US 2125888 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' A. J. CORDREY DRY ICE REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed June 29, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet um/m A. J. CORDREY 2,E5,@@
DRY ICE REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Amiga W3&
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 29, 1956 25 16' g2 23 i3. m 3,,
Patented Aug. 9, 1938 lTED STAT DRY ICE REFRIGERATING APPA'EUS Application June 29,
This invention relates to refrigeration apparatus adapted to cool the storage space of a truck or trailer with the aid of a cooling agent such as dry ice.
More specifically this invention relates to a compact refrigeration apparatus adapted to be mounted within the interior of a truck or trailer body and includes a receptacle for dry ice or similar cooling agent and a liquid circulating system Jn'thermal relation to the cooling agent.
In the transporting of heat perishable goods such as fruit, vegetables and other food it has heretofore been considered necessary to provide trucks and trailers with large storage compartments for water ice to refrigerate the truck or trailer. Mechanically refrigerated trucks are not always desirable because of the high initial cost of the refrigerating apparatus and the drain of power from the truck engine necessary to operate the apparatus.
According to this invention transport trucks, trailers and other vehicles can be equipped at low cost with a refrigerating apparatus that is operable without drain of power from the vehicle engine and without requiring the use of a large auxiliary engine.
The invention also dispenses with the loss in storage space and the added weight necessary when cooling the vehicle with water ice.
The apparatus of this invention includes a dry ice container mounted in the interior of the truck preferably near the top at the front end thereof. A heat exchanger is mounted below the dry-ice container and a liquid having a low freezing point, such as alcohol or the like, is circulated in thermal contact with the dry ice in the container where it is cooled. The cooled liquid is then flowed through the heat exchanger and the air within the vehicle is circulated around the heat exchanger to be cooled by contact therewith. The liquid from the heat exchanger is then recirculated back through the dry ice container. The flow of the liquid from the dry ice container through the heat exchanger and back to the container can be readily effected by a thermo-siphon arrangement and the amount of circulation can be regulated by a thermostatic valve. The valve can be set to maintain any desired temperature in the heat exchanger.
The entire apparatus bf this invention is compact, simple in operation and can be manufactured at a low initial cost.
It is then an object of this invention to provide a compact, inexpensive refrigeration appa- 1936, Serial No. man
ratus for cooling the interiors of storage spaces such as the storage spaces of trucks and trailers.
A further object of this invention is to provide refrigeration apparatus adapted to use dry ice as the cooling agent and including a thermosiphon circulation system.
Another object of this invention is to provide an apparatus for cooling the storage spaces of trucks and trailers that is adapted to use dry ice as the cooling agent.
Another object of this invention is to providean apparatus for cooling storage spaces, such as trucks, trailers, cold storage rooms, that is adapted to use dry ice as the cooling agent, and thermos'tatically control the temperature oi such it storage spaces.
A further object of this invention is to provide a refrigerating apparatus including an insulated dry ice container and a thermo-siphon liquid circulation system in compact relationship for W mounting within the interior of a space to be cooled.
Other and further objects of this invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the annexed sheets of drawings itt which disclose a preferred embodiment oi the invention.
On the drawings:
Figure 1 is a broken side elevational view of a trailer with a part cut away in cross-section 30 to illustrate a refrigeration apparatus of this invention mounted within the trailer.
Figure 2 is an enlarged horizontal cross-sectional view, with parts in elevation, taken substantially along the line iii-11 of Figure 1.
Figure 3-is across-sectional view, with parts in elevation, taken substantially along the line III-III of Figure 1, and
Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line IV-IV of Figure 2.
As shown on the drawings:
In Figure 1, the reference numeral it indicates a truck trailer of the usual type having an insulated roof lli and'walls it defining a storage space it. The space i3 is used forpacking heat per- 45 ishable material such as foodstuffs and the like. According to this invention a refrigeration apparatus indicated generally by the reference numeral it is suspended from a bracket H5 or other supporting means on a front wall it of the trailer to it near the roof i i. v
The refrigeration apparatus it includes an insulated containerit for dry 'ce, a radiator or heat exchanger lli suspended below the container it, an air deflecting shield 88 disposed around 55 the heat exchanger i1 for directing air in. the space I3 around the heat exchanger. If desired a fan i8 can be rotatably supported as shown in back of the shield it for propelling the air around the heat exchanger l1. The fan i8 can be rotated by a motor 28 located outside of the storage space II as shown and operatively connected to the fan through a belt 2i extending through the front wall of. the trailer. Obviously, any type of prime mover can be used to propel the fan and the prime mover, if desired, can be mounted within the storage space l3. Since the heat exchanger is equipped with a warm air, baffie or shield, thus inducing a natural air circulation through the heat exchanger, it may be used without a fan, or the fan used may be of small capacity, requiring for operation say only to 10 amperes per hour from a storage battery. Such a fan will accelerate the naturalcirculation of air by convection. This type of fan I and motor can be located inside the cold storage space without materially increasing the total .heat load which is to be handled.
As best shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4, the container i6 is lined with insulation 22 such as.
cork or the like and an inside lining sheet 23 is preferably used to protect the insulation. The sheet 23 extends around three sides of the container and may be composed of metal or wood.
One end of the container i6 is provided with .a door 24 giving access to the interior of the container. The door 24 when closed preferably seals the interior of the container and for sea]- ing purposes a rubber gasket such as 25 may be vdisposed peripherally between the door and the end of the container.
The container l6 and door 24 thereby define a closed storage space 26 adapted to receive a cooling medium therein such as pieces or slabs of dry .ice.
A fluid-tight tank or closed container 21 is mounted within the container l6 and includes a horizontal portion 28 extending across the entire bottom of the space 26 within the container l6 and a vertical portion 29 extending along the closed end of the container l6. An insulated partition wall 38 preferably separates the vertical portion 28 of the tank 21 from-the storage space 26 of the container i6.
The top of the vertical portion 28 of the tank 21 may have a pipe or tube 32 extending therein and upward therefrom through the top wall of the container l6.to permit a-filling of the tank 21 with a liquid having a low freezing point, such as, for example, alcohol or the like. The filling tube 32 is closed with a cap 33 except during the filling operation.
Liquid within the tank 21 must flow from the portion 28 thereof into the portion 28 around baffles 34 and 36 (Figure 2). Thus the liquid has a sinuous path within the portion 28 of the tank and since the space 26 of the container I6 is filled with a cooling medium such as dry ice the liquid is cooled by thermal contact through the walls of the tank.
The cooled liquid in the portion 28 01' the tank 21 flows downward through a pipe 36 into a header 31 of the heat exchanger i1. Liquid from the header 31 flows up through the tubes 38 of the heat exchanger where it absorbs heat from the air propelled around the tubes 38. The warmed liquid is then collected in a top header 38 of the heat exchanger and flows through piping 48 and 4i back into the portion 28 of the tank 21.
, The inletof thepipe 4i into the portion 28 of the tank 21 is considerably above the portion 23 of the tank so that the liquid'will flow by gravity into the portion 23 and will not back up through the piping 4| and 40. This arrangement provides for a thermo-siphoning or thermal convection circulation of cooled and warmed liquid. The cooled liquid flows downward by gravity and upward through the heat exchanger i1 because of the hydrostatic head of liquid thereabove. The warmed liquidthen flows upward by convection and hydrostatic head pressure into the portion 28 of the tank.
The amount of circulation of liquid can be controlled by a thermostatic valve 42 provided in the piping 48. This valve 42 can be set by an adlusting means 43 to open at any desired temperature and to close at a desired temperature so that the circulation of the liquid will be maintained at a rate to keep the heat exchanger i1 at a constant temperature.
As shown in Figure 4, the bailie i8 extends around the heat exchanger i1 and around a portion of the container 16. This battle l8 merely serves as a shield for directing air propelled by the fan l8 around the tubes 38 of the heat exchanger i1. The circulation of air within the storage-space i3 of the trailer i8 is thus maintained, as indicated by the arrows shown therein. The baiiies 34 and 36 within the portion 26 of the tank 21 provide a prolonged contact of the liquid with the cooling agent in the space 26 of the container l6. By guiding this liquid through spaces of less cross-sectional area, a higher rate of flow of liquid in contact with the heat conduction surface is obtained, and heat transfer from the dry ice to the liquid is thus accelerated. The tank 21 is, of course, composed of a metal that is a good conductor of heat.
From the above description, it should be understood that this invention provides a simple, com-.
pact refrigerating apparatus for mounting within the storage space of a truck, trailer or the like vehicle, and includes a dry ice storage compartment and a heat exchanger. A liquid is circulated through the heat exchanger for absorbing heat from the air within the space and the heated liquid is then cooled by dry ice in the container and recirculated to the heat exchanger. The compartment holding the refrigerant, dry ice, may be built into the roof of the truck or storage space, and the heat exchange surface be located just under the roof of the compartment, thus taking up less space on the inside of the storage compartment.
I am aware that many changes may be made and numerous details of construction may be varied through a wide range without departing from the principles of this invention, and I, therefore,
' for filling said tank with a liquid having a low freezing point, said tank having an outlet opening for liquid in 'the horizontal portion thereof and an inlet opening for liquid in the vertical portion thereof near the top of said vertical portion, a heat exchanger below said housing having inlet and outlet headers connected through heat- 'by dry ice in said housing and recirculated by gravity and hydrostatic pressure back to the heat v absorbing tubes, piping connecting the outlet opening of said tank with the inletheader of the heat exchanger, additional piping connecting the outlet header of the heat exchanger with the inlet opening of said tank, and a thermostatic valve in said additional piping for controlling the flow of liquid through said piping whereby warm liquid is cooled by the cooling agent in the storage space of said .housing, circulates through the heat exchanger for cooling the heat exchanger 7 and surrounding air and is then recirculated back tank having a discharge outlet, a heat exchanger below said housing having an inlet header and an upper outlet header connected by heat-absorbing tubes, said vertical portion of said tank having an inlet opening at a higher level than the discharge opening in the horizontal portion, means effecting liquid communication between I the discharge header of the heat exchanger and the inlet of the tank, and between the discharge opening of the tank and inlet header of the heat exchanger, a shield disposed in front of said heat exchanger for directing air from said space therearound, and means for propelling said air whereby liquid in said tank is cooled by dry ice in said housing, circulates through said heat exchanger for cooling the air directed around the. heat exchanger and recirculates back to the tank in the housing. K
3. Dry ice refrigeration apparatus adapted to be mounted within the storage space of a truck or the like to cool the air in said space comprising, in compact assembled relation, 9. housing for dry ice, a tank in said housing having a horizontal portion along the bottom of the housing and a vertical portion along one end of the housing, said tank having an outlet opening in horizontal portion and an inlet opening in the vertical portion thereof, a heat exchanger below said housing fluid communication with said tank, elongated baiiles in said tank for directing liquid in the horizontal portion in a sinuous path between said inlet opening and said outlet opening whereby said liquid is circulated through said heat exchanger to cool the heat exchanger, flowed upwardly by convection into the vertical portionof the tank, circulated around the baiiles in the horizontal portion of the tank where it is cooled exchanger.
, 4. In combination with an for cooling said enclosure comprising an insulated housing for a cooling agent mounted along a wall of the enclosure. near the ceiling of the enclosure, a liquid container in said housing having inlet and outlet openings thereto with the inlet opening above the outlet opening, a heat exchanger suspended below the housing, piping connecting the outlet opening of the liquid container with the bottom of the heat exchanger, additional piping connecting the inlet opening of the liquid container with the top of the heat exchanger, a shield disposed in spaced relation around part of said housing and said heat exchanger below the ceiling of the enclosure and defining with the adjacent wall of the enclosure a passageway for air, and a fan for propelling air from the top of the enclosure downwardly through said passageway to flow around the heat exchanger and be cooled by contact therewith, whereby liquid from the container in the heat exchanger is warmed and flows upwardly back to the liquid container to be cooledtherein by the cooling agent in the housing and recirculated back to the heat exchanger.
5. In combination with a vehicle body having a roof and side walls defining a storage space, refrig'eration apparatus mounted in said vehicle along a wall thereof and near the roof of the vehicle comprising a housing for a cooling agent, means defining a passageway for liquid in .said housing, said passageway having inlet and outlet openings thereto, a heat exchanger suspended below the housing having inlet and outlet openings,-piping connecting the inlet opening of the heat exchanger with the outlet opening of the passageway, additional piping connecting the outlet opening of the heat exchanger with the inlet opening of the passageway, a shield disposed in spaced relation around part of said heat exchanger, said shield being mounted in said storage space beneath the roof of the'vehicle and defining with the adjoining wall of the vehicle an air passageway, and a fan mounted behind said shield to-flow air through said passageway from along the roof of the vehicle downwardly around the heat exchanger for contact therewith whereby liquid from the passageway in the housing is warmed as it flows through the heat exchanger and flows back to the passageway in the housing to be cooled by the cooling agent therein for recirculation back to the heat exchanger.
AIMON J. connnnr.
enclosurehaying l walls and a ceiling, a refrigeration apparatus