US 2126709 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 16, 1938, c. R. ALBEN 2,126,709
' `FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Filed April 29, 1932 4 sheets-snaai 1 v v 16 Inward-6K Caf @Alden c. R. ALBEN 2,126,709.
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Filed April 29, 1932 4, sheets-sheet 2 Vizs, 4
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Aug; l@ 193&i c. R. ALBEN FUEL INJECTION. SYSTEM Filed April 29, 1932 4 Snf`ets-sneet s UEE.
Invenvflar/ C. R. ALBEN FUELINJEGTION SYSTEM l Filed April 29, 1932 '183 93 im@ e 6 6 ZI n .w m m m w www fo i low wv r j can 6? W M 107 Aug. 16, 193s.
Patented Aug. g1c, 193s um'reo STATES 2,126,709 FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM v Carroll B. Alden, Detroit, Mich., assignor to Ex- Cell-O Corporation, a corporation of Michigan Appuoauon April 29, 1932, soi-iai No.'eos,z11
i o 22 claims.
The present invention relates generally to improvements in fuel injection systems, and has particular reference to such systems that are well adapted to inject fuel into the air intake manil folds of internal combustion engines.
One of the primary objects of the present invention is to provide a new and improved fuel injection system in which any desired predetermined fuel-air ratio is substantially maintained 10 regardless of changes in atmospheric temperature and/or pressure, and/or of variations in the amount of fuel-air mixture supplied.
Another and more specific object resides in the provision of a novel fuel injection` system for internal combustion engines in which .the quantity of fuel to be injected is under the control of the temperature and/or pressure in the air intake manifold.
A further object is to provide a novel fuel-air ratio control for manifold injection systems which is adjustable without having to overcome any substantial forces, such for example as the fuel pressure or mechanical resistances, and which in general is simple in construction and reliable, accurate and sensitive in operation'.
In carrying out the foregoing objects, I provide a manifold injection system whichcomprises a throttle or volume control member, a wedge member for `defining the adjustment 4of the throttle, and a pressure responsive element for automatically adjusting the wedge member so as to vary the amount of fuel injected in accordance with temperature and pressureconditions in the manifold.
tary distributor which will direct fuel under pressure from a constant source to a plurality of nozzles in time sequence,.and which will accu- 40 rately meter each charge of fuel without regard to speed of operation.
Another object of thev invention resides in the provision of novel means whereby the rotor of the fuel distributor is properly lubricated regardless of the pressure and lubricating characteristics of the fuel.
Further objects and advantages will become apparent as the description proceeds.
Inthe accompanying drawings, Figure l 4is a 50 side view, partially in section, of an internal combustion engine to which a fuel injection Asystem embodying the features of my invention has bee applied.
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectionai view, on an enlarged scale, of one of the injection valves.
A more specific object is to provide 'a novel ro- (Cl. 12S-138) Fig, 3 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale of the fuel-air ratio control.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view of the rotary fuel distributor and the fuel-air ratio control in operative relation'. j .l
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view generally similar to Fig. 4, but of a modified form of distributor and control. A
Fig. 6 is a detail sectional view taken along line 6 6 of Fig. 4. y
Fig. 7 is a side elevational view of the distributor rotor. 1
Figs. 8 to 12 are transversesectional views of the distributor taken respectively along lines 8 8 to I2|21of Fig. 4.
Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic view of the distributor with a development of the casing superimposed on a development of the rotcr'in one relative position of rotation.
Fig. 14 is a view similar to Fig. 13 but showing the rotor and the casing in a different relative position of rotation.
While the invention is susceptible of various modifications and alternative'- constructions, I have shown in the drawings and will herein describe in detail the preferred embodiment, but it is to be understood that I do not thereby intend to limit the invention to the specific form disclosed, but intend to cover all modifications and alternative constructions falling Within Vthe spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims. .j
Referring more particularly to th-e drawings, the fuel injection system generally is adapted for use in connection with various kinds of internal combustion engines, and for purposes of illustration is herein disclosed as applied to an engine having six cylinders in line and operating on a mixture of vaporized fuel and air. f The engine (see Fig. 1) comprises a cylinderblock l5, a crank case I8 and an intake manifold l Il; In the present instance, the manifold I1 is of the usual T-shapevd form, having a vertical inlet armi. and a horizontal distributing arm I 9 with connections 20 to 25 opening to the respec- 45 tive cylinders. It will be understood that the arm Il of the manifold l1 serves to supply the air for the combustible fuel mixture from'the atmosphera` The amount of air supplied is under the control of a sultano throttle which is heroin 5o show n as -a butterfly valve 26 pivotally mounted l in the inlet end of the arm I8, and operatively connected through a. crank arm 21,'a link 28 and a lever 29 to a pedal or hand actuator 30. A
spring 3 I engaging'l the actuatorA l0 acts in'a di? 55 itl rection tending to effect closing of the air throttle 26.
The fuel, such as naphtha or gasoline, is introduced into the manifold I1 in proportion to the volume of air supplied so as to obtain the desired air-fuel ratio. Preferably, the fuel is injected into' the manifold I1. in successive charges in timed relation to the sequential operation of the engine cylinders, and comprising a. charge for each cycle of each cylinder. In the present instance, a series of injection valves 32 to 31 are mounted to discharge the fuel respectively into the connections 2li to 25 opening to the engine cylinders.
The injection valves 32 to 31 may be of any preferred form, and preferably are alike.
mounted on the manifold I1 and having a chamber 39 opening through a bore 40 past a valve seat 4I to the interior of the connection to the associated engine cylinder. A valve member 42 of the mushroom type is adapted to coact With the valve seat 4I and has' a stem 43 .extending slidably through the bore 40 into the chamber 39. Longitudinal flutes or grooves 44 are formed in the stem to establish communication between the chamber 39 and the discharge end of the bore 40. A coiled compression spring 45 in the chamber 39 impinges at its outer end against a 4washer 46 on the free end of the stem 43 and tends to urge the latter outwardly to close the injection valve. The outer end of the casing 38 is closed by a removable conduit fitting 41.
The valves 32 to 31 are connected by means of their fittings 41 respectively to fuel conduits or tubes 48 to 53'leading to a suitable charging device, indicated generally at 54, for supplying metered charges of fuel under pressure. Obviously, a charge of fuel upon being supplied to the nozzle chamber 39 will lift the valve member 42 and be injected into the manifold I1.
The fuel charging device 54 has a throttle element, herein shown in the form of a plunger 55 (see Figs. 4 and 5), which is adjustable to vary the amount of fuel injected, and more particularly to vary the size of each charge of fuel as desired. Obviously, upon adjusting the air throttle 26 for the purpose of varying the amount of combustible mixture being supplied to the engine, the fuel throttle 55 should also be adjusted to effect a corresponding variation, in accordance with a predetermined fuel-air ratio, in the amount of fuelbeing injected.
In many instances, it is very desirable that the predetermined fuel-air ratio be accurately maintained. However, where the fuel and air throttles are interrelated mechanically for proportional movement, or where the supply of fuel is responsive to the induction action of the entering air, the fuel-air ratio does not remain fixed over the entire range of variations in the operating characteristics of .the engine. Thus, a change in the speed of the engine due to a fluctuating load, or a change in the positi throttle 28, will result in a corresponding change in the pressure drop across the throttle. result, while the fuel-air ratio may be unchanged as to volume, the weight of the air will be different than Vin the correct ratio.
For a given adjustment ofY the throttle 26,
changes inthe temperature and/or barometric,
pressure of the incoming air 'result in changes in weight which cause a departure fromthe theoretical correct fuel-,air ratio. 'I'his is particularly Vnoticeable in aircraft where frequent and substantial changes in elevation are necessary.
Each valve` '(see valve 32 in Fig. 2) comprises a casing 38 Of the I Asa One of the primary features of the present injection system resides in the provision of novel means for automatically adjusting the fuel throttle 55 to compensate for changes in the condition of the air tending to cause a departure from the desired fuel-air ratio. In the preferred embodiment of lthe invention, this means (see Fig. 3) comprises a member, preferably in the form of a cylindrical corrugated bellows diaphragm 56, responsive to the temperature and pressure of the air in the intake manifold I1.
Opposite ends ofthe diaphragm 56 are sealed respectively by a xed plate 51 adjustably mounted in the manifold I1, and a movable plate 58 operatively associated with the plunger 55. In the present instance, .one wall of the manifold I1 is formed with an opening 59 having a peripheral flange 60 and being of sufficient size to permit insertion of the diaphragm 56. -The plate 51 has an outer axial stem 6I adjustably threaded vand affords means whereby the diaphragm 56 can be rotated to adjust its axial position. The plate 58 on the free end of the diaphragm 56 has an external axial boss 64. A stem 85 has a head 66 secured to the boss 64 by means of a flange nut 61, and extends slidably out of the manifold I1 through a flattened section 68 of the wall opposite the plate 62 for its operative connection with the throttle 55. i
'I'he diaphragm 56 is made of resilient material. Preferably, a coiled tension spring 69 is provided to supplement the inherent resiliency of the diaphragm 56, the spring being anchored respectively at opposite ends to the end plates 51`and 58 and loosely encircling an axial guide stem 1D on the inner face of the plate 51.
The diaphragm 56 also is filled with an expansible fluid at a predetermined temperature and pressure. To provide means for introducing the desired amount of fluid into the diaphragm 56, the stem 6I is formed with an axial passage 1| opening to the exterior of the stem 16. The outer end of the passage 1I is enlarged to receive a spring-seated valve 12 and is securely sealed by an end cap 13.
It will be evident that changes in the air pressure. in the manifold I1, Whether resulting from adjusting of the air throttle 26 or from variations in barometric pressure, will effect proportionate changes in the length of the diaphragm 56, and therethrough a compensatory adjustment comprises a. metering distributor 14 of which the fuel throttle. forms a part, and which is connected to the respective feed tubes 48 to 53, and a pressure source, such as a fuel pump 15 for supplying fuel under a constant pressure to the distributor. 16 leading from a suitable fuel supply (not shown), and a discharge line 11 leading to the distributor 14. Interposed in the line 11 is a The pump 15 has a fuel 'inlet line' relief valve 18 for maintaining a constant predetermined pressure, and discharging excess fuel through a bleed line 18 connected to a drain line 88. The pump is mounted on the cylinder block I5, and is driven from the engine. Details ofthe pump 15 and its drive per se form no part of the presentinvention and hence are not disclosed herein. l
The fuel distributor 14 (see Figs. 4 to 12) preferably is Vof the rotary type, and comprises a stator 8| in the form of a cylindrical casing and a rotor 82 rotatably disposed therein. The casing/8| has an external peripheral flange 83 on one end mounted on one end of the pump 15, and at the other end is connected to a rectangular housing 84 mounted on the wall section 88 of the manifold I1. One end of the rotor 82 is connected to a shaft extension 85 of the pump 'I5 for a drive in properly timed relation with the operation of the engine cylinders, and abuts l against the end of thepump casing. A flanged plug 86 is threaded into an axial bore 81 opening into the .other end of the rotor 82 andengagesthe end of the casing 8|.
In the preferred form of the distributor 14, the inner end of the bore 81 extends substantially through the central portion of the rotor 82 and constitutes a fuel charging chamber 88. Reciprocably disposed in the chamber 88' is a metering plunger or piston 88 which is periodically operable to admit a measured charge of fuel and then to displace the charge to effect injection.
The number of fuel charges handled in one revolution of the rotor is dependent on the number of injection valves that are to be'used. The distributor 14 may be provided in a form suitable for any particular numberV .of injection valves, and in the present instance in order to adapt it to thel engine selected for illustration, is constructed to serve an even number of nozzles, namely the six nozzles 32 to 31. Thuathe opposite ends of the chamber 88 are alternately connected to the fuel'pressure line 11 to effect six movements of the piston 88 during one revolution of the rotor B2, and'while either end is connected to the line 11 to receive a charge of fuel,
the other end isconnected selectively to one of a group of three nozzles for the displacement of the preceding charge.
To provide for the foregoing, the rotor 82 A(see Fig. 7) isfformed in its periphery intermediate its ends with six longitudinal uniformly periph- 'erally spaced slots 88 to 85 4arranged in two groups of three, with the`slots of these groups .being alternated and partially staggered peripherally. The slots 88, 82 and 84 of one group (see' two groups', namely the slots 88 and 8|, are elongated outwardly beyond th ends of the other slots. The fuel feed tubes 48 to 58 are arranged in two groups opening to the interior of the casing 8| respectively through uniformly peripherally spacedfeed ports 88, I8I andA|88 in the path of the outer end of the slot 88.(see Fig. 8) and similar ports |88, |82 and |84 in the path of the outer end of the slot 8|l (see Fig. 18). 'I'he two groups of feed ports 88 to |84 are alsoarranged in pai-rs of longitudinally alined ports, and the fuel pressure port 88 is located peripherally midway of two pairs. Thus, the feed ports of each group are connected successively to the associated end of the chamber 88, the feed ports of the two groups are alternately connected to the chamber, and when any one port of either group is connected to the associated end of the chamber, the pressure port 88 is connected to the other end of `the chamber.
Assuming that the rotor 82 is in the rotary position shown in Fig. 13, the feed ports |88, |82
and |84 are closed, the port |8| leading to the nozzle 38 is connected to slot 88, and the pressure port 88 is open to the slotj 85 so that the inlet fuel pressure has forced the metering piston 88` into its left-hand position, thereby injecting a charge of fuel through the nozzle 34 and charging the right end of the chamber 88 preparatory for the next injection. Upon rotation of` the rotor 82 into its next position shown" in Fig. 14,`
the feed ports 88, I 8| and |83 are closed, the port |84 leading to the nozzle 31 now is open to the slot 8|,and the pressure port 88 communicates with the slot 88 so that the piston 88 is moved charge and simultaneously charge the left end of the chamber 88.
The volume of fuel in each charge, and hencethe amount of fuel injected into the manifoldl I1 in proportion to a given. amount of air is dependent on the displacement effected by the piston 88 in each'of its movements. The fuel throttle 55 is Autilized to adjustthe range or extent .of rei vciprocation of the piston 88, and preferably comprises a plunger extending slldably through an axial bore |85 in the plug 88 intoone end of the chamber 88.` In the form shown in Fig. 4, the plunger 551s rigid with one end of the piston 88.
.To provide equal end areas, the other end of K into its right-hand position to eject the previous the piston 88 is rigid with an axial plunger |86 of the same diameter as the plunger and extending slldably into a reduced extension bore |81 opening from the chamber 88.
Preferably, means is disposed between the fuelair ratio control 58 and the throttle 55 to prevent the reaction of the fuel pressure from influencing the operation of the control. In the present instance, this means comprises a rotary cam member |88 having a spiral vface I 88 adapted in its different position of adjustment for `engagement with the outer end of the plunger 55 to define a' variable limit for movement of the'piston 88 to the left. 'I'he member |88 is Vformed lon the periphery of a crank disk ||8 (see Figs. 4 and 6) 'mounted on a ball bearing III onV a stub shaft ||2 in the housing 84. A counterweight ||3 is mounted onthe disk ||8 diametrically opposite the member |88. 4 The disk ||8 has an eccentric crank pin I|4 connected through a crank arm 5 to the free endof the stem 85 movable with the end plate 58 of the diaphragm 56.
The member |88 is shown in full outline in the position corresponding to maximum pressure in gages the wedge |88 less than one-half of the time, and that when it engages the wedge the angle of engagement is less than a sliding angle so that the end pressure of the fuel on the plunger is not transmitted to the diaphragm 56. 'Ihe disk ||0 being balanced and mounted on the anti-friction bearing is operable by very little power. Hence, the temperature and pressure responsive diaphragm 56 affords an accurate,
sensitive and reliable control ofthe fuel-air ratio and the volume of fuel-air mixture supplied to the engine cylinders under Widely varying operating conditions.
In the modified form shown in Fig. 5, the plunger 55 is connected directly to the stem 65 but is separate from the piston 89, and the plunger |06 and extension bore |01 are notneeded and hence dispensed with. In all other respects the two forms of distributors are alike, and hence corresponding parts are identified by like reference characters.
Motor fuel is a poor lubricant, andl because of its low viscosity has a very thin fluidlm. Hence, the fuel affords poor protection against wear be tween the casing 8| and the rotor 82 of the distributor, and has but little tendency to balance or stabilize the rotor for ease and smoothness of operation. To compensate for these deficiencies, and also to prevent leakage of the highly infiammable fuel from the ends of the distributor into uncontrolled channels, the ends of the rotor 82 are floated in a heavy film of a non-volatile and non-inflammable lubricating fluid, as for example oil from the lubricating system of the engine. The means for providing this film of lubricating oil preferably comprises two annular peripheral grooves ||6 and ||1 formed respectively in opposite ends of the rotor 82 outwardly a substantial distance beyond the slots 90 to 95. Two ports ||8 and ||9 formed in the casing 8| at longitudinally spaced points open to the interior in registration respectively with the grooves ||6 and ||1 for all positions of rotation of the rotor 82. A longitudinal passage formed in the casing`8| interconnects the ports ||8 and ||9, and opens through a. fitting |2| to the discharge end of a line |22 connected at its other end to the engine crank case i6 for a supply of lubricating oil under pressure. By enveloping the ends of the rotor 82 with a film of lubricating oil, which is thicker than the natural fuel film, the central portion of the rotor is accurately centralized or located and never comes into actual wearing contact with the casing 8|.
To prevent the pressure of the fuel, when in excess of the oil pressure, from overcoming the oil film and thereby impairing the lubrication and the leakage-preventing seal, two annular peripheral drain grooves |23 and |24 are formed respectively in opposite ends of the rotor 82 between and in spaced relation to the outer oil grooves ||6 and ||1 and the slots 90 to 95. Two ports |25 and |26 formed in the casing 8| diametrically opposite the ports |8.and I9 communicate with the drain grooves |23 and |24 for all rotary positions of the rotor 82. A longitudinal passage |21 formed in the casing 8| interconnects the ports.
Means is provided for tshort-circuiting the pass line branching from the line 11 and opening to the interior of the casing 8| through a port |3| diametrically opposite the pressure port 98, and hence in alinement longitudinally of the rotor 82 with some of the feed ports 98 to |04. A valve |32 is interposed in the line |30 and is adapted to be opened or closed at will, as for example through a linkage comprising a crank arm |33, a link |34, a bell-crank lever |35 and an actuator |36. Normally, the valve |32 is closed. However, when it is desired to free the feed tubes 48 to 53 of air, or in starting of the engine to provide an excessamount of fuel for priming purposes,` the valve |32 is opened. The pressure fuel Vwill then be supplied to the port |3I, and hence will in Fig. 13 pass through the slot 94, the passages 96, and the slot 90 tothe feed tube 50, and in Fig. 14 pass throug the slot 9| to the feed tube 53. Opening of the by-pass valve |30 eliminates the charge-limiting and metering characteristics of the distributor 14.
The detailed operation of the system will be understood from the foregoing description. In general', the amount of fuel mixture supplied to the engine is controlled by adjusting the air throttle 26 to vary the supply of air to the manifold |1. This results in a variation in pressure in the manifold, and the pressure responsive member 56 immedately reacts thereto to make a corresponding adjustment in the amount of fuel supplied so that for a given temperature and brometric pressure Ya predetermined fuel-air ratio will be accurately maintained. The fuel-air ratio is subject to adjustment by means of the actuator 63 which serves to vary the range of reciprocation of the metering piston 89. Changes in temperature and pressure tending to cause a departure from the desired fuel-air ratio because of the change in air density are compensated for by the control device 56. The control may be rendered ineffective temporarily by opening the priming valve |32 to by-pass the metering piston 89.
By injecting each charge of fuel into a branch of the manifold |1, directly at the associated intake valve in timed relation with the air flow through said valve, and by reason of the metered character of the charge, good distribution of fuel is obtained even when a small amount of fuel mixture is being supplied to the engine.
-I claim as my invention:
1. In a'fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold, an air throttle for controlling the admission of air to said manifold, and means including a throttle for supplying an adjustable amount of fuel to said engine for mixture with said air, a throttle control comprising, in combination, means responsive to the pressure in said manifold, and a rotatable cam mounted on an anti-friction bearing and having a crank connection with said pressure responsive means for adjustment in accordance with changes in said pressure, said cam being adapted for engagement at a non-sliding relation to discharge fuel into said manifold at 15 l points adjacent the respective cylinders, a.
arcanos member to define its range of movement, and a mounted in said manifold in the path oi and in .far
sealed pressure' and temperature responsive diaphragm operatively connected to said stop and direct contact with the air flowing therethrough between'y said air throttle and said valvesso as to be subject to the velocity influence of the air stream at a point in advance of the fuel supply.
3.v In avfluid distribution system, a rotary distributor having, in combination, a casing, a rotor in said casing, said rotor having a charging chamber, ametering element reversibly movable in said chamber. a iiuid inlet portopening to said casing, two fluid outletports opening to said casing, and means formed in said rotor for periodically connecting said inletport to one end of said chamber and one of said outlet ports simultaneously to the other end of said chamber and at alternate periods connecting sai'd inlet port to said other end of said chamber and thelother of said outlet ports simultaneously to said one end of said chamber.
i. In a fluid distribution system, a rotary dis-` tributor having, in combination, a casing, a rotor in said casing, said rotor having a charging chamber, a metering element reversibly movable in said chamber, a duid inlet port opening to said casing,l two uid outlet ports opening to said xcasing, means formed in said-rotor for periodically connecting saiduinlet port to one end of said chamber and one oi" said outlet ports simultaneously to the other end of said chamber and at alternate periods connecting said inlet port to said other lend ofsaid chamber and the other or said outlet ports simultaneously to said one recess is open to said inlet port.
end of said chambenand stop. means extending "into said chamber in the path of said element. and being adjustable to vary the range of movement of said element.
' 5..111 a huid distribution systeme rotary distributor having, in combination, a casing, a rotor in said casing, said rotor` having a charging chamber, a metering element reversibly movable in said chamber, a fluid inlet port opening to said casing, two fluid outlet ports opening'to said casing and spaced peripherally relative to t said inlet port, and two peripheraliy spaced recesses lformed in said rotor and communicating respectively with opposite ends of said chamber, said recesses being movable in sequence across said inlet port and respectively across said outlet ports, each recess communicating with its outlet port when the other 6. In a iiuid distribution. system, a rotary distributor having, in combination, a casing, a rotor in said casing, said rotorhaving a charging chamber, a metering element reversibly movable in said chamber, aV iiuid inlet port opening to said casing, two fluid outlet ports opening to said casing and spaced peripherally relative to said inlet port, a by-pass port opening to said casing, a passage including a cut-off valve connecting said inlet and by-pass ports, and two peripherally spaced recesses formedin said rotor and communicating respectively with `opposite ends of said chamber, said recesses being movable in uniformly timed `sequence across said inlet port and respectively across said outlet ports,l each recess communicating with its outlet port and said by-pass port -when the other recess is open to said inlet port.
7. In a iiuid distribution system, a rotary dis.A
tributor having, in combination, a casing, a rotor in said casing, said rotor having an axial chamber, a metering piston reciprocably mounted in said chamber, a plunger extending into one end of said chamber for adjusting the extent of reciprocation of said piston, va fluid pressure line, fluid outlet means, and coacting means formedin said casing and said rotor for alternately connecting opposite ends of said chamber to said inlet line, and for connecting eachend of said chamber to said outlet means when the other end of said chamber is connected to said inlet line;
8. In a fluid distribution system, a rotary distributor having, in combination, a casing, a rotor in said casing, said rotor having an internal measuring chamber, a metering element reversibly movable in said chamber, a fluid inlet port opening to said casing, an even number of peripherally spaced slots formed .in said rotor'for movement inuniformly timed sequence across said inlet port, alternate slots being arranged re-v.
9. In a iiuid distribution system, a unitary power operable distributor having, in .combinatiom a measuring chamber, a metering element reversibly 'movable in said chamber, twoV passages opening to said chamber at opposite sides of said elenient, a fluid pressure line, two fluid outlet lines, and means rotatable on an axis extending in the direction of movement of. said element and for reversibly. connecting said passages respectively rst to said pressure line and one of said outlet lines, and then to thel other of said outlet lines and said pressure line so as to alternately charge oppositesides of said chamber' and in charging either one side `of said chamber actuating said element to discharge. the previously introduced iiuid from the other side of said chamber.
, lO. In a iiuid distribution system, a distributor having, in combination, a measuring chamber, a metering element'reversibly movable in said chamber, two.v passages opening to said chamber at opposite sides of said element, a iluid .pressure line, two fluid outlet lines, means for reversibly` connecting said passages respectively rst to said pressure lineand one of said outlet lines, and then to the other of. said outlet lines and said' pressure line so as to alternately charge opposite sides of said chamber and in charging eitherone 'side of said chamber actuating said element to dischargev the previously introduced uid from .the other side of said chamber, and means selectively available i'or by-passing said chamber to supply fluid from said pressure line alternately directly to said outlet lines. Y
11. In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having means for introduce" ing fuel into saidvengine, and a source of fuel,
a timing device for periodically establishing aw 'l supply connection between-said means and said source, said device having charge-metering means for delivering a metered charge of /fuel to said first mentioned means during `each of said connections, and manually operable means for by-passing fuel from said source past said charge-metering means to said first mentioned means.
12. A fuel admission system for an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold,'
said system comprising, in combination,\a housing mounted on one side of said manifold, a rotary fuel distributor mounted on said housing, said distributor being operable periodically to supply a metered charge of fuel to said manifold, said distributor having an axially adjustable member for determining the amount of fuel in each charge, said member extending into said housing, a sealed resilient pressure responsive diaphragm mounted in said manifold, one side of said diaphragm being free from movement and having a stem extending into said housing, a stop ,means in said housing adapted for engagement by said member, said stop means being adjustable to adjust said member, and means operatively connecting said stop means to saidy stem for adjustment in accordance with the movements of said diaphragm.
13. In a fluid distribution system, a distributor having, in combination, a casing having an elon-` gated chamber, a pressure fluid source opening to said chamber intermediate its ends, a valve member adjustably mounted in said chamber, two spaced labyrinth grooves formed in the wall of said chamber adjacent each end of said member, a line for directing a lubricating fluid under pressure to the outer grooves, and a drain line opening from the inner grooves..
14. In a fluid distribution system, a rotary distributor having, in combination, a casing having a chamber, a pressure fluid port opening to the periphery of said chamber, a rotorin said chamber, two spaced annular labyrinth grooves formed in the wall of said chamber at one end of said rotor and beyond said port, a line for directing lubricating oil under pressure to the outermost groove, and a drain line opening from the innermost groove.
15. In a fuel injection system, in combination, a rotary distributor having an axially adjustable control member, a pressure responsive device axially spaced from and movable in the same general direction as said member, and a rotatable cam having a crank connection with said pressure responsive device and being adapted for engagement at a non-sliding angle by said control member.
16. In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine, in combination with an intake manifold, a housing mounted on said manifold, a rotary-distributor mounted on said-housing. and having an axially adjustable control member extending into said housing, a pressure responsive member operable in response to pressure changes in said manifold and extending into said housing for movement in the same general direction as said control member, and an adjustable stop in said housing for said control member, said stop being adjustable by said pressure responsive member.
17. In a fuel injection system, in combination with an intake manifold, a rotary metering distributor havingl an axially adjustable volume control member, a. sealed resilient bellows diaphragm mounted in said manifold with one end in fixed position and the other end free to move in the same general direction as said control member, said free end of said diaphragm and said control member being operatively associated.
18. A fuel injection system. for an internal combustion engine having. an intake manifold and an air throttle for controlling the admission of airto said manifold, said system comprising, in combination, metering and distributing means including an adjustable throttle and for supplying a variable. amount of fuel in charges to different parts of said engine, means including an element movable reverslbly in accordance with pressure and temperature' changes in the air charge, and a one-direction locking wedge connection between said element and said throttle operable to adjust said throttle in synchronism with said element and to prevent back pressure lof said throttle from influencing said adjustment or effecting an adjustment of said element.
19. In a fuel injection system, in combination, a rotary distributor having an axially'adjustable control member, a pressure responsive device axially spaced from and movable in the same general direction as said member, and means including an adjustable cam member for transmitting the movement of said device to said control member, said last mentioned means being ineffective to transmit movement from -said control member to said device.
20. In an engine fuel injection system, a movable member for varying the amount of fuel injected, a cam engageable with said member and having a cam face movable across said member in a plane substantially normal to the plane of movement of said member, means for moving said cam in said plane responsive in its action to changes in the condition of the air charge for the engine, and adjustable means for effecting a change in the phase relation of said cam and said last mentioned means, whereby either of said last two mentioned means is operable to vary the amount of fuel injected into said engine.
. 21. A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having an air inlet passage and an adjustable air throttle in said passage, said system comprising, in combination, a device for injecting fuel for combustion in said engine, and a temperature and pressure responsive element for adjusting the delivery of said device and operatively disposed ln said passage directly in the path of the air flowing therethrough in advance of the region of fuel injection byt said device, whereby said element is influenced by atmospheric humidity and the velocity of the air stream, but is not influenced by the air-fuel mixture.
22. A -fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having an atmospheric air inlet passage and an adjustable air throttle in said passage, said system comprising, in combination, a device for injecting metered quantities of liquid fuel Without air by positive fuel pressure into said engine for mixture with the atmospheric air entering past said throttle, and a sealed temperature and pressure responsive element for automatically adjusting said device in accordance with temperature and absolute pressure changes in the air within said manifold, said element being operatively mounted in said passage directly in the path of and in contact with the air stream between said throttle and the region in which the fuel is injected by said de vice, whereby said element is influenced bythe atmospheric humidity and the velocity of the air stream before carburization of the air.
CARROLL R. ALDEN.