US 2118108 A
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Patented May 24, 1938 UNITED STATES PATsNT o-Fr'ics Francis B. Riley,
Newton Highlands, Mass., as-
signor to United Shoe Machinery Corporation, Paterson, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey Application June 2,
newed October 2 Claims. (Cl. 66-190) This invention relates to new and useful improvements in fabrics and methods of making the same, and in the making of the present fabric, and in the praticing of the present method threads of flacid material such as yarns and worsteds of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, hemp, jute and the like may be used.
In woven textiles as produced heretofore composed of longitudinal and generally perpendicular transverse strands any strain or stress which tends to tear or rip must be met and resisted by but one thread or strand at a time. 'This is true since the design of warp and weft fabrics is such that any strain or tearing force cannot be spread or distributed so as to be resisted by more than one thread or strand at a time. Further objec. tion to such woven fabric lies in the facty that there are but a limited number of ways in which two series of strands arranged always perpendicular to each other can be made to cross over and under one another. This seriously limits the number of designs possible. -Also, in` a woven fabric the threads cannot be spaced any appreciable distance apart asfthe fabric under suchspacing would disintegrate.
Knitted fabrics are chiefly composed of but one thread interwoven with itself by a series of'interlocking loops. With such fabrics the color effect is limited and a great weakness of such fabrics resides in the fact that when the thread is broken, regardless of the amount of wear the article has experienced, the two severed ends of the strand retreat from one another and a so-called run appears, thereby spoiling the article. The second great weakness of knitted fabrics lies in their extreme elasticity with theresult that they stretch considerably in all directions under but slight force. As a result of these objections knitted fabrics are confined almostentirely to use in stockings, sweaters and the like where elasticity is necessary. It isa further objection to knitted fabrics that but one stitch can be made to each complete cycle of a machines operation, and it is to be noted that the patterns and designs possible in any fabric composed basically` of but a single strand are very limited and the color effects are also limited. An object of t' e present invention is to provide a fabric having the appearance of a knitted fabric but in which the tendency to stretch in any one or all directions may be eliminated or.
Another object is to provide a fabric which may be made up into a substantially limitless number of designs so as to give any desired apinterlocking loops, the loops of each row 1934, Serial No. 732,515
pearance and which may of a close or open fabric.
vA further object ofthe inventionis to provide a method whereby the new fabric may be efficiently produced.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from a consideration of the following detailed description taken in connectioh with the accompanying drawing wherein satisfactory embodiments of the invention are shown; However. it is to be understood that the invention vis not limited to the details disclosed but includes all such variations and modifications as fall within the spirit of the invention 'and the scope of the appended claims.
In the drawing: A
Fig. l is a plan view showing a piece of standard or usual knit fabric;
Fig. 2 is asimilar view showing a small/portion of fabric constructed according to the present invention and wherein diagonal or reinforcbe made up in the form n ing .strands are used in conjunction with the strands of the fabric of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a further development of Fig. 2 and shows a fabric somewhat similar to Fig'. 2 but with the addition of cross or lock strands and 1ongitudinal strands;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a small piece of fabric including cross and longitudinal strands secured together by interweaving therewith a loop fabric.
Figure 5 shows a small section of fabric comprising a base including diagonal strands with which are interwoven a series of loops extending longitudinally of the fabric.
Figure 6 is a view` similar to Figure 5 but with the addition of cross strands. V
Figure 'l shows the fabric somewhat similar to Figurev 6 but vwith the addition 'of longitudinal strands and with the alternate loops extending in opposite directions across the longitudinal strands. l
Referring in detail to the drawing, in Figure 1 is shown a small piece of fabric knitted in the usual manner. designated I0, is a'susual formed by a series of being arranged side by side or transversely of the fabric and the loops of onev row being interlocked with those of a preceding row. It will be'fnoted that knitting of the fabric Ilahorfzontal row is com- This piece of fabric, 'generally pleted prior to the starting of a second horizontal row and since the machine must go through a and in Figure 2 is shown a form of the fabric of stretching in 'two directions.
the present invention. This fabric has 'all the appearance of a knitted fabric, but is strengthened or reinforced in such a manner as to prevent its In Figure 2 the fabric is generally designated I8 and comprises a base like portion including the sets of diagonal strands I9 and the sets of diagonal strands 20. The strands I 9 are below the strands 28 and such strands 2liv are simply superposed on or laid on the strands I9 and at right angles thereto, but are not interwoven therewith. A knitted or looped fabric is formed on the base comprising the diagonal strands I9 and 28 and this knitted fabric is formed in the usual manner of knitting by using vone ormore continuous threads as desired, and it will be noted that the loops are in horizontal rows and vthat the adjacent loops are interlocked. As an example, it is noted that the loops 2| and 22 are interlocked by an oppositely extending loop 23. This is repeated throughout the fabric.
Below the loops -2I and 22 are loops 24 ,and 25, andit will be noted that the loop 2| is arranged in the space between four of the diagonal strands, and substantially in line with the intersection 26 of the diagonal strand. Loop 24 is below"such intersection, and it will be noted that the strand 21 forming the loop 2i is carried across. the diagonal strand |9a and then through the loop 24 and upwardly at the rear sides of the diagonal strands and formed into the loop 2i and then downwardly at the rear sides of said diagonal strands and outwardly through the lcop 24 and across the diagonal strands 20a and I 9b. In this.
way the knitted fabric is plied to the base comprising the diagonal strands I9 and 20, and the said diagonal strands are secured or locked together and it is to be understood that the operav ltion described above is repeated throughout the fabric.
Referring now to Figure 3, there is shown a fabric designated 28 and which is similar to th'e fabric |8'of Figure 2 but with the addition that the fabric 28 includes cross strands29 and verti. cal or longitudinal strands 38. 'I'he strands 29 and 38 cross one another at the intersection of c the diagonal strands I9 and 20, and it will be iiiil noted that a base is made up comprising the cross strands 29, diagonal strands 2li and I9 and the longitudinal strands 38. The four sets of strands 19,28, 29 and 38 are simply laid onto one another and are not interwoven. However, the four sets of strands mentioned are secured together or interlocked by ythe looped fabric interwoven with them.
This interlocking or securing together of the base strands by the looped strands results in the formation of a non-stretching fabric and to accomplish the purpose a loop 3I'maybe laid over the longitudinal strand and the two diagonal strands immediately below an intersection of the base strands and the arms of said loop vare carried under a cross strand 29a to the underside of the base fabric and are brought to the upper side of the fabric at the next intersection of base strands. In the drawing it will be noted that the arms 33 and 34 of a loop 35 below the loop 3i are brought to the upper side of the fabric by being passed between the arms of the loop 3| at la point immediately above the cross strand 29a and immediately below the portions of a pair of diagonal strands just above said cross strands;
Referring now to Figure 4, wherein the piece of fabric is generally designated 36, it'will be noted that thesame includes a base comprising longitudinal strands 31 and cross strands 38. As shown the strands 31 are simply superposed on the strands 38 and are not interwoven therewith. Securing the strands 31 and 38 together are looped strands, and it will be noted that the looped strands 39, 40, 4I, 42 and 43 are not interlocked with one another and are not connected with one another except through the base strands 31 and 38. 'I'he looped strands are all treated the same, and a detailed description of the looped strand 40 will be given. This strand includes an arm 44 brought to the upper side of the fabric at 45, and then carried across a longitudinal strand 31 and a horizontal strand 38, and looped as at 45. 'I'he strand 48 is then carried back across the longitudinal strand 31 and the cross strand 38 as at 46, and is then passed through a previously formed loop 41. Arm 46 of the strand 40 is then carried at the under side of the base strands and is brought to th upper side of the fabric at 59 providing an arm. I and a loop 52, the arm 53 of which is carried back down across the base strands 31 and 38 and through the loop 45 as at 54. It will be noted that by this arrangement the V alternate loops are carried in opposite directions across the longitudinal or vertical strands and that the loops are arranged in vertical rows as distinguished from the horizontal rows of Figure 1. With the fabric of Figure 4 a considerable savings in material may result, since an open mesh may be formed. 'I'he looped strands securel the layers forming the, base together and the layers of strands forming the base also secure the vertical rows of looped strands together, so as to form the completed fabric.
Referring now to Figure 5, the fabric of that figure generally designated 55 comprises a bottom layer of diagonal strands 56 and a top layer of such strands 51. These diagonal strands 56 and 51 form a base and are only laid one on the other and theyare not interwoven with one another. A looped fabric isA formed on the base and comprises vertical rows of loops 58, 59 60, etc. It will be noted that the vertical rows of loops are not interlocked with one another, and
are not connected except by the diagonal strands forming the base. In forming the fabric a loop 58a is laid across diagonal strands 56a and 51a immediately below their intersection 6I .and against their upper sides, and an arm 6I of said loop is carried through the loop above said loop 58a and then downwardly at the rear side of the fabric as at 62 and then out through the loop 58a as at 63 and then down to provide a loop 58h, the arm 64 of which corresponds with the arm 6I of the loop 56a above referred to. In this way the vertical rows of loops are formed and are vinterlocked with the base comprising Athe diagonal strands 56 and 51, so as to secure said base strands together.
Obviously the diagonal base strands serve to prevent the stretching of the fabric in two directions and serve as a means for connecting the vertical rows of loops. Such loops serve to secure the superposed layers of diagonal strands together, it being appreciated that such diagonal i tage of this fabric where the loops are arranged in vertical rows is that separate loop forming mechanisms may be provided; for the separate rows so that the fabric may be rapidly produced. When a separate mechanism is provided for each vertical row it will be clear that on each complete operation of the machine the length of the fabric will be increased one horizontal row of loops as distinguished from the old method wherein a complete operation of the machine is required for the forming of one loop in the series of a horizontal'row of loops.
Referring now to Figure 6, the fabric of that figure is generally designated and corresponds with the fabric of Figure 5 with the exception that cross strands 66 have been introduced. The cross strands 66 are arranged to overlie the alternate intersections of the diagonal strands 56 and 51, and the vertical rows of loops 58, 59, 60, etc. serve to secure together the diagonalstrands and the cross strands since the diagonal and cross strands are not interwoven but are arranged in layers. Further, the diagonal and cross strands form a base serving to connect the vertical rows of loops, and the diagonal strands serve to prevent stretching of the fabric diagonally in either direction.y The cross strands serve to prevent lateral or transverse stretching of. the fabric.
Figure '1 shows a fabric generally designated 61 y and which is quite similar to the fabric of Figure 6, and includes a layer of diagonal strands 68, a layer of diagonal strands 69, and a layer of cross strands 10. Also, a layer of longitudinal strands 1l may be included, and it will be understood that the strands 68, 69, 10 and 1I are not interwoven with one another but are simply arranged in layers, and as shown the cross strands-10 form the bottom layer, the diagonal strands 65 the next lowermost layer, the diagonal strands 68 being arranged in intersecting relation with thestrands 69 and on the latter, and the longitudinal strands comprising the uppermost layer. If desired longitudinal strands 12 may be provided about which a strand may be looped at 13 and carried back on itself whereby to provide the cross strands 10 and whereby to provide a selvaged edge for the fabric.
The various layers of the strands comprisingY the base of the fabric are secured togetherby vertical rows 1I, 16 and 18 of loops. These are vertically extending rows of loops, and it will be noted that the loops are similar in form to the loops of Figure 4 and that the alternate loops of each row are carried diagonally across the vertical strands with which the loops are associated. It will also be noted in Figure '1 that the diagonal strands are each made up of a single strand,'the
Astrand forming the diagonal strands 68 being looped upon itself at 11, while the single strand forming the diagonal strands 69 is looped upon itself. at 18.
It will now be seen that according to the present invention a looped fabric may be strengthened or reinforced so as to control or prevent its stretching in any one or more or all directions. To prevent stretching in one direction a single layer of either diagonal, cross or longitudinal strands may be used, and additional strands may be used to control or prevent stretching in another dircction. Whenever desired certain of the diagonal or cross or longitudinal strands may be omitted to vary the design, and the stretch controlling or preventing strands comprising the bases of the various fabrics may be arranged closer together or further apart so as to provide a close stiff fabric or an open flexible fabric. The fabric of Figure 3 lends itself particularly to the weaving of a close and stiff texture, while that of Figure 4 may be woven in particularly open and flexible formation and may include much less material and may be cheaply produced. As before pointed out, when the loops are arranged in vertical rows the fabric may be produced at great speed, and it will be understood that the various strands may be of various materials and of various colors and of various cross sectional diameters.
1. The method of making a fabric comprising providing sets of diagonal, longitudinal and cross strands, arranging such strands on one another in layers, and forming a completed fabric by locking the sets of strands together by a strand formed into a series of interlocking loops.
2. A fabric comprising a base including straight' FRANCIS B. RILEY.