US 2121802 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 28, 1938L D. KLExsT .Er AL" AMETHOD AN) APPARATUS FOR STRENGTHENING FIBERS A origingl Filed Aug. 30. 1935 mms/ron;
- ATTORNEY rnemalanszalssa l l' 'y 2,121,802
; uNirEDfsTATl-:s PME-NTI OFFICE METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR STRENGTH- ENING FIBERS Dale Kleist and John H. Thomas, Newark, Ohio. assignors to Owens-Illinois Glass Company, a corporation of Ohio I' Application August 3o, 1935, sensi No. eases,
Renewed JuneI 16, 1937 i -16 Claims. (CLAS-1) Our invention relates to the production of ilbers therethrough. The blower is formed with an anirom molten or viscous materials and particunular passageway or series of openings IB through larly to methods and means for subjecting they A which steam or other g'as is ejected from the ilbers during their formation, to vibratory forces pressure chamber. The blast of steam surrounds by which their strength and elasticity are in and envelops the stream I1.
creased and the quality of the ilbers materially yThe downwardly convergent blast impinges improved. A f upon and grips the ilowing stream and thereby The invention is herein particularly described vcontinuously draws it out to the form of a ilne and illustrated as used in the production of iibers lament which is carried downward at a high 1o from glass or other siliceous material. Such mavelocity by the steam-blast. The flowing stream 1o terials may be "formed into ilne bers by flowing is thus continuously attenuated to a iine ilber.l the molten material in small streams, and while This attenuation is produced by the force of the the flowing materiall is cooling and in a viscous blast acting on the flowing material while the condition drawing it out into :linel fibers or fila latter is in a viscous condition and while the ll ments which rapidly solidify or harden. W have materialis cooling or passing through an anneal- 1r l discovered that by, subjecting these iibers while. ing temperature range. in a viscous condition, and particularly while In accordance with our invention. the owing within an annealing temperature range, to sound material, while being thus attenuated, is subvibrations or like periodic vibratory forces, the Jected to vibratory forces, preferably in the form go strength, elasticity and toughness of the fibers of sound or supersonic vibrations. One m'ethod 20 are materially increased and the quality of the of producing eiective vibrations of this charilbers improved. acter, consists in providing a tube or horn 2li, In practicing our invention, the flowing matebeneath and cooperating with the blower` I4. rial which is being drawn into iibers is passed Thetube is preferably made of sheet metal or .through a eld of vibration while hot and in a A other resonant material and vis located directly g5 plastic condition. It is believed that the vibra beneath and in register with the blower. As tory forces acting on the viscous material cause shown, 'the walls of this tube are downwardly and molecular movement and adjustment as weilas outwardly ared. physical rearrangement of the material in a manvThe steam under high pressure, issuing at high ilo ner to produce the results above pointed out. velocity through the outlets I8, sets up a rapid 3o The periodic or vibratory forces applied to the vibration which may be manifestedfas a sound material may be either in the nature of sound having ya high pitch, or the vibrations may be vibrations, supersonic vibrations (above the range above the range of audibility. The tube or horn of audibility), or otherforms of vibratory forces. 20 serves as an amplifier by which the force oi.' Referring to the accompanying drawing: the vibrations is greatly magniiied. These vibra- 35 y Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of an apparatus tions impinging upon the ilowing material while adapted for practicing our invention. the latter lis at an annealing temperature or with- Fig. 2 is a similar view showing a modification. in the working temperature range, cause a mo- Fig. 3 is a similar view of a-further rnodiil-` lecular and physical rearrangement and adjustcation. ment of the material in such a manner that the 40 Fig. 4 is a bottom sectional view, the section yresultant ber has much greater strength and being taken at the line IV-IV on Fig. 3. elasticity than it would have in the absence of Referring particularly to Fig. 1, molten glass such treatment. Il or other molten or viscous material is supplied Fig. 2 illustrates a modication in which the to a refractory container II herein shown as a upper end of the horn 20 is spaced a short dis- 45 ,forehearth extension of a glass melting and retance below the blower.l This permits air to be lining tank I2. The glass ows in a small stream drawn into the horn together with the descendthrough an outlet opening I3. ing blast of steam and results in a superior oper- Beneath the outlet is a blower I4 comprising ation. The arrangement is also conducive to a no a pressure chamber I5 to which steam or other stronger vibration of the horn, resulting in a 50 SBS under pressure is supplied. Extending more eiective action of the vibratory forces upon through the blower is a central passageway I6 the flowing stream of glass. The blower asshown which is positioned beneath and in register with in Fig. 2, comprises a bushing 22 having a screw `the outlet opening il, permitting the stream Il threaded Iconnection with the body of the blower.
so o! yviscous glass or the like to ilow downward This permits vertical adjustment -of the bushing,'s6
in the arm 24.
which results in adjusting the size of the outlet orifices through which the steam issues.
Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate a modified design of blower which has been found very effective for the purposes of the present invention. 'Ihe blower is formed with an annular series of small outlet openings i8 through which the st eam issues in an annular series of downwardly convergent jets. These provide a steam blast of conical formation surrounding the stream of glass which enters the Vortex of the blast and-is gripped thereby and carried downward therewith at a high speed, thus attenuating the stream into a fine liber.
'Ihe steam issuing through the multiplicity of small outlets I8' under high pressure. sets up a mechanical vibration which is transmitted to the flowing material through the surrounding gaseous medium'. Such medium may consist of a mixture or combination of the steam and the air which is drawn into and through the blower by the force of the steam.
The horn 20 is carried on a bracket 23 mounted for vertical adjustment on a stationary bracket arm 2l, being securedto the latter by clamping bolts 25 which extend through elongated slots 26 The blower is secured by means of adjusting bolts 21 to a supporting plate 2B underlying the forehearth or container I I. This construction permits vertical adjustment of the blower.
Modifications may be resorted to within the spirit and scope of our invention.
1. The method which comprises flowing a molton stream of thermoplastic viscous material which forms a super-cooled solution at room ternperature, applying a drawing force to the stream, by which it is attenuated, and applying to the material while in a viscous state, a vibratory force.
2. 'Ihe method of treating a molten inorganic thermoplastic material which is viscous at a high temperature and capable of-rapidly passing from a viscous to a hardened amorphous condition upon cooling, which comprises spinning the plastic materialto the form of a fine fiber, rapidly cooling and hardening the material as it is formed into a fiber, and subjecting the fiber during formation and while the material is in a viscous or plastic condition, to a vibratory force effective to improve the quality of the fiber.
3. The method of treating a moltenv inorganic thermoplastic material which is viscous at av high temperature and capable of rapidly passing from a viscous to a hardened amorphous condition upon cooling, which comprises spinning the plastic material to the form of a fine fiber, rapidly cooling and hardening the material as it is formed into a fiber, and subjecting the fiber during for'- mation and while the material is in a viscous or plastic condition, to sound vibrations effective to improve the quality of the fiber.
4. The method which comprises flowing a stream of molten glass, subjecting the stream to a drawing force by which it is continuously drawn to the form of a fiber, and subjecting the glass during such formation and while in a viscous or plastic condition, to vibratory `forces by which the strength of the fiber'is increased.
5. The method which comprises drawing a iiber from a 'supply-body of molten glass. cooling the fiber as it is formed and causing the material to pass from a viscous to a solid or hardened condition. and applying sound vibrations to the fiber to supersonic vibrations by `which the fiber isv strengthened.
7. 'I'he combination of a container for molten glass provided with an outlet opening through which the glass issues in stream formation, and a blower by which the fiowing glass is subjected to a blast of gas and continuously drawn to the form of a fine fiber, said blower comprising a multiplicity of outlets or nozzles through which the gas under pressure issues, the blower being constructed to produce sound Vibrations, and arranged to cause said vibrations to be impressed upon the glass fiber.
8. The combination of a container for molten glass provided with an outlet opening through which the glass issues in stream formation. a blower by which the flowing glass is subjected to a blast of gas and continuously drawn to the form of a fine fiber, said blowercomprising a multiplicity of outlets or nozzles through which the gas under pressure issues, the blower being constructed to produce s'ound vibrations, and a resonator by which the sound vibrations are strengthened, said parts arranged to apply the force of said sound vibrations'to the forming filament and while the material is still plastic and thereby increase the strength and elasticity of the filament.
9. The combination of means for projecting glass in a viscous condition from a molten supply body, drawing the glass to fine fibrous form and causing it to cool and pass from a viscous to a solidified or hardened state during the drawing, and means for subjecting the material to supersonic or sound vibrations while passing froma viscous to a hardened state.
10. The combination of means for projecting glass in a Viscous condition from a molten supply body, drawing the glass to fine fibrous form and causing it to cool and pass from a viscous to a solidified or hardened state during the drawing. and means for subjecting the material to supersonic or sound vibrations during said drawing operation.
11. The method of treating a thermoplastic material which assumes a viscous condition when at a high temperature and which solidifles or hardens into a super-cooled solution when cooled, which method comprises drawing the hot viscous material to a fine filament, cooling and hardening the fiber, and subjecting the material during cooling to a periodic force of sufficient intensity to cause a molecular adjustment of the material and thereby modify the characteristics .of the hardened filament.
12. The method which comprises projecting Vhot viscous glass from a molten supply body and spinning it into bers, subjecting the projected viscous glass to a cooling medium by which it is cooled and solidified, and applying to the fibers during solidication a periodic force of high frequency.
13. The method which comprises projecting hot viscous glass from a molten supply body and spinning it into fibers, subjecting the projected viscous glass to a cooling medium by which it is cooled and solidified, and subjecting the fibers while in a viscous condition to a periodic force in ,transition from molten stream'form to a solid a direction transverse to4 that in which the fibers extcnd,' 14.
cooled and solidified, and subjecting the bers during solidification to sound vibrations transmitted in a direction transverse to the nbers and acting on the fibers with sufficient force and in' tensity to mo'dify the characteristics of the bers. 15. The method which comprises flowing a stream of molten glass, applying to the stream a drawing fonce by which it is continuously attenuated and drawn to the form of a iine ber, rapidly cooling the material during the drawing operation and thereby causing it to pass from a viscous to a solid condition during its attenuation, and
subjecting the glass throughout'the period o! its e method which comprises projecting hot viscous glass' from a molten supply body and i filament, to rapid vibratory forces by which the strength of the liber is increased and its quality improved: l v
16. The method which comprises iiowing a stream of molten glass, applying to the stream a drawing force by which it is continuously attenuated and drawn to the form of a line ber. rapidly cooling the material during the drawing opera-tion and thereby causing it to pass from a 10 .viscous to a solid condition during its attenuation, and subjecting the glass throughout the period of its transition from molten stream form to a solid filament, to high frequency sound vibrations effective to improve the quality and inu crease the strength of the ber.
DALE KLEIBT. JOHN H. .'IHOMAS.