|Publication number||US2123408 A|
|Publication date||Jul 12, 1938|
|Filing date||Nov 9, 1935|
|Priority date||Nov 9, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2123408 A, US 2123408A, US-A-2123408, US2123408 A, US2123408A|
|Inventors||Arthur P Ebrite|
|Original Assignee||E C Koegel|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1), Classifications (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 12, 1938- A. P. EBRITE ILLUMINATING EQUIPMENT Filed Nov. 9, 1935 Inventor: JMTZIULI" P EDY'UBB Patented July 1 2, 1938 uNiTEDSTATES PATENT OFFICE My inventionrelates to illumination and illuminated equipment, and includes among its objects and advantages an increase in the attractiveness of' the effects available in indirect light- 5 ing, without the eye strain resulting from semidirect or direct lighting. In certain embodiments it is also available in connection with certain types of direct lighting.
If indirect lighting is defined asa condition in l which all light is originally delivered, by reflection or from the primary source, to the walls orceiling of the space to be illuminated, the definition excludes the common shaded floor lamps and table lamps, in many of which the eye of the 15 person in the room is; completely shielded from looking directly at the light source, and usually from looking directly at any object illuminated with sufficient intensity to create eye strain. The applicability of the principles of my invention to the shades or reflectors employed in connection with such floor and table lamps will be apparent as the description proceeds, and, to
this extent the invention is applicable to direct lighting. 25 In ordinary indirect lighting, of the type exemplified by an opaque reflector in a chandelier with the light source above the reflector so that the reflector and light together flood the ceiling with an illumination that is diffused from the 30 ceiling through the room, there remains an unsightly dark spot in the space above the occupants of the room, to-wit the dark side of the chandelier reflector. This dark spot is a drawback to the general appearance of the room per 35 se, and attempts to relieve it by ornamenting the dark side of the reflector are ineffective because there is not enough light falling on the dark side of the reflector to make suchornamentation effective.
40 Many attempts have been made with some measure of success to reduce this drawback, by illuminating the dark side of the reflector. Such attempts have been made by cutting away the reflector to let some light pass downward along 45 the reflector axis onto a smaller reflector placed below the opening, which smaller reflector reflects a little light back on the large reflector. This somewhat reduces the unattractiveness of the ordinary indirect lighting fixture, but it is 50 only a reduction, the smaller reflector being substituted for the larger one as the dark spot in the picture.
Reflectors have also been used ornamented with a plurality of sparkling facets, illuminated 55 by light passing through them from the primary source. Of course this entirely eliminates the dark spot, but the glittering effect resultingfrom the use of such facets puts back into the room a' source of light directly meeting the eye, and of such intensity as to cause material eye strain. 5 In fact, the unconscious attraction of the glittering fixture tempts the occupant of the room to look at it, so that such a fixture is more objectionable from a physiological point of view than thejordinary semi-direct lighting fixture where a milky glass bowl is employed. Such a bowl comes to be ignored and not looked at at all very readily, as distinguished from the glittering facets previously mentioned. Not infrequently such glittering facets throw spots of light on the floor or walls of the room, and while this may not be objectionable in a ball room, in a living room or reading room they are a constant source of undesirable stimulation that may grow to conscious irritation.
According to my invention, the otherwise dark side of the reflector of the indirect lighting fixture is ornamented with transparentor translucent material conforming to the general contour of the reflector itself, or at least sufiiciently correlated therewith to make a unitary harmonious design, but the amount of light permitted to enter this transparent or translucent material is cut down to an intensity below that necessary to cause discomfort or eye strain when the ornamentation is looked at directly with the naked eye. By constituting a material portion of the reflector, and preferably a portion in the shape of an ornamental pattern, in a luminous form of such low intensity, the dark side of the reflector is not only made attractive, but is made attractive in such a way that eye strain cannot result. The occupant of such a room finds in it no lighted object that he need avoid looking at directly as in the case of semi-direct light or brilliant facets, 40 and at the same time the unsightly dark spot suggestive of crypts or catacombs is gone. Another advantage of the principle employed is that it adapts itself with equal readiness to asymmetrical fixtures such as wall brackets and troughs.
Referring to the accompanying drawing:
Figure 1 is a side elevation partly in radial section of a cylinder type chandelier;
Figure 2 is an enlarged elevation of a supporting clip for the upper ring of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a section on line 3-3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a plan view of a retaining clip for the lower ring of Figure 1; and
Figure 5 is a section on line 5-5 of Figure 4.
In the embodiment of the invention selected ,the outer surface of the cyinder 214 and is picked up by the translucent annulus 218. The inner edge of the reflector curves down at 219 far enough to cut off direct light from the source 212.
Similarly, the bottom 216 terminates at 286 and the central opening is covered by a cup 288 spaced below the bottom 216 by supporting bolts 290. I'he annular opening thus established permits light to travel out along the end surface of the bottom 216 to impinge on the translucent annulus 289 which is laid against the bottom 216 and fastened up by clips 2! and bolts 292.
Without further elaboration, the foregoing will so fully explain my invention that others may, by applying knowledge current at the time of application, readily adapt the same for use under various conditions of service.
1. Illuminating equipment comprising, in combination: a light source; a main reflector having an illuminated surface shaped to direct light from said source in a flood in a predetermined direction; translucent material arranged to define a tracery pattern adjacent the unilluminated surface of said reflector; said translucent material being substantialy entirely cut 011' from receiving direct light from said source; and ancillary reflecting means for directing a minor fraction of reflected light from said source into said material, whereby said material is rendered luminous and noticeable but not brilliant, and comfortable for direct contemplation with the naked eye; certain of said material receiving light reflected out from the axis of said reflector and certain other of said material receiving light reflected around the peripheral edge of said reflector.
2. Illuminating equipment comprising, in combination: a light source; a main reflector having an illuminated surface shaped to direct light from said source in a flood in a predetermined direction; said reflector having a central opening; said light source projecting through said opening far enough to deliver a minor fraction of light along the outer surface of said reflector around said opening and substantially parallel to said outer surface; translucent material arranged to form an annular tracery pattern adjacent the outer surface of said reflector and remote from said central opening; said translucent material receiving said minor fraction of light coming from said source parallel to the reflector surface and being thereby rendered luminous and noticeable but not brilliant, and comfortable for direct contemplation with the naked eye; and additional reflector means below said opening for cutting off direct illumination from said source.
ARTHUR P. EBRITE.
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