US 2121777 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June '28 1938. J. BAILEY Er AL l I WINDOWPANE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Filed March 2, 1936 lNvENToRS ATTO R N EYS Patented June 2s, 193s ammi WINDOWPANE AND METHOD F SAME James Bailey and Aaron K. Lyle, Hamburg, N. Y.,
assigner: to Bailey & Sharp 0o., Inc., llamhurg, N. Y.
' Application Maren z, 193s, serai No. 66,540
This invention relates to window constructions, and particularly to the reinforced glass panes therefor and the mounting of the same in a sash.
In the ordinary method of assembling panes of glass in a window, the sash is recessed to receive the glass. The pane is bottomed in this lrecess either directly against the sash or on a' thin layer of putty or the like. The remainder of the recess is then filled with putty.
Under these conditions, the central area of the glass is exposed to any incident radiation whereas the edge portions are protected from such radiation by the shadow of the sash and putty. o
Glass, being a fair absorber of long lwavelength radiation, is considerably heated by sunlight or by radiant heat from a furnace. It isalso a poor conductor of heat. The mass of glass and putty, and the sash particularly if a steel sash is used, tends to prevent the edges from heating 2o up as rapidly as does the central portion of glass. On some experiments we have found that the difference in temperature between the glass where it is directly exposedto the heat and the glass where it is ,protected by the sash and putty may at times amount to as much as 100 F.
Further, heat absorbing glasses heat up quite rapidly when exposed to the direct radiation of bright sunlight and in some cases the shadow of the sash alone is suiiicient to cause a very material temperature difference.
Now, if the central portion of glassis hotter than the edge portion, the center will expand more than the edge. This results in compressive strains in the central portion and much greater,
because of the smaller amount of material, tensile strains in the edgevportion. The edge portion contains all of the cracks and splinters due to cutting and-is therefore mechanically weak. It will consequently break quitev easily.
We have found that panes of rolled wire glass are particularly weak in the edge portion due to the cracking, chipping and splintering of the glass when the wire is broken. Further, the pattern on the surface, especially if it is of a deep 45 and prismatic design, seriously weakens the edge along the cut. As a result rolled wire glass is par` ticularly likely to crack from radiant heat.
An object of this invention is to provide an improved reinforced' glass pane for use in window 5o constructions, with which breakage or cracking of the glass from radiant heat will be re` duced, which may be'incorporated in sash of existing constructions without *changes in the construction of the sash or the manner in which 55 the pane is secured in the sash, with which the (Cl. 2li-56) effective strength of the pane in a sash will not be materially weakened, with which the cost of the' pane or of the window construction in which the pane is used will not be materially increased, and with which the appearance of the window construction will not be materially changed.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved window construction of the type utilizing a reinforced glass pane, with which danger of breakage due to uneven expansion throughout the pane is reduced, with which the c ost of construction is not materially increased,
and which may be incorporated inrelatively long panes.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved method of making a window construction utiiizing a reinforced glass pane, by' the use of which, danger of cracking of the pane due to uneven heating of different zones of the pane will be materially reduced, and which will be relatively simple and easily practiced.
Various other objects and advanatages will be apparent from the following description of some embodiments and examples of the invention, and the novel features will be particularly pointed out hereinafter in connection with the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawing: n
Fig. 1 is a perspective of a portion oi' the sash having attached thereto a reinforced glass pane constructed in accordance with this invention and illustrating one embodiment thereof Fig. 2 isa plan of a corner of a reinforced glass pane, which may be secured in a sash of usual construction, constructed in accordance with this y invention;
Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation of the same, on a larger scale, with the section taken approximately along the line 3--3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation on a larger scale through a portion of a sash having mounted therein a glass pane also constructed in accordance with this invention and illustrating another embodiment or example thereof;
Fig. 5 is a plan, on a reduced scale, of a portion of a window construction of the type used in greenhouses and the like, and which is also constructed in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 6 is a plan, at approximately actual size, of a portion of one of the glass panes shown in Fig. 5; and
Fig. 7 is a sectional elevation, on a slightly enlarged scale, of a glass pane also constructed in accordance with this invention, and illustrating in Figs. 1 to 3, a reinforced glass pane Ill constructed in accordance with this invention is mounted in the conventional manner in 'the recess or rabbet II of a sash I2. 'I'he sash I2 is shown as a standard steel sash, utilizing a strip of putty I3 to hold the pane in position in the rabbet or recess II. In this type of glazing a thin layer It of the putty is disposed in the bottom of the rabbet I I before the marginal edge of the sash is placed in the sash. 'I'he pane is placed against this layer and the recess filled with the remainder of the putty in the usual manner. In this embodiment of the invention, the reinforced glass pane 'is illustrated as of the type known as rolled Wire glass, in which a woven wire screen. I5 of large mesh is embedded in the glass and is co-extensive in area with the faces of the glass. This glass may have the reinforcement embedded only to a slight extent into the glass such as shown in Figs. 1 to 4, or. it may be disposed approximately equidistant between the faces of the pane of glass, as usual in the window pane industry.
After the glass pane is cut to the desired size, the glass of a marginal strip thereof, which is to be secured to the sash or secured to any suitable support in which it may be covered or protected from heat radiation to any extent, is cut, broken or severed from the body of the pane along the line I6, without severance of the reinforcing wires of the screen I5. This severed marginal edge strip A is then disposed in the recess or rabbet I I of the sash and glazed in the usual manner with the crack or line of severance I6 running in the direction of the recess or rabbet II and just within the rabbet, as shown in Fig. l, so that the uncut marginal edge of the pane will be received somewhat in the rabbet or recess Il, as shown in Figs. 1 to 3. In many cases, the cut may be located about one-half inch in from the edge, at a place where the cut will be just covered by the edge of the putty. The putty or other similar plastic glazing material I3 is then brought over the crack or line of severance I 6, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, in order to cover and seal the crack or line of severance. The crack permits expansion and contraction of the central or body portion relatively to the anchored edges or strips A. While the strip A may be broken under the putty, by this expansion, the crack cannot extend into the exposed part or body portion.
The putty I3 prevents the entrance of moisture into the crack I 6 such as would cause rust or deterioration of the wire reinforcement where it joins the marginal edge strip A to the main body of the pane. In some instances it may be desirable to stretch slightly the wires of the reinforcement at the cracks or lines of severance, immediately after the crack is formed, as shown particularly in Figs. 1 to 3, in which case the slightly widened crack will be covered and protected by the putty I3, yet the crack of substantial width allows limited expansion and contraction of the main body of the pane without material displacement or movement of the marginal section A. Preferably, such marginal, partially severed strips A of the pane are provided on all of the edges which are secured in the sash or to a support.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 4, the crack along lines I6, particularly after being enlarged or widened by the stretching of the wires of the reinforcement following cracking or severance of the glass along lines I6, is filled with a resilient, plastic material which preferably has the property of adhering to the glass, is transparent and weather resistant. Such filling materials are well known in the glass industry. For example, a cellulose base material is used in the formation of what is popularly known as. shatterproof glass, and such material in plastic form may be used to fill the cracks provided in this manner. Other materials which may be used, although, in some instances, less transparent, are shellac, asphalt cellulose materials dissolved in vaporizable solvents, and organic resins containing a suitable plasticizer and of the type suitable as a. plastic cement, and which mayv be poured or worked in a plastic stage.
Any of the organic resins which may be Worked in a plastic stage and then hardened somewhat,
such as by the vaporization of a solvent, may also be employed. Synthetic resins, including various condensation resins, and containing a plasticizer, which are capable of being worked in a plastic stage and subsequently hardened, are also suitable, but since such resinous materials are well known in the art, a detailed list is omitted. When the cracks along lines I6 are lled with this resilient, plastic material I1, Fig. 4, it is not necessary to place the cracks beneath the putty I3, although the lled cracks should be disposed either under the putty or in reasonably close proximity to the sash, if one is to obtain the maximum benets of the invention.
In Fig. 5 the invention is illustrated as embodied in the roof of a greenhouse where the panes are overlapped in shingle fashion and secured only along opposite side edges. In this construction, the sash bars I8 extend for the whole Width of the roof in the direction from eaves to ridge pole, and the panes Ill are disposed along their opposite side edges in the grooves or rabbets Il of these sash members I8, with Y in the sash bars are provided with the cuts or.-
cracks I6 creating the side strips A in the manner shown in Figs. 1 to 3. These cracks I6, if unfilled, are protected by the putty, as shown in Figs. 1 to 3, but if illled with the resilient plastic material I1, they need not be, but may be, covered by the putty.
Where very long panes of glass are employed. as shown in Fig. 5, the relative expansion between the central portion and the parts or strips A covered by the putty may be sufiicient to overstrain the reinforcement wires, and this we may prevent by providing a plurality of transverse cuts or cracks 20 similar to cracks I6 extending from the cracks I6 across the strips A'to the adjacent edges of the pane. cuts 20 may be arranged every few inches, and they provide a multiplicity of expansion joints which limit the movement at each joint. If a seal is employed where the panes overlap as at I9, the lower or covered edge at each overlap should preferably be protected from possible breakage by a crack` or cut I6 along that edge, somewhat beneath the overlap if open or unfilled, or adjacent the overlap if lled with the resilient plastic material Il. This effectively prevents possible breakage along the overlapping edges of the panes.
In Fig. 6, the positions of the cuts 26 and I8 are illustrated on a somewhat larger scale than in Fig. 5.
In Fig. '7, the invention is illustrated as applied to glass of the type known as shatter-proof glass, in which sheets 2l and 22 of glass are secured by suitable cement layers 23 to the opposite faces of a sheet 2l of celluloid or similar cellulose material. Glass made in this manner is well known in the art and in common use in the windows and windshields of motor vehicles. When using this type of glass pane in which the celluloid interposed sheet is thereinforcement, the glass is plastic material 26 which is similar to the material I1 in Fig. 4. Panes formed in this manner are used in the same manner as those described for Figs. 1 to 6, and the marginal strips B may be subdivided by transverse cuts similar to the cuts 2li of Figs. 5 and 6 wherever relatively long panes are employed.
While we have found it advisable, in most cases, to locate thecracks or cuts I6 and 25, so that they are just covered by the'putty in the sash grooves, it will be understood that considerable latitude is possible in the location of such cuts or cracks within the broader aspects of the invention. If the cut or crack is located labout half way back in under the putty, then only about two-thirds of the possible benefit is ordinarily derived. Obviously very severe conditions such as the use of heat absorbing glass in large panes in the Tropics will require the use of a putty I3 which contains a certain measure of plasticity.
'I'he use of the cuts IB and 2l! in rolled wire glass in accordance with this invention has made panes of such glass with these cuts substantially immune to breakage from radiant heat, even 'under severe conditions.
It will be understood that various the details. materials and steps which have been herein described and illustrated in order to explain the nature of the invention, may be made by those skilled in the art within the principle and scope of the invention, as expressed in the appended claims.
We claim as our invention: 1. A window construction comprising a glass I pane having reinforcement contained therein, a
sash recessed to receive the glass, putty filling the recess to seal the joint between the glass and the sash, the entire marginal edge portion of the glass within the recess of the sash being severed from the central portion of the glass beneath the putty and with the reinforcement unsevered.
2. In a window construction of the type having a recessed sash and an edge portion of the glass pane secured in said recess, and with a body cess and covered by said putty, said glass having a marginal strip of said edge portion within the recess severed from the central portion of the glass-pane without severance of the reinforcchanges in between the glass vand the sash, that improvement which comprises a pane of rolled wire glass having an edge portion disposed in said recess and covered by said putty, said glass having a marginal strip of said edge portion within the recess severed from the central portion of the glass pane without severance of the reinforcing wires, the line of severance being just slightly within the recess and concealed by the putty.
4. In a window construction,a sash having a recess, a pane of rolled wire glass having an edge portion received in said recess, the glass of said marginal edge portion within the recess being severed along 'a lineparallel to the recess and just within the recess, without severance of the reinforcing wires, and putty-like means for filling the recess and covering the line" of severance in the glass of said pane. v
5.' In a window construction, a sash having a recess to receive a marginal edge of a glass pane, a pane of rolled wire glass having a. marginal edge disposed in said recess, the glass of said pane along said marginal edge and within said recess being severed from the body portion of the pane without severance of the reinforcing wires, and with the reinforcing wires stretched at the line of severance of the glass, and means for filling said recess and covering said line of severance.
6. A window pane comprising a sheet of glass reinforced by embedded wires, having a marginal strip portion thereof separated from the central portion thereof by means of cracks parallel to that edge and with the reinforcing wires unsevered and extending into the said edge portion, the crack between the severed and reinforced portions being lled with the resilient plastic material.
'7. In an improved window construction, a glass pane comprising a. sheet of glass reinforced by wires embedded therein and running therethrough, a marginal strip portion of the glass of the pane being severed from the body portion of the pane without severance of the reinforcing.
therein, a marginal strip of said pane having the Y glass portion thereof severed from the body of the glass along a line approximately parallel to the adjacent edge of the pane, vwith the reinforcement unsevered and connecting the severed glass strip to the body portion of the glass, the crack between the severed strip portion and the body of the pane being lled with a plastic resilient material.
9. In a window construction, a glass pane comprising a sheet of glass having reinforcement therein, a marginal strip of said pane having the glass portion thereof severed from the body of the glass along a line approximately parallel to the adjacent edge of the pane, with the reinforcement unsevered and connecting the severed glass strip to the body portion'of the glass, the glass of said marginal strip being further severed at intervals along its length between the marginal strips at the ends of the pane, in a direction crosswise of the length of said strip without severance of the reinforcement.
10. In a window construction, a glass pane with internal reinforcement, means covering a portion of the pane and protecting it against radiant heat, whereby a portion of said pane is subjected to radiant heat and another portion is protected from said radiant heat. theV glass of said pane adjacent the junction between said protected and unprotected portions of said pane, and for the full length of such junction, being severed without severance of the reinforcement, whereby the cracking of the pane from unequal expansions due to radiant heat will be reduced.
11. In a window construction, a glass pane with internal reinforcement, means covering a portion of the pane and protecting it against radiant heat, whereby a portion of said pane is subjected to radiant heat and another portion is protected from said radiant heat, the glass of said pane adjacent the junction between said protected and unprotected portions of said pane being severed without severance of thel reinforcement, whereby the cracking of the pane from unequal expansions due to radiant heat will be reduced, and resilient plastic material filling the crack along the line of severance.
12. In a window construction, a sash having a recess, a glass pane having reinforcement therein disposed with a marginal edge in said recess, means filling said recess and covering the joint between said edge of the pane and said recess, the glass of said pane in a strip along and close to the outer edge of said recess and for the full length of the recess, being severed, without severance of4 said reinforcement, in a direction parallel to said edge, whereby the marginal edge strip received in said recess will be connected to the body of the pane by said reinforcement.
13. In a window construction, a sash having a recess. a glass pane having reinforcement therein disposed with a marginal edge in said recess, means iilling said recess and covering the joint between said edge of the pane and said recess, the glass of said pane in a strip along said recess being severed, without severance of said reinforcement, in a direction parallel to said edge, whereby the marginal edge strip received in said recess will be connected to the body of the pane by said reinforcement, and the crack between said marginal strip and body of the pane being filled with a resilient plastic material.
14. An improved method of making a reinforced glass pane for window constructions and the like, where the panes willbe subjected to uneven stresses due to uneven heat radiation throughout different zones, which comprises the step of severing the glass on opposite sides of the reinforcement along a marginal strip, leaving the reinforcement unsevered, and stretching the reinforcement without rupture at the line of severance to form a crack of substantial width.
15. An improved method of making a reinforced glass pane for window constructions and the like, where the panes will be subjected to uneven stresses due to uneven heat radiation throughout different zones, which comprises the step of severing the glass on opposite sidesof the reinforcement along a marginal strip, leaving the reinforcement unsevered, stretching the reinforcement at the line of severance to form a crack of substantial width, and filling the crack with a resilient, adherent plastic material.r
JAMES BAILEY. AARON K. LYLE.