US 2127847 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
NAUTICAL INSTRUMENT Filed March 14, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet l l V 7 mi 59 i 9 r l mmv@ mr L Il i A man Aug- 23, 1938. F. scHULTE NAUTICAL INSTRUMENT Filed March 14, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 4 IIIIIIIIIII Aug. 23, 1938. F. scHULTE NAUTICAL INSTRUMENT Filed March 14, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Allg- 23, 1938- F. scHULTE NAUTICAL INSTRUMENT Filed March 14, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Aug. 23, 1938 PATENTv OFFICE NAUTICAL INSTRUMENT Fritz Schulte, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to John L. H. Hand, Bala-Cynwyd, Pa.
Application March 14, 1936, Serial No. 68,971
'z claim. (c1. 'z3-122) The present invention relates to a device for use on a boat or other craft to indicate the speed of travel or/and the distance traveled with respect to the fluid medium, as water or air, through which the craft travels.
The device is intended for any use to'which it may be adapted but is thought to have its best application to water craft. as to indicate the effectiveness of the setting of a sail on a sail boat, or on a power boat to indicate the effectiveness of different relative spark settings or the overall effectiveness of the engine, or of the screw propeller.
The terms boat and "water as used herein are intended respectively for any craft with which the device may be used and the fluid medium operating the device.
A purpose of the invention is to provide a device of the character indicated easy and inexpensive to manufacture and well suited to the needs of service.
lA further purpose is to translate the speed of a boat with respect to adjacent water into electric current and thereby into readings of a current meter.
A further purpose is to indicate the relative effectiveness of different settings or conditions of any member (sail, engine, spark, propeller, etc.) to which boat speed is responsive, suitably by an adjustment of the device so that, with any standard setting, the indicator reads unity, whereby readings with other settings give direct showings of the boat speed interms oi' the speed at the setting assumed as a standard.
. A further purpose is to carry the armature of an alternating current generator upon the shaft of a rotor laterally open to water on one side only, using the current generated by the rotation of the armature to show the speed of a boat or the like carrying the rotor.
A further purpose is to operate the rotor and its shaft and armature in water while preventing water access to fleld coils and permanent magnets cooperating with the rotor to translate the rotor speed into electrical current.
A further purpose is to operate the armature .of awater speed indicator while surrounded by water. but to exclude water from the field by nonmagnetic metal interposed between the amature and the field.
^ A further purpose is to encase a water speed indicator armature in a water-tight nonmagnetic metal shell.
A further purpose is to provide an easy adjustment for the permanent magnetic ileld of a current generator having an armature upon the shaft of a water rotor which is operated by the travel of a boat carrying the rotor.
A further purpose is to weaken or strengthen permanent field magnets of a speed indicator t. adjust theindicator.
A further purpose is to provide novel structure permitting easy adjustment of the position of a cylindrical casing of a partially masked water rotor angularly of a fixture mounting the casing and for best operating engagement between lthe water and rotor.
A further purpose is to mount a speed or/and distance indicator removably in a fixture having means to exclude water leakage immediately in case the indicator is removed.
A further purpose is to drive a distance indicator device through a water-tight shell by magnetically associated driving and driven members.
A further purpose in a distance indicator for a boat is to locate a quick-break contact device at the contacter of a rotor driven slow speed contact device for a counter, to break off the contact without destructive arcing.
Further purposes will appear in the specification and in the claims.
I have elected to show one main form only of my invention, showing however a modification for use when the device is to show distance as well as speed of travel, and have selected both a main form and modification thereof that are practical and efficient in operation and which well illustrate the principles involved.
Figure 1 is a vertical broken section taken upon the line I-I of Figure 2 and illustrates a desirable embodiment of the invention.
Figure 1aV is a fragmentary view corresponding to a portion of Figure 1 and showing an alternative form and diagrammatic electrical connections thereof for the integration of the rotations of the rotor into distance traversed with respect to the water.
Figure 2 is a top plan view of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is an enlarged partially sectioned Afragment of Figure 1.
Figures 4 and 5 are sections of Figure 3 taken respectively upon the lines 4 4l and 5 5 'thereof in the direction of the arrows.
Figure 5a is a fragmentary axial section of a variant type of rotor.
Figure 5b is a fragmentary axial section of a still different type of rotor.
Figures 6 and 7 are sections of Figure 1 taken respectively upon the lines 6 6 and 'l-1 thereof in the direction of the arrows.
Figure '7a is a view similar to Figure 7, on reduced scale and illustrating a modification.
Figures 8 and 9 are views of supporting structure without the indicator unit, the views corresponding otherwise respectively to Figures 2 and 1 but including a closure member which is broken away in Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 10 is a front elevation of Figure 8 but with a dooi shown open in Figure 8 and closed in Figure l0.
Figure l1 is a section of Figurel taken upon the line iI--II thereof to show magnetic adjustment mechanism, some of the interior structure being omitted for the sake of clearness.
Figure l2 is a fragmentary elevation oi' Figure Figures 13 and 14 are fragmentary sections of Figure la taken upon the lines I3-i3 and ll-II thereof in the directions of the arrows.
Figure 15 is a fragmentary section taken upon the line l5l5 of Figure 13 to show electrical connections.
Figure 16 is a fragmentary view corresponding generally to a portion of Figure 13 but with the parts in different position, and to illustrate contact make-and-break mechanism.
In the drawings like numerals indicate like Parts.'
Describing in illustration and not in limitation and referring to the drawings- My invention is concerned with speed and distance indicators for boats, whether small boats or large ships. The invention involves not only the broad features of such indicators, but also important matters of construction by which the indicators can be removed readily from inside the boat for cleaning or repair, adjustments may be made for varying conditions and packings are avoided, the rotor operating entirely in water, while cooperating parts are sealed against water.
Other very important features will be described as the structure and operation are described.
IIfhe illustrated structure of my invention comprises a mount intended to be a fixture on the boat using the device and removable mechanism that includes a current generator to be operated by the travel of the boat and current indicating mechanism with optional mechanism for integrating the rotations of the generator to show the distance traveled.
The mount includes a centrally bored plate i5 inside the boat and fastened at I5 to the bottom or a submerged wall I1 thereof.
A nipple portion i8 of the plate extends through the boat bottom or submerged wall and on the outside surface thereof is surrounded by a suitable flnish and guard ring I8 fastened to the boat bottom or submerged wall, herein called boat bottom.
The elongated plate I5 permanently hinges at 2li to a door or closure member 2|, which door is centrally enlarged to carry a gasket 22 for registry at closure over the nipple I8 and to cooperate at closure with a gasket 23 in a counterbore of the plate I5.
In closed position of the door, threaded studs 24 carried by the plate i5 toward opposite ends thereof pass through suitable openings 25 of the door and nuts 28 on the studs normally clamp the door shut, with the gasket 22 over the top of the opening through the plate I5, Figures 8 to 10.
As best seen in Figure 1, the water-rotor current-generator unit, angularly adjustable with respect to the mount, includes a base plate 2l and, centrally thereof, a nonmagnetlc tubular corrosion-resistant casing 28 for the rotor 29. Outside above the base plate encased structure of the generator is carried. This comprises opposite pole pieces 3 3 and 3l, generator coils 32 and 33 surrounding the pole pieces and curved permanent magnets 34 and 35 (Figure'l) that together energize the pole pieces 3ll and 3|, thereby functioning as a single magnet.
As illustrated, an upwardly directed cup 3l, suitably of spun nonmagnetic sheet metal such as bronzo, surrounds the upper and reduced portion of the tube 28 at a shoulder 31 thereof.
The stator unit of the generator nts inside the cup 38, being carried by a circular inwardly directed trough 38 of suitable nonmagnetic material such as bronze.
The nonmagnetic trough 38 receives the outer ends of the pole pieces 38 and 3| and the permanent magnets 34 and 35 fill the trough intermediate the pole pieces with their north poles presented to opposite sides of one pole piece and their south poles presented to opposite sides of the other pole piece giving the pole pieces permanent north and south polarity.
Thin nonmagnetic insulating spools 38 carrying the stator coils 32 and 33 fit over the inwardly projecting pole pieces 30 and 3| and a downwardly directed annular cover 40, suitably of nonmagnetic sheet metal, cooperates with the cup member 38 and with the reduced upper portion of the tube 28 to provide a water-tight container for the stator coils and the permanent magnets 34 and 35, at the same time holding them rigidly to position. The parts of the watertight container, of suitable nonmagnetic metal such as bronze, may be made into a water-tight unit by soldering, welding, brazing, etc.
I preferably make the effective magnetic strength at the pole pieces 30 and 3| adjustable, and to this end provide an auxiliary magnet 4| angularly adjustable about the annular external corner space on the cover member Il 'above the magnets 3l and 35 with the poles of the auxiliary magnet Il. at preferably opposite ends of any diameter of the annular corner space according to the angular position of the magnet Il, and thereby adjustable to modify the eifective magnetic strength at the pole pieces 3l and 8i.
As illustrated (Figure 11) the magnet 4| is a ring-shaped composite magnet made up of two semi-circular duplicate magnets I2 and 43 inside a nnmagnetic sheet metal water-tight cover 44, with their like poles together at opposite sides of the ring so that the strength of the composite magnet is substantially twice the strength of what it would be with either magnet alone.
A comer adjustment annulus I5 has an adjustable screw connection at 4l with the composite magnet Il and by means of a set screw I1 may be locked to the outside of the cup member 35 in any set position.
When the screw I1 is loosened from its locking engagement with the cup member 3l, the annulus unit comprising the members Il, l5, Il and 41 may be shifted by hand to any desired position, providing the magnet Il with an easy hand adjustment of angular position. After tightening the screw 41 upon the cup member 38 a une adjustment of the position of the magnet may be had at the screw connection II between the annulus and magnet.
For easy cleaning it is desirable to have the upper end of the rotor casing 28 readily opened for its full diameter.
As illustrated, a cap Il across the top of the casing 28 nts an annular recess Il in a relatively heavy ring 58 above the spun member Il, the members 21, 28, 53, 4l and 35 suitably being soldered, welded or brased together into effectively a rigid unit.
Caps 48 and 5l at opposite ends of the tubular casing member 28 carry at the casing axis screws 62 and 63 that present pin pivots 64 and 55 for the pivoting of the rotor 29.
Above the cap 48 duid-connection with the tubular casing 28 and thereby to the water below the boat is sealed by a gasket 51 and cover 68 screwed at 69 to the ring 56, a down flange 68 overlapping without pressing upon the angularly adjustable annulus 45, preventing axial displacement of the annulus.
'I'he rotor unit 29 includes coaxial `vane and armature members 6I and 62 respectively and mounting and connecting structure for pivoting the unit upon the pins 54 and 55, with the vane member 6i located at a lateral opening 63 of the casing 28 and the amature 62 between the pole pieces 38 and 3i of the stator.
The rotor 29 carries vanes 6l. It is suitably of ebonite, and is mounted upon the lower end of a suitably tubular shaft 64, having a. bearing 65 in its lower end and at its upper end fitting into a nonmagnetic mount 66 of the armature.
The armature comprises cruciform soft iron sheets 61 that are pinned together at 68 and enclosed in a cylindrical nonmagnetic casing 69 having a bored hub and bearing 10 and 1l for the pivot pin 54. The nonmagnetic mount or shell 66 of the armature is suitably of .bronze and comprises a sealed water-tight unit.
While the armature is preferably soft iron, it could of course be a magnet if desired.
The length of the vane member 6| and of the opening 63 unmasking one side of the vane member to the water with respect to which the boat is moving may be selected to best suit the service conditions, as to insure with the normal speed of the boat free turning of the rotor unit against the magnetic resistance at the armature portion thereof.
The rotor as shown is most efficiently used by masking part of its circumference, limiting the opening 63 to half or less than half of the circumference. This permits adjustment of the action of the rotor by changing the angle of unmasking with respect to the direction of motion of the boat. It will be evident that the rotor can however be used completely unmasked, as, with the movement of the water with respect to the boat that of the arrow in Figure 5. the forward vane faces 12 act more powerfully to impede water flow, due to their ilatness, than the rearward vane faces 12'.
In Figure 5a I show an unmasked rotor 29' whose shaft 64' is supported in a thrust bearing 55 engaging a shoulder 552 on the shaft.
It will also be understood that the shaft 64' may extend toward the rear of the ship (Figure 5b) and connect at 642 by'a log line 643 to a log line rotor or rotator 292 which is of course completely unmasked.
More usually it is desirable during normal operation to have the casing 28 of the rotor unit completely full of water and to this end the cap 48 is shown witlr'a vent 56. A screw-controlled vent 56'` lets the air out of cover 58.
The rotor unit seals with respect to the mount I5 at the gasket 23, the base plate 21 being arcuately perforated at 13 to pass the studs 24, nuts 26 holding the rotor unit in its set position.
The stator coils, suitably in series, connect by wires 14 to a suitably delicate current meter 15.
The current meter is preferably of direct current type with suitably a rectifier, such as a copper oxide rectifier 'I6' interposed between the alternating current generator and the meter. Since the current meter and rectifier together comprise a commercial unit it is thought not necessary to describe the current meter Il or rectiiler 16' in great detail.
More vusually the rotor unit is initially adjusted at the arcuate slots 13 so that the opposite vertical'edges of the opening 63 (Figure 5) in the rotor casing 28 are in fore-and-aft alinement of the boat or in the position for a maximum reading if the reading is taken while there is either no water current or with the direction of travel alined with the water current.
More usually the position for maximum reading when traveling in quiet water will be that of or near that of a fore-and-aft allnement of the opposite edges of the opening 63.
In the form of Figures 1a and 13 to 15, the composite cover and rotor pivot supporting unit of Figure 1, which unit there comprises the members 48, 52, 51 and 58, is replaced by a composite cover and rotor pivot supporting unitcarrying mechanism adapting the rotor to operate a counter 16 to be located at any suitable point, more usually away from the rotor generator structure, though optionally of course. mounted on this structure. The counter 16 may desirably include a solenoid and armature 18' ratchet connected to the counter.
The operating mechanism between the rotor and counter includes a train 11 of speed reducing pinions, of which the shaft 18 of the first pinion 19 is spaced from and magnetically coupled to the rotor. The last pinion 68 on shaft 8| operates contact closing mechanism of the electrically operated counter.
The speed reducing pinions should be designed to suit the counter, but in the form shown they consist of gear 82 on shaft 83 meshing with pinion 19, and rigidly connected with pinion 84 also on shaft 83 and driving gear 85 on shaft 86. Gear 85 is rigidly connected with pinion 81 on shaft 86, which drives gear 88 on shaft 89. Shaft 89 also carries pinion 98 which drives the last speed-reducing gear 80 on shaft 8i.
As illustrated, the magneticicoupling between the rotor and speed reducing train includes a ring magnet 9| mounted on the rotor by a non# magnetic circular cup-like casing 92 which encloses the ring magnet 9| and prevents access cf water to it, and also includes a magnet which may be a soft iron armature magnetized by the ring magnet 9i or more desirably may be a permanent magnet. In either case this` magnet 93 is fastened to the downwardly extended shaft 18 of the train with the magnet 9| inside the Water space of the rotor and the armature 93 inside a well portion 94 of an oil-filled compartment carrying the train. It will be understood that the magnetic coupling between the members 9| and 93 is considerably stronger if both members are permanent magnets than if one is made as a soft iron armature.
A casing and mounting structure 95 of nonmagnetic material and coaxial with the rotor fastens at its flange 96 to the ring 58, suitably with a gasket between the ring and flange, and has an intermediate annular wall 91 between the water space of the rotor and the preferably oil-filled compartment carrying the speed reduction train and the contact mechanism operated by this train.
The top pivot 54' of the rotor is presented downwardly from a hub 52' of the wall 91 andw 75 the ring magnet which may be, except as to dimensions, like the ring magnet 4| already described, is spaced above and coaxially'with the rotor, preferably in the plane of its amature 93, being carried from the rotor by means of the nonmagnetic rupwardly spreading mount $2 that makes a friction fit at its lower end about the rotor hub 10.
'I'he speed reducing train 11and contact mechanism are mounted upon a nonmagnetic base plate 00, suitably screwed at 09 to an interior shoulder |00 of the casing 90 and spring contacts I0| and |02, in the circuit operating the counter, cooperatewith a contact |03 on an ebonite disk |00 rotated by the last gear wheel 00 of the train 11, the disk |04, loosely mounted on the shaft 0l of the wheel 00, presenting a downward pin between spoke portions of the gear I0. In Figure 18 the gear 00 is about to progress the disk |04 to a point at which the spring contacts |0| and |02 can spring in with wedge engagements at their forward bevel surfaces with the rear edge of the contact |00, which engagement suddenly shoots the disk forward and thereby the contact |00 forward well away from the contacts I0| and |02. To the extent of the spacing between spokes, which strike the pin 4|00 in opposite limiting positions of the disk |04, the disk |04 is free on the shaft 0|. When the moving contact |02 touches the contacts |0| 4and |02, the friction drags the disk back with respect to gear l0, and when the contacts I0| and |02 begin to leave the moving contact |03, their spring action against the curving rearward surface of the moving contact |02 causes the disk Ill to jump forward giving a quick break of the contact. This is very important to prevent arcing in view of the almost imperceptibly slow movement of the gear 00, which otherwise would break the contacts so slowly as to destroy them by the arc.
The counter circuit includes a suitable source of current The spring contacts I0| and |02A are provided with insulated support upon a down bend portion |00 of a plate |01 that is carried by posts |00 from the base plate 00, for top pivot support of the shaft 0| as well as for the support of the insulated contacts III and |02.
Figure i5 shows the special connection box |00 used for water-tight connection between the electric cable IIO and the contacts I0| and |02. The bushings and |I2 are preferably threaded into place and the entire connection box is desirably filled with wax, not shown.
Each rotation of the disk |00 brings its contact |02 across the spring contacts III and |02, closing and opening the operating circuit of the counter 10.
It will be understood that any angular shift of the rotor casing 20, by adjustment of the plate 21 at the arcuate perforations 10 thereof, changes the rate of rotation of the rotor with correspond- A ing changes at both the counter 16 and at the current meter 10.
Adjustment of the angular pomtion of the y magnet 4| however, has little effect upon the of boat travel however th'e magnetic pull between the rotor and stator members may become a material factor making it desirable to set the magnet 4I at or near its position for minimum pull between the rotor and stator members in order to permit more free turning of the rotor.
A particularly wide use of the device is for the easy determination of the best settings for any members to which boat speed is responsive, and of the relative effectiveness of any such member at its different available settings. For example, I may test sail setting, engine carburetor adjustment, rengine spark setting, engine performance among engines, propeller performance as among propellers, propeller position with respect to length of shaft, hull condition with respect to need for dry docking, etc.
In testing an adjustment the operator conveniently adjusts the auxiliary magnet Il so that with an existing setting of any member under adjustment the current meter reads a particular value after which other settings of the sail, or other member to which boat speed is responsive, will give readings giving direct instantaneous indications of the effectiveness of the other settings relative to the effectiveness at the first setting and the differences between integrator readings at the counter 10 divided by the time durations between respective sets of readings will give the average indications of the effectiveness of the members at the different settings.
In some waters the vane member will repeatedly foul as by contact with sea weed or the like and one desirable feature of my device is its adaptation to easy removal for clearing with a quick effective closure of the opening through the boat bottom when the device is momentarily lifted away, the door 2| being swung to closure when the device is lifted out, to be opened for each quick return of the device after any fouling material at the rotor has been removed.
When the device of my invention is first installed in a'boat, ship, etc., a. suitable location on the hull, preferably the bottom, although permissibly the side, will be chosen. As the location of the indicator will frequently be in the bilge. where water is present against the hull both inside and outside, it will be evident that the precautions taken to keep the field windings of the speed indicator and the speed reduction mechanism and contacts of the distance indicator water tight are very necessary.
The nrst step in installing the device is of course to drill an opening through the hull and place the attachment fitting as shown in Figures 8 to 10. Whenever the indicator is not in place, the door 2| should, of course, be kept closed, as shown in Figure 10.
Assuming rst that the speed indicator only is to be employed, as shown in Figures l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and l2, the current meter 1l should be installed at a suitable point, preferably on the instrument board of the bridge, or in the engine room (if desired, meters may be put at both places or at several points in the boat), and the speed indicator unit should be inserted in the fitting after opening the door 2|. Experi- 'ment indicates that the insertion and removal of the speed indicator unit can be made without iirst time and there is no precedent, it is necessary to run the boat over a measured course in order to make the indicator read correctly. The measured course should preferably be traversed several times at different speeds, observing the indications and the correct timing at each speed. In making these first trials, the indicator should preferably be positioned as shown in Figure 2 with the bolts in the middle of the slots 13. This means that a substantially fore-and-aft relation exists between the masking edges of the opening 63, providing the iitting has been inserted properly in iore-and-aft relation.
It is not unlikely that the first trials may show more marked divergence of the meter reading from the correct value at slow speeds than at higher speeds. This is due to the fact that the shapes of some hulls produce quick water at certain places.
Quick water is water whose speed locally with respect to the hull is greater than the average speed of the boat with respect to the body of water through which the boat is passing. It will be more marked at slow speeds, and therefore the instrument might in the initial test read very much too fast at slow speeds but only slightly too fast at cruising speed. Correction for the error introduced by quick water may be made by rotating the generating unit bodily within the range permitted by the bolts 24 in the slots 13. A convenient way to make the correction is to swing the unit to the limiting position in one direction, observing whether the error is aggravated or improved, and, if aggravated, swinging to the limiting position in the opposite direction. A few trials will enable the operator to adjust the position of the slots 13 with respect to the bolts 24 so that the error in the instrument will be roughly constant at all speeds under the normal speed range. The angular shifting of the adjusting magnet 4i will then serve to bring the reading on the meter 15 down or up to the accurate speed at which the boat is moving.
Adjustments of the adjusting magnet 4I, since they eilect the magnetic strength at the pole pieces will be effective uniformly over the full range of speed, unlike adjustments at the slot 13. It is thus evident that the two sets of adjustments serve different purposes.
The operation of the speed indicator, once it is adjusted, is very simple. Speed of the rotor due .-to action of the water on the varies 6| exposed to the water at the opening 63 cause rotation of the armature, water entering the opening 63 completely surrounds the rotor, the shaft 64 and the armature, but cannot pass beyond because the rotor and armature are encased in a nonmagnetic shell. The armature is also water tight and therefore the water can do no harm toit.
A permanent magnetic iield surrounds the armature due to the action of the permanent magnets which magnetize the pole pieces. The armature, rotating in this magnetic eld, is eiective to set up an alternating current in the stator coils. The alternating current in the stator coils is somewhat diminished due to the presence of the nonmagnetic water-tight casing, but nevertheless is amply sufficient for an indication.
It will of course be understood that an alternating current meter could be used for the meter 15. However, direct current meters are simpler, cheaper and more accurate, and I therefore prefer to use a direct current meter at 15, interposing in the circuit between the stator coils and the meter a suitable rectiiier, such as a copper oxide rectiiier.
Distance indicators involve delicate mechanism such as gear reduction trains which cannot be satisfactorily maintained in contact with water, particularly sea water. y
I find that it is possible to enclose thedelicate parts of the distance indicator in a casing which will exclude all water and retain a lling of oil if desired, driving the mechanism without stuiilng boxes by magnetic action through the walls of the casing. When the magnet 9| of Figures 1a and 14 rotates it carries with it the armature inside the casing, and, through the speed reduction, periodically completes and then quickly breaks the electrical contact to operate the counter 16. It would of course be possible to use the speed indicator without the distance indicator or to use the distance indicator without the speed indicator, although they are most advantageously embodied in one device.
It will be evident that in the description of the magnet and its armature, as in Figure l, the best form has been shown, namely, that in which the internal armature is soft iron with surrounding magnetic material outside the tube 28; but that an operative though less efficient reversal of this could be used such as is shown in Figure 7a, for example, in which the parts are the same as those described in connection with Figure '7, with the exception that the magnets 34' and 35' will then become soft iron and that a permanent magnet 29 will be substituted for the soft iron core piece 29. Even with the construction of Figure 7 the device would be operative with a magnet such as 29 instead of cruciiorm soft iron construction such as is seen in Figure 7.
It will be evident that the walls by which the operating mechanism and the water in which the boat is travelling are separated must be corrosion resistant in order to keep down excessive replacements and repairs; but that these walls must also be suliciently non-magnetic to avoid interference with the operation of the device, i. e.,
to avoid interference of their magnetism or capability of magnetization with proper operation and indication of the moving parts. For this reason I have in some places referred to these walls as corrosion resistant and. have also referred to them as substantially non-magnetic. The walls are called substantially non-magnetic because such a material as stainless steel can be used notwithstanding that it may have very slight magnetic properties. On the other hand, it is not my intention tosuggest that these parts need be metallic, as a corrosion resistant non-magnetic material, such as Bakelite, for example, would serve the purpose, even though it be not the desire to take advantage of its electrical insulation properties. Bakelite has been used above as symbolic of a large class of phenol derivatives which have the qualities desired along with high mechanical strength. Such substance as celluloid would also serve the purpose if thick enough for requisite mechanical strength.
In view of my invention and disclosure variations and modications to meet individual whim or particular need will doubtless become evident to others skilled in the art, to obtain all or part of the benefits of my invention without copying the structure shown, and I, therefore, claim all such in so far as they fall within the reasonable spirit and scope of my invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat- 'ent is:
i. In a device for integrating boat speed with respect to the water through which the boat is travelling, an electric counter, an electric circuit for operating the counter, a self-contained unit having an intermediate nange to be located Ainside a boat about an opening through a submerged portion of the boat wall. having a tubular casing to extend outwardly from the nange through the opening into the water and, on the boat interior side of the nange, the unit having a hollow head member closing and externally re-entrant with respect to the inner end of the casing and interiorly sealed from the casing interior and the self-contained unit including a rotor inside the tubular casing and having inwardly of the flange pivot support in the head member and outwardly of the ilange having an operating vane for operating by exposure to the water through which the boat is passing, cooperating contacts within the head included in the electric circuit, a speed reduction train of gears within the head for making and breaking the contacts and a magnetic coupling between the rotor and head operating the speed reduction gears, said coupling including a magnet inside the head above the said pivot-support of the rotor and a cooperating magnet on the inner end of the rotor radially spaced from the inwardly extended pivot of the rotor.
2. In a device for indicating and integrating boat speed with respect to the water through which the boat is travelling, an indicator responsive to electric current, a counter, an electric circuit for the counter and, in a self-contained unit, a tubular casing to be interiorly open to the water and of non-magnetic corrosion resistant material, an annular casing laterally surrounding the first casing and interiorly sealed from the ilrst casing, a third casing sealing with the nrst casing across the inner end thereof, cooperating contacts inside the third casing to make and break the said circuit, speed reduction gearing inside the third casing to operate the contacts, a current generator connected to said indicator and having an electric stator inside the second casing and a rotor inside the first casing, an operating vane operatively connected to the rotor and forming therewith an electric rotorvane unit for operating by exposure to the water through which the boat is passing, a fourth casing exteriorly sealing the electric rotor from water within the first casing and forming an integral part of the rotor-vane unit and a magnetic coupling between the rotor and train with the cooperating members thereof respectively in the first and third casing,
3. In a device of the character indicated, means responsive to electric current, and a self-contained unit having a tubular casing, an exterior ilange from the casing at an intermediate portion of the length thereof for mounting the unit with the ilange within a boat about an opening through the boat bottom, the casing portion of the unit to extend outwardly through the opening, the unit having a hollow head located to surround the casing portion inwardly of the flange, the said unit including a generator connected to the means responsive to electric current and the generator having a stator within the head, and a rotary unit within the casing, the rotary unit comprising an operating vane located outwardly of the iiange for operation by exposuretothewaterthroughwhichtheboat is passing, a rotor of'magnetic material located inwardly of the ilange for cooperation with the stator and a mount for the rotor and vane, said mount being of water-resistant non-magnetic material and encasing the rotor to seal the rotor from water within the tubular casing.
4. In a device for indicating the effectiveness at diilerent settings of a member to which boat speed is responsive, an indicator responsive to electric current and a current generator connected to said indicator and having a rotor, an operating vane thereon for operation by its exposure to the water with respect to which the boat is travelling, and said generator also having a stator including pole pieces, a permanent magnet energizing the pole pieces. another perinanent magnet adjustable with respect to the pole pieces for adjusting the magnetic strength thereof and current-generating coils surrounding the pole pieces.
5. A water speed indicator, an armature, means for turning the armature, a stator including pole pieces cooperating with the armature, a coil around one of the pole pieces and a permanent magnet extending between two pole pieces in combination with an angularly adjustable permanent magnet in magnetic relation with the previously mentioned permanent magnet and adapted to regulate the strength of magnetization of the pole pieces.
6. In a device of the character indicated, a rotary unit including a shaft and vane, armature and `armature-casing members, with the vane and armature member mounted on longitudinally spaced portions of the shaft and the armature casing member sealing the armature from water outside the unit, a non-magnetic tubular casing surrounding and pivotally supporting the unit at the said shaft and having a lateral opening along the vane for exposing the vane to operating engagement by the water with respect to which the boat is travelling, a substantially non-magnetic annular casing cooperating with the last mentioned casing `to provide a stator compartment about the armature member, and a stator including within the compartment opposite pole pieces, stator coils thereon and a permanent ring magnet energizing the pole pieces and said stator including outside the compartment an angularly adJustable ring magnet for adjustably varying the energizations of the pole pieces.
7. In a device i'or indicating boat speed, a selfcontained unit for generating electric current by the rate of travel of the boat through the water and including a tubular casing to be interiorly open to the water and of non-magnetic corrosion resistant material, an annular casing about the first casing and at its own ends sealing with longitudinally spaced portions of the first casing toward one end thereof, an electric stator inside the annular casing, an electric rotor inside the first casing, a vane operatively connected with the rotor and combined therewith to form a rotor-vane unit, a third casing oi' non-magnetic corrosion resistant material exteriorly casing and forming a portion of the electric rotor to seal it from water inside the first casing, and bearing support for the rotor-vane unit.