackle 21 from being completely withdrawn from the casing; during this latter action a rotation or swinging of the shackle 2! can take place due to the arcuate cut away portion 2I Thus, it will be seen how numerous of the unique features of our invention may be carried out into practice where it is desired to have the key plug rotate instead of slide. As earlier indicated, the various tumbler devices are intended to be illustrative and the same is true of the tumbler pins of the construction shown in Figure l i. However, to illustrate how those features of our invention shown and above described in connection with Figures 14-16 may be carried out where it is desired to use the wafer or disk type of tumbler, such as that shown in connec tion with Figures l0-13, reference may now be made to Figures 17-19.
In Figures 17 and 18 we employ, a casing structure, shackle and balls substantially as shown in construction similar to that described above in 1 connection with Figures 10-13, being provided with tumbler-receiving recesses, wafer-like tumblers, and coacting balls which are identified in Figures 17 and 18 by the same reference char acters, but the inner or left-hand end of the key plug 322 instead of having a slot M32 as in Figure 10 is provided with a peripherally extending slot 362 and instead of having the cam extension I51 with the spring I62 as in Figure 10 is provided with a cam extension 351 exactly like the cam extension 251 of Figures 14 and 15.
The casing structure I20 of Figures 17 and 18 is provided with a closure member or casing counterpart 340 having parts 34L 342, 343 and 344 corresponding respectively to the parts I4i, I42, I43 and I44 of Figure 12, but part 342 is of less depth than the part I42 of Figure 12, being devoid of the tumbler-receiving individual recesses I35, I36, etc., and it has a downwardly directed or depending part 346 of a thickness snugly to enter the peripheral slot 362 (Figure 17) of the key plug 322 and having a lower or under face 341 curved substantially to match the curvature of the bottom of the slot 362.
In assembly, shackle 2| is first related with its long leg to the recess I34 and to springs 55 and 5|, whereupon ball I54 is dropped into the chamber I21; thereupon the key plug 322, with an appropriate key 356 entered into its key slot 355, thereby to withdraw all of the tumblers I15, I16, etc. within the cylindrical exterior of the key plug 322, is inserted into the bore l25 but in such a position that the cam extension 351 has its major axis extending horizontally. The cam extension therefore bridges over the ball I54, whereupon ball I63 may now be entered into the chamber I25, coming to rest on the upper side of the cam extension 351.
Shackle 2 I, with its short leg 21* held in alinement with the hole I32 by the spring 50, may now be completely entered into'the casing structure I20 and if desired the key plug 322 may now be given a 90 turn to cause the cam extension 351 to force the balls I63 and I54 apart and into their respective shackle recesses 2I and M If desired the key may now be withdrawn and if this is done, the tumbler springs project the tumblers I15, I16, etc. upwardly and into the lower end of the channel I29, as shown in Figure 1'1, thereby holding the key plug 322 against further rotation and the endmost tumbler I19, engaging just inside of the front end wall I24 holding the key plug against movement outwardly of the bore I25.
Thereupon the companion casing member 340 (Figure 19) is assembled to the casing structure I20 in a manner described fully in connection with Figures 10-13, but the depending part 346 (Figures 17 and 19) enters the peripheral slot 362, in the key plug 322, thereby holding the key plug 322 against movementaxially while permitting free rotation thereof. The part 342 passes downwardly into the channel I29 but terminates short of the bore I25, thereby leaving the channel I29 exposed to the bore I25 to a suflicient extent both axially and radially of the bore to receive the spring-projected tumblers I15, I16, etc., the axially extending side walls of the channel I29 coacting with the projected tumblers to prevent rotation of the key plug.
The locking and unlocking actions and the maintenance of assembly of the parts when the shackle is released and outwardly projected take place in the construction of Figures 17-19 exactly as was described above in connection with Figures 14-46.
The recess 335 (Figures 17 and 18) of the casing structure is also adapted to receive the tumblers I15, I16, etc.,\ just as is the lower end of the channel I29 as above described. More particularly, should an effort be made to operate the tumblers by means of an improperly coded or cut key, the recess 335 is ready to have projected into it, thus to prevent rotation of the key plug, such tumblers as such a key might withdraw from the channel I29 (which functions as a tumblerreceiving recess) and project into it.
Thus, it will be seen that there has been provided in this invention a padlock construction in which the various objects hereinbefore mentioned together with numerous thoroughly practical advantages are successfully achieved.
As many possible embodiments may be made of the above invention and as many changes might be made in the embodiment above set forth, it is to be understood that all matter hereinbefore set forth, or shown in the accompanying drawings, is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1. In padlock construction, in combination, a casing having a bore in which is slidably received a key plug, said key plug and casing having tumbler means controllable by a key for permitting or preventing sliding movement of the key plug relative to the casing, said casing having in one end thereof open recesses, a U-shaped shackle having one leg longer than the other slidably related to said casing with the legs thereof receivable into said recesses, the portions of said legs receivable into said recesses being notched, said key plug having an interior extension provided with cam-like faces each directed toward one of said notches, a pair of members each interposed between one of said cam-like faces and a shackle leg and respectively movable into or out of said shackle notches in accordance with the position of said key plug lengthwise of said bore, said casing having a chamber extending transversely thereof and terminating in said shackle leg recesses for receiving freely therein said two members, said chamber having parallel side walls and said key plug extension having similarly spaced parallel side walls received between the walls of said chamber, thereby to prevent rotation of the key plug while permitting sliding movement thereof.
2. In padlock construction, in combination, a casing structure having a cylindrical bore therein extending rearwardly thereof from the front wall thereof and having a chamber extending transversely of the structure and along the rear end wall of the latter, said bore communicating with said chamber, said rear end wall having two laterally spaced apertures communicating with the opposite ends of said chamber, a U-shaped shackle having a short leg and a long leg with juxtaposed notches therein, said legs receivable through said apertures, said casing having a deep recess juxtaposed to one of said apertures and extending alongside of said bore, for receiving therein the long leg of said shackle, said casing structure having an outwardly open channel at that side opposite from the side having said deep recess, said chamber being open through said channel, a member resting in the lower portion of said chamber for coaction with the notch in said long leg, a key plug having tumbler means and inserted into said bore through said front end wall and having an extension projecting into said chamber above said member, a second member in said chamber above said extension for coaction with the notch in said short leg, and a closure member force-fitted into said channel for closing said chamber, said closure member and said key plug having coacting means, brought into coacting relation when said closure member is forced home, for holding said key plug against removal.
3. A construction as claimed in claim 2 in which said coacting means of said closure member comprises a depending part which, when said closure member is forced home, projects into said bore, and in which the coacting means of said key plug comprises means coacting with said part for limiting movement of the key plug relative to the bore.
4. A construction as claimed in claim 2 in which the two members coacting with the notches in said shackle legs are dimensioned freely to slide in said chamber and in which the key plug extension is slidably received between said members and is shaped for non-rotatable and slidable guiding by the walls of said chamher.
5. A construction as claimed in claim 2 in which the casing resulting from the assembly of said casing structure and said closure member is provided with tumbler-receiving recesses for coaction with the tumbler means in said key plug, said recesses opening into said channel and said closure member having an extent sufficient, when driven home, to extend over and make said tumbler-receiving recesses inaccessible from the exterior of said casing.
6. A construction as claimed in claim 2 in which there is interposed between the inside face of said rear end wall and said key plug extension a spring tending to move said key plug relative to its bore, and a part underneath said closure member coacting with said key plug to limit the action of said spring.
7. In padlock construction, in combination, a casing structure having a cylindrical bore therein extending rearwardly thereof from the front wall thereof and having a chamber ext-ending transversely of the structure and along the rear end wall of the latter, said bore communicating with said chamber, said rear end wall having two laterally spaced apertures communicating with the opposite ends of said chamber a U-shaped shackle having a short leg and a long leg, said long leg having a notch therein facing toward the short leg, said casing structure having a deep recess juxtaposed to that one of said apertures through which said long leg is received for accommodating therein said long leg, said deep recess extending alongside of said bore, said casing structure having an outwardly open channel in a side thereof on the other side of said bore, said chamber being open through said channel, a member in the bottom end of said chamber and received therein through the open end of the latter for coaction'with the notch in said long leg, a key plug having tumbler'means and inserted into said bore through said front end wall, said key plug having means at its rear end for coaction with said member, a companion casing structure part receivable in said channel having communicating therewith an auxiliary channel that communicates with said bore and said companion casing structure part having a part receivable into said auxiliary channel, at least one of said parts being force-fitted into its channel.
8. A construction as claimed in claim '7 in which the means at the rear end of the key plug is a cam means responsive to movement of the key plug for holding or releasing said member relative to the notch in said long leg of the shackle.
9. A construction as claimed in claim 7 in which said part of said companion casing structure part extends through said auxiliary channel into coacting relation to said key plug, said key plug having means coacting with said last-mentioned part for limiting movement of the key plug relative to the casing.
10. A construction as claimed in claim 2 in which there are provided means for holding said key plug against sliding movement in said bore while permitting rotation thereof, said two members that coact with said notches and said key plug extension having coacting shapes whereby said members, in response to rotary movement of said extension, are entered into or permitted to move out of said notches.
11.. In padlock construction, in combination, a casing having a key plug movably mounted therein, said casing and key plug having coacting tumbler means for permitting or preventing movement of said key plug relative to the casing, a U-shaped shackle having one leg longer than the other, said casing having recesses exposed through a wall thereof for telescopically receiving the legs of said shackle, one leg of said shackle being longer than the other whereby said shackle may be moved to Withdraw the shorter leg out of its recess and may be rotated about the axis of said long leg, shackle-dogging means within said casing for holding or releasing said shackle in accordance with the position of said key plug, and spring means acting upon said shackle to yieldingly maintain the short leg in juxtaposition to its recess when said shackle is released by said dogging means.
12. A construction as claimed in claim 11 in which said spring means comprises an elongated torsion spring having one end anchored in the recess that receives the long leg, the latter having 13. A construction as claimed in claim 11 in which said spring means comprises an elongated torsion spring having one end anchored in the recess that receives the long leg, the latter having telescopic connection with the other end of said torsion spring, there being also spring means tending to push said shackle outwardly with respect to said casing said last-mentioned spring means comprising a coiled spring surrounding said torsion spring and interposed between a wall of said recess and the end of said long leg.
14. In lock construction, in combination, a casing structure having a cylindrical bore therein and having a key plug movably mounted in said bore, said key plug and said casing structure having tumbler means coacting therewith and including tumbler-receiving recess means in said casing structure, said casing structure having an outwardly open channel extending lengthwise of said tumbler means and substantially juxtaposed to said recess means, and a companion casing structure piece in the form of a closure member force-fitted into said channel and closing said recess means and having a part which, when said closure member is forced home, is brought into coacting relation with said key plug for limiting movement of the latter relative to its bore.
15. A construction as claimed in claim 14 in which said casing recess means comprises a plurality of individual tumbler recesses each of which has a tumbler therein communicating with said bore and a spring on top of each tumbler, said key plug having corresponding and coacting tumblers, said casing having a second channel extending from said first channel to said bore for receiving said part of said closure member and to bring it into coaction with said key plug, said closure member closing said tumbler recesses and taking up the thrust of said springs.
16. A lock construction as claimed in claim 14 in whichsaid tumbler means comprises tumblers carried by said key plug and projectable into or out of said recess means of said casing, said recess means being in the form of a single recess for receiving all of said tumblers and said channel being in communication with said recess throughout substantially its entire length, said closure member closing said recess and said coacting part of said closure member extending through said single recess into coacting relation to said key plug.
HENRY F. KEIL. ADAM SCHOOREL.