|Publication number||US2126834 A|
|Publication date||Aug 16, 1938|
|Filing date||Oct 21, 1935|
|Priority date||Oct 21, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2126834 A, US 2126834A, US-A-2126834, US2126834 A, US2126834A|
|Inventors||Steinberger Alfred J|
|Original Assignee||Celanese Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (22), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1938. A. J. STEINBERGER 2,126,834
TEXTILE MATERIAL Original Filed Oct. 21, 1955 E T5515. mm mm um um m Mu will ti l 5 w m v Q m mm 4m Ml! Hm um, I \Q w 1); H NLI VENTOR ALFRED m1. STEIN 553cm Patented Aug. 16, 1938 UNITED STATES TEXTILE MATERIAL Alfred J. Steinberger, Jamaica, N. Y., assignor to Celanese Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware Application October 21, 1935, Serial No. 45,891 Renewed May '6, 1938 6 Claims; (Cl. 154-2) This invention relates to the production of window and shower curtains, drapes, portieres, window shades, blankets, and similar articles, wherein at least one edge of the article or an in- 5 termediate part thereof is trimmed, strengthened and/or stiffened by coalescing together a plurality of layers of material along said edge.
An object of the invention is the economical production of textile or other articles in sheet 10 form having at least one edge or margin thereof formed of a plurality of layers of material which are held together by coalescing the various layers to each other. A further object of the invention is the economical production of textile 15 or other articles in sheet form having at least one edge or margin thereof stiffened and strengthened in such a manner that the same, upon being ironed fiat, in pleats or other desired configuration, will retain substantially permanently the shape imparted thereto during the ironing. A still further object of the invention is the production of a finished, stiffened or unstifiened edge upon articles in sheet form. Other objects of the invention will appear from the following detailed description.
In the manufacture of curtains, drapes and the like, it has been the custom to sew into at least the top edge of same, a single, double and sometimes a triple thickness of buckram or other stiffening material. After the buckram was stitched in and a hem formed on the article by sewing, the edge of the article was then pleated and the pleats sewn in place. These articles could not be washed as the stiffness would be 5 removed from the buckram. Articles formed in accordance with this invention, which invention includes the welding or coalescing together of at least some of the layers of fabric at the edge of the article, may be washed any number of in times without losing their stiffness. Furthermore, no sewing is necessary to form either the hem or to hold the pleats, folds or creases in place in the article. Furthermore, the size, shape or style of the pleats may be changed at will by merely re-ironing and setting the pleats.
Other applications may be made of this invention, such as the placing of bindings on blankets, quilts, tents and similar articles. After or during the fusing of the binding upon the blanket or similar article, the edge may be subjected to an embossing or crimping operation to add a pattern thereto. The pattern may resemble stitching, small pleats or novel design effects.
The article thus formed may be laundered many times without the loss of the embossed effect.
This invention permits of an easy and economical method for attaching tapes, edgings and the like to articles. Furtherfore, it may be employed to produce edgings on textile articles, which edgings have an effect which could not be obtained where 5 the edgings were attached to the articles by sewing the same thereon.
In accordance with this invention, I produce articles of textile or other sheet material having a border which is formed by laminating and co- 10 alescing together at least two layers of the sheet material at or near the margin of the article. The layers of sheet material may be aflixed to each other with a thermoplastic material, which material is contained in one or more layers of the assembled article. Outstanding examples of suitable thermoplastic materials for the purpose herein described are fabrics or other sheet material containing organic derivatives of cellulose, such as the organic esters and organic ethers of cellulose. Examples of organic esters of cellulose are cellulose acetate, cellulose formate, cellulose propionate and cellulose butyrate, while examples of cellulose ethers are methyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and benzyl cellulose. The laminating and coalescing together of the assembled layers of sheet material at the edge of the article may be effected by subjecting the assembly to heat and pressure.
In the drawing, wherein like reference numerals refer to the same or similar elements, there are shown various types of drapes formed in accordance with my invention. In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a drape shown attached to its supporting rod;
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a front elevatlonal view of a part of a drape having a hem and pleats of a nature different from those shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; I
Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of another type of edging that may be applied to drapes; and
Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 5.
This invention is applicable to the production of articles of textile or other sheet materiaL'which articles are normally hemmed, taped or otherwise reinforced or ornamented at at least one edge thereof. For instance, this invention is applicable to the production of curtains, drapes, portieres, window shades, blankets, tents, bedspreads or other articles requiring an edge either to lend stiffness, decorative efiect or shape thereto or to prevent unravelling or fraying of the edges of the material. This invention is applicable to any sheet material and particularly to textile fabrics. Examples of fabrics, although any other suitable fabric may be employed, are voile. ninon, lace, mesh fabric, net, armure, brocatelle, casement cloth, chintz, monks cloth, poplin, taffeta, woolen blanket material, etc.
As an aid in describing the invention, the description thereof will be made with particular reference to the drawing. In Fig. 1 there is shown a curtain or drape I having a reinforced bottom portion 2 and a similar reinforced top portion 3. The bottom and top portions 2 and 3, respectively, are formed into the same or a different number of pleats. Through the top pleats 3 there may be inserted drape supporting rings of any suitable construction. The drape supporting rings 4 may be threaded on. and held by a supporting rod 5 which may be attached to the wall, ceiling or other part of the room, as is well understood.
The drape or curtain I may be formed from a suitable drape or curtain material by doubling a portion of the material back upon itself in a manner similar to the forming of a hem on the material, or by adding to one or more edges a piece of material to form a so-called false hem. Instead of stitching the material, as has been done heretofore, there is inserted in the fold of the material a fabric 6 which, for the purpose of describing this invention, may be termed the inner layer of fabric, and the assembly subjected to heat and pressure to coalesce the layers thereof together. Thus, there is produced at the top and bottom of the curtain a reinforced and stiffened edge consisting of two plies of the drape or curtain material I and 8 with an inner layer of fabric 6 therebetween, which edge will retain its coalesced and stiffened form through any laundering processes.
In Fig. 3, there is shown a modified form of a drape which consists of body portion I having a reinforced top portion 3 comprising two layers of the curtain or drape material 8 and 1 formed by doubling a portion of the curtain or drape material back upon itself and inserting therebetween an inner layer of fabric 6. The assembly consisting of the layers 6, l and 8 is welded or coalesced together by subjecting the same to heat and pressure. While the material is in a fiat position, the same may have slots 9 cut therein. The drape material may then be pleated with an ordinary hand iron, heated mangles, or any other suitable heating and pressing device, by folding the material into the desired configuration of pleat and pressing the same at an elevated temperature. By this means there is formed a curtain or drape heading, which is pleated to give an exceptionally pleasing drape to the textile material and which is sufficiently rigid that a rod 5 may be inserted in the slots and the curtains or drapes supported thereby. By regulating the thickness, methods of application and materials contained in the layers 6, I and 8 any degree of stiffness may be imparted to the heading 3 of the curtain or drape. In this way there maybe produced a drape which may be supported upon a rod 5 and which may be slid back and forth across the rod 5 without the necessity of metallic attachments or prominently exposed supporting rods.
In Fig. 6 there is shown a modified form of the invention which is particularly applicable to the formation from laces, nets or sleazy materials of the top portion thereof.
curtains in which it is desired to produce a twotone effect upon the marginal edges thereof. In this modified form of the invention, the curtains are formed of a body part I which is folded over itself to form a double layer thereof shown at l and 8. Inserted in this fold may be tapes of an inner layer fabric II at the free edge of the fold and tapes of an inner layer fabric I2 at the outer edge of the fold. On the inside of the two sets of tapes II and I2 there may be inserted an auxiliary inner layer of fabric I 3, which fabric is doubled and in its doubled form of substantially the same width as the folded part of the curtain I. This auxiliary inner layer fabric I3 may be of the same or of a different material from that of the body portion of the curtain to obtain certain decorative effects hereinafter more fully described. When the body portion l of the curtain is of a mesh, net or other open work fabric, many novel effects may be produced by employing a voile, poplin, taffeta or other fabric of the same or of a dissimilar color as the auxiliary inner layer fabric l3. Upon heat pressing the assembly, it is caused to coalesce or weld together only at those portions containing the tapes II and I2. By this means there is produced a curtain having a reinforced and stiffened hem-like edge containing an unsealed portion.through which a supporting rod 5 may be threaded.
The bottom part of the drapes shown in either Figs. 3 or 4 may be similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 or they may have pleats inserted therein corresponding in shape to the pleats formed in The curtain shown in Figs. 5 or 6 may also be pleated to give the same a pleasing drape, the pleats being inserted in the heading above and below the unsealed portion that is adapted to receive the rod 5. As will be obvious from the following description of the method of causing coalescence of the fabric, modifications other than those shown in the drawing may be made.
Where the body of the article is formed of nonthermoplastic materials such as cotton, wool, linen, silk, etc., the inner layer fabric is preferably formed of or contains an organic derivative of cellulose. The inner layer of fabric. may be formed entirely of yarns of organic derivatives of cellulose or it may be formed of yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose interwoven or knitted with yarns of other materials such as cotton, silk, wool, etc.
In order that the desired degree of stiffening and adhesion be attained upon heat pressing the assembly, formed of the several layers of fabric, either in the presence or absence of water, it is of importance that there be present in the said assembly a plasticizer, softener or swelling agent for the organic derivative of cellulose employed in the assembly. Where the body or exposed portion of the article is made of nonthermoplastic materials, the plasticizer or softener may be applied to the assembly after the assembly is formed by dipping the same into a solution containing the plasticizer or softener. However, it is preferable to apply the plasticizer to the inner layer of fabric. When applying the plasticizer to the inner layer fabric prior to forming the assembly, no wetting of the exposed layers of the article is necessary. .While it is preferable to apply the plasticizer to the inner layer of fabric, it may be present in any of the layers of fabric. However, if the exposed surfaces or the outer layers are not to be modified, the
plasticizer should be absent from those layers and be applied only to the inner layers.
The plasticizer may be applied to the fabric in any suitable manner. Thus, the plasticizer or high boiling solvent for the organic derivative of cellulose employed in the assembly may be applied to or incorporated in the fabric by passing the said fabric through a solution of plasticizer, by padding the plasticizer on the fabric or by spraying on the fabric a solution of plasticizer in a volatile solvent, or, when the inner layers of fabric contain yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose, the plasticizer may be incorporated in the organic derivative of cellulose yarns or filaments as formed by adding the same to the solution from which the yarns or filaments are formed or by applying same to the yarns or filaments during the spinning operations. However, any other suitable method may be employed for impregnating the inner layer fabric with the plasticizer.
Any suitable plasticizer may be employed, which plasticizer may or may not be soluble in water. The plasticizers may be any of the high boiling solvents or softening agents as, for example, the aryl sulphonamides such aspara ethyl toluol sulphonamid, the alkyl phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate, the dialkyl tartrates such as dibutyl tartrate, the alkoxy esters of polybasic organic acids such as diethoxy ethyl phthalate, the polybasic esters of the mono alkyl ethers of polyhydric alcohols such as diethylene glycol ethyl ether ester of phthalic acid, the alkyl esters of phosphoric acid as triethylglycol phosphate, the aryl' esters of phosphoric acid as tricresyl phosphate, the mixed alkyl and aryl phosphates as ethylglycol dicresyl phosphate, and camphor.
The amount of plasticizer present is preferably relatively large and on the order of from less than 40% to 150% or more of the weight of the organic derivative of cellulose present in the assembly of fabrics. Where the article comprises an organic derivative of cellulose body portion and an inner layer of cotton fabric, the amount of plasticizer applied to the cotton fabric may be as much as the cotton fabric will absorb and retain, i. e. the cotton fabric is saturated with the plasticizer.
Where the article is to be formed of a textile material containing thermoplastic yarns or filaments of an organic derivative of cellulose as the body portion, the stiffening material may be any suitable fabric containing a plasticizer. However, where the body portion of an article is formed entirely of non-thermoplastic material, the inner layer fabric must necessarily contain athermoplastic material. If desired, however, both the body portion of the article and the inner layer fabric may contain yarns and filaments of an organic derivative of cellulose. It is necessary in each assembly to have present at least one layer of fabric containing an organic derivative of cellulose adjacent to each layer of fabric which does not contain-an organic derivative of cellulose.
This invention may be carried out in a large number of ways, particularly as to the nature of the fabric or number of fabrics employed, provided that the fabrics containing yarns of organic derivatives of cellulose are employed in the composite material. terial such as a drape may be formed from a body portion comprising a cellulose acetate poplin taffeta having an inner layer of a cotton bunting, which inner layer fabric has been padded with a substantial amount of plasticizer for the cellulose acetate in the body portion. The adhesion-of the cellulose.
For instance, the composite ma-.
cotton bunting to the body portion may be effected by pressing the assembly at elevated tem peratures in the presence of moisture.
This invention is not only applicable to assemblies of composited articles wherein-all of the layers of fabric contain only yarns .or filaments of organic derivatives of cellulose. It is applicable also to articles that have'a body'portion wherein yarns of other fibres are present together with the yarns or filaments of an organic derivative of For instance, there may be employed in fabrics in which yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose alternate with non-thermoplastic yarns either in the warp or in the weft or both in any desired degree of alternation. This alternation may be, for instance, 1, 2, 3 or more cellulose acetate yarns with 1, 2, 3 or more yarns of cotton or other non-thermoplastic fibers. For convenience, the body portion of the article may be formed so that the warp may be made with such alternation of an organic derivative of cellulose yarn and the yarn of other fibres, while the weft may consist wholly of yarns of an Organic derivative of cellulose or of yarns of other fibers. Furthermore, the body portion may consist of a fabric consisting of yarns made from mixed thermoplastic and non-thermoplastic fibers, which yarns may be formed by the woolen or cotton methods of spinning yarns. If desired, the body portion of the article may be a fabric in which warp or weft consists wholly of cellulose acetate yarn, while the intermediate layers of the article consist of any suitable material containing a sufficient amount of plasticizer for the cellulose acetate of the body portion, the assembly of fabrics being caused to adhere to each other by heat pressing in the presence or absence of water. Adhesion effected under these conditions results in no alteration of the outer surface'of the body portion since the plasticizer on the inner layer causes the organic derivative of cellulose, such as cellulose acetate, of only the inner side of the outer layers to soften or become tacky and adhere.
Where the body portion of the article is made entirely of non-thermoplastic yarns, the inner layer, fabric may be made wholly of yarns or filaments of an organic derivative of cellulose or of a mixture of yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose and yarns of a non-thermoplastic nature. These may be woven or knitted in any degree of alteration as described above with reference to body portion fabrics.
If desired, the organic derivatives of cellulose may be present in the inner layer f?bric in the form of a coating. For example, on-thermoplastic fabrics may be coated with a powder or a slurry containing an organic derivative of cellulose and a plasticizer, or the inner layer may be treated with a plasticizer and then coated with an organic derivative of cellulose.
By this invention any number of layers of fabric may be joined together t'o form stiffened, decorated or otherwise modified edges. Thus, the article may contain a body portion of cellu-.- lose acetate fabric, the exposed surface of which is unaltered, which body portion is bound to an inner layer fabric containing cotton or wool yarns, or yarns containing an organic derivative of cellulose. The edge of the article may be made of any number of layers of fabric, for .in-. stance, 6 or 7 layers of fabric may be employed provided that a layer of fabric containing thermoplastic yarns is interposed between each two layers made of non-thermoplastic yarns and 75 either the provided also that a plasticizer for the organic derivative is present-.
To obtain good adhesion and stiffening properties, it is preferable to have water present during the application of heat and pressure, but it is to be understood that this is not essential. to the successful working of 1 this invention. An aqueous liquid or steam may be applied to the assembly of fabrics'in any suitable manner.
Thus, water may be applied by spraying or brushing the fabric with water or by padding the material with water or by dipping the fabric in water. Where the body portion of the (article does not contain organic derivatives of cellulose, in place of water there'rnay be employed as an aid in coalescing the layers of fabric together an aqueous solution of alcohol with or without a plasticizer. If steam is employed, it is preferable to employ a wet steam and the same may be injectedinto the material during the pressing operation in a manner similar to that of pressing woolen fabrics.
Any suitable device may be used for pressing the assembled fabrics to cause them to adhere together. For instance, the fabrics may be pressed with hot irons, or the fabric may be passed between pressure rollers, one or both of which are heated, or between a heated pressing iron or plate and a cold board or surface. The heatingdevice may be heated to a desired temperature, for instance, 80 C. to 180 C. or more, and the pressure may be of any desired degree, for instance, from 10 to 600 pounds or more per square inch. By increasing the pressure to an extremely high degree a glazed surface may be imparted to thefabric at those parts in which coalescence takes'place. g r
Novel effects, such as stripes, dots, rectangles or other geometrical designs, or floral or other designs, may be produced by pressing the composited edge of the material with a device of suitable configuration wherein heat and pressure are applied only locally within the area where the materials are composited. By such a process,
the designs are embossed into the composite material and the composite material is stiffened only at those points which receive the heat and pressure, since only those portions that come in contact with the raised parts of the heating device become united, while the other portions retain the properties of the original fabrics. This local application of heat and pressure may be effected by manually operated means, if desired.
By locally applying a plasticizer or having the.
same present in localized places, the layers of fabric are united only in such places and the union of the unplasticized portions of subsequent launderings is avoided.
Where the body portion of the article contains only non-thermoplastic materials, novel effects may be produced in the edging by employing an inner layer of fabric containing plasticized organic derivatives of cellulose in the form of tapes, as'shown in Fig. 6 of the drawing. In place of plasticized organic derivative of cellulose tapes, other shapes, such as rings, discs, rectangles, etc. of relatively small size may be employed as the inner layer. Upon heat pressing the assembled fabrics in the presence of moisture, a union is caused between the various layers only at those places in which there is present the small pieces of fabric.
This invention is also applicable to the placing of tapes and bindings on the edge of articles. For instance, satin trimmings or bindings may be placed on blankets, etc. by the method herein described. In such a modification of the invention, the edge of the body portion of the article is inserted in a fold of trimming fabric and an inner layer fabric is placed at each side of the body portion and between the the trimming fabric.
In order to further illustrate my invention and without being limited thereto, the following specific examples aregiven:
Example I portion, which folds may. however, be of a much narrower width. In these folds there is also placed a tape consisting of a cotton muslin saturated with a plasticizer for the cellulose acetate. Those parts of the article. containing the folds are pressed in the presence of steam at a temperature of about 110 C. This operation results in a drape in which at least the upper and lower portions are stiffened and resemble hems, the stitching, of course, being absent. The
'drape may then be pleated into pleats of any desired width and configuration. The pleating operation is periormedmerely by placing the pleats in the material and ironing the same with a heated iron. The pleats thus formed in the drape are substantially permanent. These pleats upon being pulled out return, when released, to their original pleated form. If desired, slots may be cut in the folds at suitable positions for the insertion of supportingrods.
Example II plasticizer are inserted between the lace material and the taffeta material at the upper edge of the fold and at the lower edge of the fold. The assembly is then moistened with water and ironed with an iron at a temperature of about 100 C. The assembly is caused to adhere together and be stiffened at those portions containing the p1asticized tape. This edging formed on the curtain may then be pleated, folded or otherwise shaped as desired and a rod for supporting the same inserted in the pocket formed between the upper and lower tapes.
. Emample III A woolen" blanket may have a binding folded over its marginal edgings, which binding consists of a ribbon formed'of cellulose acetate. Between the blanket and the ribbon there is inserted a tape of any desired width consisting of a fabric formed of organic derivatives of cellulose and a plasticizer for the organic derivative of cellulose. The assemblies at the edges of the blanket are then mois tened with water and pressed at a temperature at about 100 C. The ribbon of cellulose acetate body portion and is thereby caused to permanently adhere to the woolen blanket. If desired, an embossing action may be effected concurrently with the pressing action which causes the adhesion of the ribbon to the blanket. The embossing may be such as to produce an imitation of stitching or a floral design along the edge of the ribbon, or any other suitable pattern may be imparted thereto. By this means there is produced a blanket having an edge of cellulose acetate taffeta ribbon with or without a design thereon, saidribbon being permanently attached to the blanket over that area occupied by the plasticired tape inserted between the two.
It is to be understood that the foregoing detailed description and examples are merely given by way of illustration and many alterations may be made therein without departing from the spirit of my invention.
Having described myinvention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Process for producing substantially permanent pleats in decorative hangings, which comprises forming on at least the upper edge'of the hanging a laminar structure comprising a pinrality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains an organic derivative of cellulose, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least part of their area by the fabric layer containing the organic derivative of cellulose, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of predetermined configuration and applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered substantially permanent, and a pleated appearance is given to the unlaminated portion of the hanging bythe tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge.
2. Process for producing substantially permanent pleats in decorative hangings, which comprises forming on at least the upper edge of the hanging a laminar structure comprising a plurality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least part of their area by the fabric layer containing the cellulose acetate, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of predetermined configuration and applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered substantially permanent, and a pleated appearance is given to the unlaminated portion of the hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge.
3. Process for producing substantially permanent pleats in decorative hangings, which comprises forming on at leat the upper edge of the hanging a laminar structure comprising a plurality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains an organic derivative of cellulose, and a plasticizer for the organic derivative of cellulose, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least part of their area by the fabric layer containing the organic derivative of cellulose, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of predetermined configuration and applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered substantially permanent, and a pleated appearance is given to the unlaminated portion of the hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge.
4. Process for producing substantially permanent pleats in decorative hangings, which comprises forming on at least the upper edge of the hanging a laminar structure comprising a plurality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains cellulose acetate, and a plasticizer for the cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least part of their area by the fabric layer containing the cellulose acetate, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of predetermined configuration and applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered substantially permanent, and a pleated appearance is given to the unlaminated portion of the hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge.
5. A decorative hanging having on at least the upper edge thereof a substantially permanently pleated portion comprising a laminar structure of a plurality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains an organic derivative of cellulose, said layers of fabric being joined together by the fabric layer containing the organic derivative of cellulose, the hanging also having an unlaminated portion which has a pleated appearance caused by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge.
6.. A decorative hanging having on at least the upper edge thereof a substantially permanently pleated portion comprising a laminar structure containing a plurality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains cellulose acetate, and a placticizer for the cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric being joined together by the fabric layer containing the cellulose acetate and the plasticizer, the hanging also having an unlaminated portion which has a pleated appearance caused by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge.
ALFRED J. STEINBERGER.
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|U.S. Classification||160/348, 156/227, 160/388, 24/1, 428/175, 223/28, 4/608, 428/181, 160/84.4, 156/183|
|International Classification||A47H13/00, A47H13/14|