US 2121198 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Filed Jan. 18, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1- INVENTOR l PatentedJune 21, 1938 CATALYST CONVERTER James M. Jenkins, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to Andale Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application January18, 1937, Serial No. 121,043
7 Claims. (Cl. 23-288) The present invention relates to apparatus for use in the promotion of catalytic reactions and is particularly concerned with certain improvements whereby it is possible to attain greater simplicity and accessibility of structure, efiicienoy of operation and accuracy of temperature control.
The invention is especially adapted for use in that type of catalyst converter wherein a coollar liquid bath chamber carried upon the horizontal tube plate 5 whichin turn is adapted to rest upon suitable structural foundation work I.
' The annular chamber 5 is embraced between the outer cylinder 8 and the inner cylinder 9,
the cylinder 9 is closed by means of a plate it which. provides a connecting passage il across the bottom of the device.
The top of the annular liquid bath chamber is closed by the upper tube plate l2 between ing medium, such as air, is employed for mainthe periphery of which and the upper portion 10 taining a liquid bath such as a solution of a of the cylindert is provided an annular expan- Sllitable S a e like, at a substantially sion joint iii. The inner cylinder 53 is Welded constant temperature, the bath, of course, being to the under side of the tube plate l2 as shown. arranged in heat transfer relationship with the The catalyst tubes it extend vertically through catalyst tubes. the annular chamber 5 and have their ends suit- 5 Among the objects of the invention is the proably connected to the tube plates so as to receive vision of a converter of the type d c ed in the gas to be treated into their upper ends and zvhich ready access may be had to the catalyst to discharge the products of the reaction from ubes as Well as to the cooling tubes without their lower ends.
disturbance of one or the other and with mini An annular gas inlet header l5 surrounds the 20 mum interference with their associated headers, upper ends of the catalyst tubes itand an optube plates, connecting conduits, and the like. posed header l6 surrounds their lower ends in Another Object O e invention s o p ov de a position to receive the discharged products oi CO Ve ter 0f the type described in which the the reaction. The gas is delivered to the inlet 21151265115322.5519 cooling medium are disposed. 1111 header through the connectlon In and the prod- 25 i eontalnplg e temperature CODCTO ucts of the reaction are discharged or withdiawn bathilrnhafldlrectjioln ggebnirally transverseL of through the congiecttiilon IS the direction of fiow a 1n w 10 ie ca a ys u es are arrange being indicated 3 e arrows. A further object of the invention is to decrease The liquid bath chamber is provided at some stal a f 24 d a i c tth suitable location in its circumference with the 30 H W 11 Oregoing Ogether W1 11 Such 0 inlet connection to and the outlet connecton 20 Objects as en y gl zllfim or wll'llich as well as with an auxiliary drain outlet 2i and m y pp r. reinar are 0 cine s 1 a suitable vent 22 in the upper tube plate. The trated in p eferred form in the accompanyin bathmay be a liquid salt such as sodium or pog QSE Y G L t-assium chlor de or a bath of molten metal 35 e r A is ave lcal transv r e sectl n th h such as lead but the type of bath has no ielation il p g t app g i; t l d to the present invention and I do not wish to be igure 1s a par 1a sec ion on an en limited to any particular liquid.
scale taken approximately as indicated by the The inlet header i5 is provided at the bottom 1me 2 2 111,F1gure 1; with a surrounding ring 23 and an innerring 40 Figure 3 1s a horizontal section on a scale still M and at the top, at a plurality f suitably i j f f g f t t f spaced points, with a series of lifting lugs 25.
3:; O cons rue ion 16 mg 0 6 CO0 mg u The header i5 is also provided with one or more Figure 4 is a vertical central section, also on fgspectmn wemngs 25 suitably closed by covers an enlarged scale, through the lower end of one M 1 l2 of the catalyst tubes where it passes through the Inslde t rmg the tube p ate 18 supporting tube plate. formed with a central opening 28 above which By referring to the drawings it 111 b seen is carried a plate 29 formed with a central outlet .50 that my impmvm apparatus inchldes the annw opening 3!] and an annular series of inlet openr ings 3!. The cooling medium, preferably air, 0
comes in through the supply connection 32 and is distributed to the openings 3! by means of an annular header 33. The warm air is discharged through the opening 3% and the outlet connection 34, the direction of circulation being indicated by the arrows.
A cylindrical chamber 35, which is closed at the bottom by a plate 36 located in a plane slightly above the plate It! in order to provide a horizontal connecting passage 31, is suspended by its upper end 33 from the plates I2 and 29, the end 38 being located to the inside of the annular series of openings 33. It will be seen, therefore, that between the outside of the cylindrical chamber 35 and the inside of the cylinder 9 there is provided an annular chamber 39 which serves as a header chamber for supplying the cooling medium to the cooling tubes in a manner to be described just below. The chamber 35 constitutes an outlet chamber for the warm air, said chamber delivering to the opening 30 and discharge connection 34 as already described.
The cooling medium is carried outwardly from the annular chamber 39 through the liquid bath chamber by means of a plurality of horizontal, radially disposed tubes 48 in the center of each of which is located a return tube section 4|, the details of which tubes are shown to best advantage in Figures 2 and 3. The outer ends of the tubes 40 are closed by the plugs 42 and are fitted into positioning sockets 43 carried on the inside of the outer ring 8 of the liquid bath chamber. The inner ends of the tubes 40 are secured in the cylinder 9 in any suitable manner as by means of the welds 44.
The outer ends of the return tube sections l! are flared slightly and serrated as shown at #35 in Figure 3 in order to provide for ready ingress of the returning warm air which is carried back to the central chamber 35 and there discharged. The inner ends of the tubes 4| are secured in the cylindrical wall of the chamber 35 by means of screw-threaded plugs 46 to which they are welded as at 41.
The tubes 40 with their central return sections 4| are arranged in a series of horizontal planes with the tubes in each plane staggered with respect to the plane immediately above or below as clearly brought out in Figures 1 and 2. The catalyst tubes M are disposed between the tubes l-i) as most clearly shown in Figure 2 and it will be seen that the cooling tubes are arranged to extend through the liquid bat-h chamber in a direction which is generally transverse to the direction in which the catalyst tubes extend. Furthermore the catalyst tubes are increased in number from the center outwardly by virtue of the widening spaces about the radially disposed cooling tubes 40. This also is shown to best advantage in Figure 2.
The lower ends of the catalyst tubes M are securely fastened in the tube plate 6 as shown in enlarged view in Figure 4, from inspection of which it will be seen that the tube ends are expanded into V-grooves 58 in order tosecure a very firm connection between the tubes and the tube plate. This is important because the tubes actually carry the weight of the upper tube sheet l2 and all of the attached parts so as to permit the necessary expansion and contraction, which latter is taken care of by the expansion joint I3 already mentioned. The tubes 66 are, of course, filled to any desired depth with the catalyst 49 which is supported upon the screen 50 located just above the upper surface of the tube plate 6. The screen in turn is carried upon the upper end of a short inner stub tube or bushing 5| under which is placed the supporting pin 52.
A series of thermo couples 53 is provided for the purpose of determining and controlling the temperature of the bath, the control, preferably, being automatic and obtained by means of varying the weight of air which is passed through the cooling tubes.
In operation the chamber 5' is first filled to a suitable depth with the desired liquid bath which is preferably preheated before being introduced through the connection l9. At this time, of course, the outlet 26 and auxiliary drain 2| are closed.
The gases to be treated come in through the connection IT and are distributed to the catalyst tubes by means of the header IS in the manner already described and the products of the reaction are collected in the header l6 and discharged through the outlet I8.
As is well known in this art the reaction generates heat and this heat is transferred to the bath and the temperature of the bath is maintained at a substantially constant point by regulating the volume or weight of air which passes inwardly through the connection 32 and from thence to the chamber 39 which communicates with the cooling tubes 30, the air entering the inside of the cooling tubes around the return sections ll and after traversing the tubes GD returning through the sections 4| to the central chamber 35 from whence it is discharged through the outlet 34.
The transverse arrangement of the two sets of tubes 1. e., the catalyst tubes I4 and the cooling tubes 40 and ll provides an extremely efficient piece of apparatus and one in which the temperature can be controlled with great accuracy. In addition the structural arrangements are such as to provide for the greatest accessibility to all portions of the apparatus with the least amount of interference with any other portion not involved at the time. For example, the catalyst tubes may be inspected or repaired and the catalyst changed if necessary without in any way disturbing any of the air circulating tubes and connections and vice versa except, of course, that when any tube has to be removed and replaced it may be necessary, with certain types of baths, to drain the chamber 5 while the liquid is hot as otherwise it would become solid and would prevent the removal of the tube. more, if a tube were removed without draining the bath, the bath, of course, would escape through the opening from which the tube was removed. Many other advantages incident to the structure will be apparent to those skilled in this art.
. What I claim is:
1. A catalyst converter, comprising in combination, a liquid bath chamber, vertically extending catalyst tubes passing therethrough, a coolingmedium header chamber adjacent a side of said liquid bath chamber, a second cooling-medium header chamber beyond said first header chamber on the same side of said liquid bath chamber, and horizontal return-flow cooling-medium tubes extending into the liquid bath chamber, the outflow sections of said cooling-medium tubes communicating with one of said header chambers and the corresponding return-flow sections thereof communicating with the other of said header chambers.
2. A catalyst converter, comprising in combination, a central cooling-medium header chamber, an annular cooling-medium header chamber surrounding said central chamber, an annular Furtherliquid bath chamber surrounding said annular cooling-medium chamber, vertical catalyst tubes 3. A catalyst converter, comprising in combination, a central cooling-medium header chamher, an annular cooling-medium header chamber surrounding said central chamber, an annular liquid bath chamber surrounding said annular cooling-medium chamber, vertical catalyst tubes in said liquid bath chamber, a tube plate closing each end of the liquid bath chamber, the ends of the catalyst tubes being secured in said tube sheets, an upper and a lower header for circulating the gas tobe treated through said catalyst tubes, horizontal return-flow coolingmedium tubes extending into the liquid bath chamber, the outflow sections of said horizontal tubes communicating with one of said cooling-- medium header chambers and the corresponding return-flow sections thereof communicating with the other of said cooling-medium header chambers, a cooling-medium supply connection communicating with one of said cooling-medium header chambers, and a cooling-medium outlet connection communicating with the other of said cooling-medium header chambers.
4. A catalyst converter comprising in combination, a central warm air outlet chamber, an annular cold air inlet chamber surrounding said warm air outlet chamber, an annular liquid bath chamber surrounding said cold air inlet chamber, vertical catalyst tubes in said liquid bath chamber, a tube plate closing each end of said liquid bath chamber, the ends of the catalyst tubes being secured in said tube plates, a plurality of horizontal cooling tubes extending from the cold air inlet chamber through the liquid bath chamber, said tubes being closed at their outer ends, and a plurality of warm air return tubes in said cooling tubes, said warm air return tubes extending from a point near the closed ends of the cooling tubes through'the annular cold air supply chamber to the central warm air outlet chamber.
5. A catalyst converter comprising in combination, an outer cylinder and an inner cylinder formingan annular liquid bath chamber, a tube sheet closing each end of said chamber, catalyst tubes extending through the chamber and the tube sheets, a gas inlet header communicating with one end of said catalyst tubes, an outlet header communicating with the other end of said catalyst tubes, a cylinder within said inner cylinder cooperating with the latter to form an annular header chamber and itself forming a central header chamber, a plurality of tubes extending from said annular header chamber through said liquid bath chamber in a direction generally transverse of the catalyst tubes, said transversely extending tubes being closed at their outer ends, a plurality of open-ended tubes Within said transverse tubes, said open-ended tubes extending inwardly from a point near the closed ends of the transverse tubes through the annular header chamber to the central header chamber, a cooling-medium supply connection communicating with one of said header chambers, and a cooling-medium outlet connection communicating with the other of said header chambers.
6. A catalyst converter comprising in combination, an outer cylinder and an inner cylinder forming an annular liquid bath chamber, a tube sheet closing each end of said chamber,
catalyst tubes extending through the chamber and the tube sheets, a gas inlet header communicating with one end of said catalyst tubes, an outlet header communicating with the other end of said catalyst tubes, a cylinder within said inner cylinder cooperating with the latter to form an annular cooling-medium supply chamber and itself forming a central outlet chamber for the cooling medium, a plurality of coo-ling tubes extending from said cooling-medium supply chamber through said liquid bath chamber in a direction generally transverse of the catalyst tubes, said cooling tubes being closed at their outer ends, and a plurality of cooling-medium return tube sections within said cooling tubes, said sections extending inwardly through said annular cooling-medium supply chamber and discharging into said cooling-medium outlet chamber.
'7. A catalyst converter comprising in combination, a lower or supporting tube plate, an annular liquid bath chamber carried thereon, a plurality of upstanding catalyst tubes in said chamber secured at their lower ends in said supporting plate, an upper tube plate closing the liquid bath chamber, the upper ends of said catalyst tubes being secured therein, an expansion joint between the top of the upper outer wall of the liquid bath chamber and said upper tube plate, a gas supply header for said catalyst tubes carried on the upper face of said upper tube plate, an outlet header for the catalyst tubes below said supporting tube plate, a central warm air outlet chamber carried by said upper plate and forming an annular cold air supply chamber between said liquid bath chamber and said central warm air outlet chamber, a cold air supply connection communicating with said supply chamber also carried on said upper tube plate, a warm air outlet connection on said upper plate, a plurality of horizontal cooling tubes extending from the cold air supply chamber through the liquid bath chamber, said cooling tubes being closed at their outer ends, and a warm air return tube in each cooling tube projecting through the cold air supply chamber and discharging into the warm air outlet chamber.
JAlVIES M. JENKINS.