US 2128253 A
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Aug. 30, 1938. A. E. JOHNSON HYDRAULIC LOCK DRY PIPE VALVE WITH WELL TESTING AND WELL FLOWING APPARATUS Filed Aug. 31, 1957 5 2 3 9 3 2 8 55854 4 I\\\ i r/ QAA mm .m wwwm, Ill 1. H I ,H .3 a H B wflfiww 3 mm aw 3 9 2. 2 A 4 q.
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A. E. JOHNSON HYDRAULIC LOCK DRY PIPE VALVE WITH WELL TESTING AND WELL FLOWING APPARATUS Sheets-Sh et 2 Frq. l2
Filed Aug 31, 1937 Frq. Z].
Inven tor. H. E. Johnson flitorneys.
Patented Aug. 30, 1938 HYDRAULIC LOCK DRY PIPE VALVE WITH WELL TESTING AND WELL FLOWING AP- PARATUS Arthur E. Johnson, Taft, Calif. Application August 31, 1937, Serial No. 161,792
I gave my invention the above title as an hydraulic lock valve is an important feature in maintaining a dry or empty stem of drill or other pipe used in deep well drilling such as oil drilling. Where it is desired to use dry or empty drill pipe in making a test of the well formation, it is necessary, to have a type of valve at the bottom of the stem which prevents entrance of any of the slushing mud, used for instance in rotary well drilling prevents entrance of water or any oil in the well except the part to be tested. On account of extraordinary large hydraulic pressures in deep wells it is difficult to provide a valve which may be opened from some action at the top of the well and which, when opened, will allow entrance into the drill stem of the fluid in the formation being tested. Some of these valves now used open so quickly that they operate with a decided shock and on account of the rapid flow of possibly oil, water, and sand have a decided erosive action both on the stationary and movable parts of the valve. In addition, considerable difllculty has been experienced in manipulating the valves for opening.
Similar troubles arise where it is desired to start, for instance an oil well flowing by inserting in the well a dry or empty oil pipe leading to the top of the well. In such cases, it is necessary to use what is sometimes termed a dry pipe valve to maintain such pipe empty until it is desired to release the valve and start the flow of the oil.
By use of my hydraulic locked valve, the hydraulic lock may be opened or released and the hydraulic fluid bled out of the valve and by the action of the hydrostatic pressure of the oil in the well, the valve is displaced permitting a gradual and then a free or unobstructed flow of the oil into the oil tubing extending to the top of the well.
In this application I have presented two structures and uses for my type of hydraulic lock dry pipe valve, one of which is of use in testing a well formation to obtaina sample of the oil or water or any fluid mixture at the bottom of the Well. The
other application of my invention is for use in starting of a flowing well, for instance after a well has been tested and found satisfactory and then equipped to allow and receive the free flow of oil from the formation.
A characteristic of my hydraulic locked valve is that such valve includes two valve bores or valve cylinders preferably of different diameters, the valve assembly being arranged in the body structure which may be attached by threading to the bottom of a string of drill pipe or oil tubing. In the body of the valve there is a hollow space for containing a liquid which is filled into this space atthe top'of the well for running in the dry pipe with its valve at the bottom.
The valve contains preferably a differential piston assembly, this having two distinct pistons corresponding to the particular bore in which they slide. These pistons have suitable cup piston rings to form a liquid-tight seal with the bores or cylinders in which they operate. The fluid is maintained locked and thus locks the valve from movement by means of a frangible orifice device, this having a small bore communicating with the body of the locked fluid. Such frangible device is located at the bottom of the stem of dry pipe and may preferably extend into the lower end of such pipe. When the operator is ready to make his test or start a well flowing, an instrument designated in the trade as a "go-devil or a ball may be dropped down through the drill pipe and'wedging against the frangible stem breaks this at a weatllrened section, thus exposing the small bore duc As the pistons are exposed to the hydraulic pressure at the bottom of the well in the fluid such as oil in the well the breaking of the frangible element and exposing the duct allows the pistons to move as a unit through the chamber containing the locked liquid, this bleeding out upwardly through the duct. On account of the tapered shape of the body of the valve leading to one or the other of the bores in which the pistons operate, as the piston is displaced there is first a small cross-sectional area developed for the flow of the fluid from the well-and then as the piston displacement becomes greater, the entire cross-section of one of the valve bores is free for the upward flow of the oil or other fluid from the bottom of the Well.
As my hydraulically locked dry pipe valve has a relatively simple application as a dry pipe starter valve for flowing wells, the characteristics'of this will be first set forth.
A tubular valve body is secured as by threads to the lower end of a stem of oil tubing, this preferably has a small cylindrical bore adjacent its upper end, an enlarged chamber with lateral ports leading to the open hole and a larger bore at the bottom portion. The piston assembly includes a small bore piston at the top in the smaller bore,
a large bore piston in the larger bore, these being connected by'a substantial tubing'or hollow rod. The pistons each have a passage from end to end in alignment with the hollow rod. At the lower end of the valve body assembly I provide a relatively long pipe or tube which may be of larger bore secured to the lower end of they valve assem-' bly and provided at the bottom with an opening having a closure plug. The upper end of the small upper piston is provided with'the frangible duct bar. The duct as above mentioned, is of quite small crpss-sectional area compared with the bore in which the pistons operate and the upper end of this projects into the dry pipe area' and such a position that it may be readily broken the piston or the small diameter upper secti n.
when the string of oil tubing is introduced into the well it will thus be seen that the locked hydraulic valve maintains the oil tubing dry or empty. When the top of the well is equipped to receive oil released for flowing, the dropping of the ball or go-devil" breaks the frangible duct bar and as the ports in the side of the valve admit entry of oil from the well formation at a very high pressure a differential pressure is exerted on the two piston ends. Manifestly, the lower end being of larger diameter than the upper end, a downward movement of the whole piston assembly occurs, this forcing the locked fluid upwardlythrough the two pistons, the connecting hollow rod, and through the bleeder duct. As the upper piston is pulled'downwardly through the upper bore of the valve body the well fluid flows upwardly into the oil tubing. The piston assembly is completely displaced and descends through any of the locking liquid in the locked fluid chamber of the valve. Thus, the larger lower piston end, the smaller upper end, and the connecting tubular rod, the balls, or go-devil used to break the frangible duct and the broken part of this duct descend by gravity below the intake ports provided for the upflow of oil from the well formation. As these do not in any manner hinder the flow -of oil they are allowed to remain as long as the well is flowing and may even be left if the wellmay be satisfactorily pumped with the ports provided in my dry pipe starter valve assembly.
The main characteristic features of my invention as applied to a well testing apparatus include the locked hydraulic valve in a multiple valved assembly device secured to the lower end of a string or stem of drill pipe to maintain such pipe empty or dry prior to securing a sample. In this case the locked hydraulic. valve is arranged to have a differential piston in a cylinder construction mounted with the large end upwardly and the small end extending downwardly. The large end however is restrained from operation by the locked hydraulic fluid which may be released by a frangible orifice device broken by a go-devil or-a ball dropped through the drill pipe. This valve is hydraulically locked at the top of the well before lowering the equipment.
With my equipment a test of the formation may be made by a rat hole, thatis a small bore extending downwardly from the main bore of the well and separated'from such main bore by a conical packer located adjacent the bottom of the multiple valve assembly or may have a packer cutting of! the lower part of the main bore when it is desired to test the bore itself. In lowering the equipment of the well I employ a slide valve actuated by a sliding mandrel operative in a second or intermediate body structure below that carrying the locked hydraulic valve. ing the equipment the intermediate body section is suspended'on studs or bosses engaging in a vertical slot on the interior of the body, such studs projecting from the sliding mandrel. This holds the slide valve closed which valve has a communication through'a lower hollow by-pass mandrel to. a perforated inlet pipe extending downwardly in the rat hole or a perforated intake device located below the packer when-the device isused to test the well bore. 1
Then when the packer is seated thus supporting the'intermediate body section by the formation, the drill pipe with the slidable mandrel is lowered thereby opening the slide valve and giving a communication of the hydraulic fluid in the test part of the well to have access to the lower, that is, the small piston end of the locked hydraulic valve. When everything is set to make the test of the formation a go-devil or ball is dropped through the drill' pipe and this strikes the frangible orifice device, breaking this and allowing bleeding upwardly of the locked hydraulic fluid. Such action releases the hydraulic pressure on the upper or large end of the differential piston, allowing the piston to be forced upwardly by the pressure of the formation fluid on the small end of such differential piston.
A characteristic of this small end of the differential piston resides in its forming a control for the velocity of flow of the formation fluid through the valve cylinder in which the small piston operates. The small piston at its lower end has ta- .pered flutes whereby when forced upwardly by the bleeding of the locked hydraulic fluid, on the gradual upward movement of the differential piston a low velocity flow of well fluid is obtained due to the small cross sectional area of the flutes and the upper part of the cylinder of the small differential piston assembly. Then as this piston travels further upwardly the cross sectional area due to the increased depth of flutes gradually increases until the full area of the valve cylinder is presented for the upward flow of the hydraulic fluid to and through an annular passage surrounding the locked hydraulic fluid valve into the dry drill pipe.
A further characteristic of my invention resides in the trapping of the sample ."uid in the drill pipe and developing a by-pass or equalizing pressure through a by-pass or equalizing valve between the pressure of the slushing mud or fluid above the packer and the fluid formation in the well such .as in a rat hole below the packer or the lower end of the well bore below the packer. In such action the drill pipe is slightly lifted to operate the-slide valve to a closed position and a partial rotation is given causing the bosses or studs on the slidable mandrel to follow upwardly inclined diagonal grooves in the interior of the intermediate body section connecting with the -flrst or main vertical grooves, Such studs in making the test are located in the open slide valve-port position slightly below the inclined grooves. A further upward movement of the mandrel with its studs or bosses brings these to approximately the top of secondary vertical grooves on the interior of the intermediate body section and brings a pulling collar on the sliding mandrel in contact with a pulling shoulder on In lowerthe intermediate body section. The slide valve 7 in this position is closed thus locking any well formation fluid in the drill pipe.
This immediate action releases by-pass or equalizing valves for opening. Such valves located in a lower body section are preferably of a bail and plug type maintained closed by the balls engaging a hollow by-pass mandrel secured to the lower end of the main sliding mandrel and in communication with the formation to be tested, the formation fluid having passed upwardly through this mandrel and through the sliding valve. As soon as these by-pass valves are released the pressure of the slushing mud or fluid in the well above the packer forces such valves open and flows downwardly into the formation below the packer, that is, into the rat hole or the lower part of the well bore as such is being tested. This permits ready release of the packer from the well bore and raising of the drill string with its sample and a multiple valve assembly to the top of-the well. I
A further characteristic feature of my invention includes a circulation valve by which the slushing mud or fluid used in hydraulic drilling may be pumped downwardly below the released packer if for any reason it is necessary to do so to save the well. Of course in this action the I sample is lost but the'circulation of slushing fluid ill .hole or in the main bore under test.
may be started and maintained. Such circulation valve preferably includes a rubber plug with a ball located in a reduced cylindrical section at the top of the hollow by-pass mandrel at its connection to the main mandrel, there being a bore communicating with the annular space surrounding the locked hydraulic fluid valve to the circulation valve. On the circulation fluid being pumped downwardly through the drill pipe this plug with the ball is forced downwardly through the hollow by-pass mandrel into the perforated formation fluid intake located either in the rat- Thus the hydraulic slushing fluid may be re-circulated in the well. A further detail feature of my invention is that such re-circulation may be started without releasing the by-pass valves should this be necessary as the fluid pumped below the packer equalizes with the 'fluid above the packer so that the whole equipment at the proper time may be removed from the well, that is, after the circulation has been properly established. Then by re-setting the hydraulic fluid locked valve and installing a replacement fragible orifice device, a second test may be made.
It will thus be seen that with my invention employing the hydraulically locked valve that I provide for those occasions in well drilling for running a string of empty or dry pipe such as tubing or drill pipe into the drilled hole and maintaining this dry or empty until the occasion arises to permit flow of fluid from the well into such dry tubing or pipe. In testing for producdrilling fluid which is contained in the bore hole.-
This sample of formation matter or liquid either flows up to the top of the hole if the formation pressure is sufiicient or that which does enter the test string of piping is trapped in the empty ,force the fluid to the top of the well.
drill pipe and removed for analysis. Such sample therefore determines the completeness of the well at the particular depth and shows whether or not it is desirable to drill deeper.
In the case of starting a well to flbw after the drilling process is completed and production is certain, my hydraulic locked dry pipe valve maintains a dry or empty string of oil. tubing which is run into the bore hole for permanent installation through which the oil and gas may flow to the top of the well. By opening the hydraulic locked valve which is attached to the lower end of the tubing, the well may be started to flow provided there is suflicient formation pressure to Should this formation pressure not be sufficient to develop a flowing well such well could be pumped in the ordinary manner. It will be noted that my dry pipe valve permanently attached to the bottom of the oil tubing causes no restriction in the continued flowing of the oil and gas production after this is established.
Practical applications of my invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical section showing a starter valve for flowing wells with my hydraulic lock valve, the sealing valve body and the locking fluid body being shown in vertical section and the internal parts of the differential piston assembly in elevation. In this figure the hydraulically locked valve is shown in closed position.
Fig. 2 is a section similar to Fig. 1 showing the hydraulic locked valve and the sealing valve in the full open position.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged section of part of the ashole and packet seat with a portion of a stem of I drill pipe and the various valve body sections shown in elevation.
Fig. 5 is a vertical sectionshowing the upper body section with the hydraulic locked valve concentric therewith, such valve being illustrated in its closed position. This also includes the portion of the dry pipe valve. 1
Fig. 6 is a continuing lower section from that of Fig. 5 showing the intermediate body section with the slide valve and the lower body section with the by-pass or equalizing valves, and the recirculation valve, all of these valves being illustrated in their closed position.
Fig. '7 is a partial interior elevation of a portion of the intermediate body section to illustrate vertical and inclined internal grooves.
Fig. 8 is a transverse section on the line 8-8 of Fig. 6 in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 9 is a transverse section on the line 99 of Fig. 6 in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 10 is a section on the line l0-l0 of Fig. 6 in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 11 is a section similar to Fig. 5 showing the hydraulic lock valve in its full open position thereby opening the dry, pipe valve.
Fig. 12 is a section similar to a portion of Fig. 6 showing the slide valve in its open position for obtaining a sample of fluid from the well formation.
My invention as applied to a starter valve as illustrated in Fig. 3 shows the lower end of a string of oil tubing II which may be of the usual charconnected to the tubing stem by an internal threaded box l3 and at the bottom it has an externa'lly threaded pin l4 which engages the internal threads of a box II at the. upper end of the locking fluid body It. This latter is shown as internally threaded at the bottom II to which is connected a fluid chamber cylinder II, this latter having external threads at the top and may be quite thin. Such cylinder has a closed base I 9 with a filler opening closed by a plug 2|.
The characteristics of the locked hydraulic valve, designated by the assembly numeral include the internal large cylinder 23 forming the interior of thelocking fluid body It, this having a downwardly facing shoulder 21 at the top and a relatively large opening 28,- above the shoulder. Such shoulder is illustrated as adjacent the upper end of this locking fluid body. The sealing valve body l2 has an internal cylinder 23 of less cross I sectional area than the opening 28. A relatively largecylinder in the valve sealing body has a plurality of production ports 3|, these being in the form of vertical slots. A coned taper 32 connects the upper end of the cylinder 30 with the lower end of the pistoncylinder 29 and above this piston cylinder there is a, diverging cone 33. A tubular piston rod 35 has an upper tubular piston 33 secured thereto by the threaded connection 31 (note Fig. 3) and at the lower end there is the large tubular piston 38 secured to the rod by a threaded connection at 33. The upper piston has a reduced cylindrical neck 40 on which is mounted a series of cup leathers 4| separated by ring followers 42. In the illustration 3 cup leathers are shown facing downwardly. .A nut 43 threaded on the .upper end of the neck retains the followers and cup leathers in position. The lower piston also has a reduced neck withan upper cup leather 45 facing-upwardly and a series of lower cup leathers 48 ,facing downwardly, these being separated by follower rings 41 and the assembly held in placeby' a nut 40 threaded on the lower end of the neck.
The frangible oriflce device designated by the assembly numeral has an upwardly extending bar structure 58 (note Fig. 3) with a smallbore duct or orifice member 51 extending upwardly,
there being an internal cone 59 leading to the base or bottom 80. This is seated on the bottom of a recess 6| in the neck of the upper piston, the assembly being held in place by a gland nut 62, there being packing 63 between the nut and base 60. An annular groove 64 or other weakening structure is formed in the rod below the top of the orifice duct 51. It is preferable that the rod extend upwardly a short distance within the lower end of the lowermost stand of the oil tubing.
In the manner of operational my invention in assembling at the top of the well, liquid of a suitable type such as water is filled in the fluid sealed space 10. This is the space in the locking fluid body It and the fluid chamber cylinder Hi. When this is filled so that the piston assembly 25 is thrust upwardly the plug 2| is inserted. This assures that the upper end of the lower piston bears against 'the seat 21. The cup leathers facing downwardly on the lower piston assure that there will be no leakage of the locked fluid upwardly into the inlet annular chamber ll in the sealing valve body l2 immediately insideof the ports 3! and surrounding a piston rod 35. When in this position the upper piston 36 is located'in the piston cylinder 29, the upper end with the nut 43 frangible oriflce device I! in place the assembly with the string of oil tubing is lowered into the well in the ordinary manner. The frangible device may be made of such material as Bakelite, glass, hard rubber or the like. The assembly is lowered through any residual liquid or slushing mud in the well. Whenat the proper depth the tubing is secured at the top, that is, adjacent the derrick floor and suitable equipment is attached to the top of the string of tubing to control the upward flow of oil when this takes place. By this construction and procedure, the tubing is what is termed dry, that is, empty, containing no oil or no liquid and although the liquid and oil in the well may enter the ports 3| it is absolutely blocked from upward flow no matter what the pressure by the upper piston 36. Manifestly this piston assembly is locked by the fluid in the chamber I0. The downwardly facing cup leathers on the upper piston prevent upward seepage of liquid no matter what the pressure in the well.
When it is desired to start the well flowing, a ball or go-devil indicated by the numeral 12 in Fig. 2 is dropped downwardly through the dry or empty oil tubing. This ball is of slightly greater diameter than the radial distance from the outside of .the rod portion 56 and the inside of the oil tubing but is of a less diameter than the piston cylinder 29 and the opening 28. The ball therefore strikes the rod 56 and breaks this at the weakened line 64, thus exposing the opened end of the duct orifice 51.
A differential pressure is developed on the upper and lower pistons due to the oil' or other liquid in the well which has entered the ports 3|- and filled the annular space II. This bears downwardly on the upper end of the lower piston and the lower end of the upper piston but as the lower piston is larger in diameter and has a the piston assembly to move downwardly slowly.
The internal cylinder 30 is larger than the upper piston 36 so that there is always room for flow of oil upwardly around this upward piston when it descends a sufllcient distance to develop an annular opening surrounding the nuts 43 and the gland nut 62. The hydraulic pressure in the well together with the action of gravity causes the piston assembly to still move downwardly until the complete piston cylinder 29 is open for the upward flow of the oil from the well. The piston assembly with the ball 12 and the broken piece from the upper end of the bar 5| drops downwardly into the fluid chamber cylinder l8 which brings the upper end of the upper piston a considerable distance below the production ports 3|, hence the valve assembly has no interference with the production of oil. The various parts of the equipment which thus drop downwardly and rest on the bottom l9 are left in the well as they perform no adverse function in the free flow of flowing a well and under some cirwhich shuts off the production may be considered as the upper piston, that when the frangible device is broken the locked fluid is released permitting opening of the dry pipe valve and thus starting the production of oil.in aflowingfl-well which may continue indefinitely.
It is believed obvious that the differential piston action for the hydraulically locked valve may be obtained by, for instance, having the upper and lower pistons of the same size operating in suitable cylinders and with a compression spring seating on the lower cylinder and on a shoulder extending inwardly on the large cylinder 30'. With this construction the pressure of the spring will start and continue the downward movement. of the piston assembly bleeding the hydraulically locked liquid through the orifice until the piston. assembly is free to drop by gravity.
My invention incorporated with a well testing equipment is substantially as follows as illustrated in Figs. 4 through 12 inclusive. In this, case referring to Fig. .4 the lower portion of awell bore is indicated-by the numeral 90. The drawings illustrate a bottom portion in which no casing has been set however it will be understood the casing may be in this portion of the bore if desired. A rat-hole 9i extends downwardly into the oil bearing formation" 92 from which a sample is to be taken. A reamed seat 03 is made in a standard manner between the large bore of the well hole'and the small bore of the rat-hole. This is to form a seat for a tapered packer when testing the formation by a rat-hole. It will be understood that if a full bore extends downwardly that the lower portion of this may be made by using an expanding packer of a standard type which seals ofi the upper portion of the well above the packer. Of course in both types of testing it is presumed that there may be oil in the rat-hole and, the bottom portion of the main bore or these may be filled with a slushing fluid or mixture of the slushing fluid and oil. In my invention a lower portion ofa string of drill pipe is indicated by the numeral I to which is attached an upper cylindrical body section IOI (note particularly Figs. and 11). This is illustrated as having a tapered threaded box I02 ,adjacent the upper endfor connection by a tool joint I03 01'' other device to the lower part of the drill string. A contractedopening I04 is immediately below the box. An outwardly flared cone I05 leads to a large cylindrical section I06 of this upper body section, this terminating in a contracting cone I01 below which there is a threaded connection I08 to an'upper or flrst intermediate body section designated by the numeral IIO (note particularly Figs. 5 and 11).
This section below the threads has a relatively large cylindrical bore III with an annular transverse shoulder II2, the lower end of. the upper bodysection being indicated by the numeral II3 forming an opposing shoulder with the shoulder II2. A cylindrical bore II4 extends downwardly from the shoulder H2 and is preferably at least of the same internal diameter as the lower threaded portion of the upper body section. An annular shoulder II5 terminates the cylindrical section H4 and below this there is an internally threaded section H6 and a cylindrical bore II1,
This is illustrated as having internal threads 8 at its lower end..
A sliding mandrel designated by the assembly numeral I25 (note particularly Figs. 5, 6, 11 and 12) has an upper external thread I25 connecting with the upper intermediate body section H0. The mandrel has an outside cylindrical surface I21 and has a large-bore I28 at its u'pperpart contracted to a smaller bore I29. At the bottom of the mandrel there is a screw threaded recess I30 with a reduced seat portion I 3I to which is. fitted a hollow by-pass mandrel designated by the assembly numeral I35. against a seating ring I36 in the seat portion I38 This mandrel seats of the recess and is connected to the threads at I30. Internally this hollow by-pass mandrel has a cylindrical valve seat section 631 and a larger bore section through this section there are a plurality of flow ports I39 for the-liquid. sample to, be obtained from the well. The by-pass mandrel is indicated as terminating at- I40. Thislatter mandrel is thus interconnected to the upper or main mandrel and has an up "and down movement relative to the other parts of the apparatus with such mandrel.
Slidably mounted on the main mandrel I25 I there is the'second or lower intermediate body of the gland and jammed against the upper end of the second body section I50. This second body section terminates at the bottom at I51 and is illustrated as beinginterna'lly threaded.
To this there is connected the lower body section I10. this having a threaded connection at I" to the lower end of the lower or second intermediate body. The upper end I12 forms a shoulder to seat weight on the packer as described hereinunder. This lower body section has an internal cylinder I13 forming a sliding fit with the lower endportion of the main mandrel I25. A reduced cone section I14 leads to a cylindrical bore I15 in which the lower portion of the bypass mandrel I35 has a sliding fit.
A sub designated by the assembly numeral I80 (note Figs. 4 and 6) is connected by any suitable type of threaded joint I8I to the lower end of the lower body section I10. The bore I15 extends into this sub and the sub also has a'perforation extending therethrough. On the sub is the tapered packer I82 and below the packer a small diameter intake perforated tube I03. The tapered packer is designed to seat on the seat 93 connecting the main well bore 90 and the rat-hole bore 9|. It is to be understood that any suitable type of packer might be utilized and if the sample is to be taken from the lower portion of the main well bore, that an expanding type of packer willbe used. These are quite well known inthe art as is also the structures and manner of expanding. The perforated tube I83 is for the purpose of permitting the upward flow of the liquid from the portion of the formation to be tested.
My hydraulically locked valve is designated by the assembly numeral 200 (note particularly This body I 38 extending therebelow and Figs. 5 and 11). This employs a confining fluid cylinder 20I' having an enlarged collar 202 at the bottom which fits in the cylindrical sectioh III of the upper or first intermediate body section I I0. It is seated on the shoulder I12 and held cylinder 20! vertical and concentric with the main body section. I M.
' preferably circular ports 203 in the collar 202 communicating from thespace 204 to the hollow space 205 within the cylinder 20 I.
A valve plug 2I0 is fitted to the upper end of the cylinder 20I. perforated cage 2I2 and a ball 2I3 to engage on the seat limited as to its upward movementby' the perforated cage plate 212. An externally threaded neck 2I4- extends upwardly from the valve plug and is cylindrical on its inside sur face. This forms a mounting for the frangible orifice duct device 220. Such device has a base section 22I seating on the cage plate 2I2. It has an upwardly extending bar section 222 with compressible packing rings 223 retained in place by a gland nut 224, this having internal threads and being threaded on the external threads of the neck 2 I4. The lower surface of the gland nut and of the valve plug 2I0 contact as indicated at 225. The orifice element has an internal open cone 226 extending upwardly from its lower end from which there is a central orifice duct 221. This extends above the annular groove 228 or other device forming a weakening section. A tubular sleeve 230 has a threaded connection to the outside of the gland nut and extends upwardly preferably above the top of the frangible orifice bar 222, having an internal bevel 23I at the top. This leaves a space 232. between the top of the sleeve and the contracted opening I04 adjacent the top of the upper body section. The
internal opening in the sleeve 230 should be approximately equal to that of the opening I04 to direct the downward path of a go-devil as hereinunder described. r ....The hydraulic-locked valve employs a dry stem sealing valve cylinder designated by the assembly. numeral 240 (note partciularly Figs. 5 and 11). This has an upper shoulder section 24I bearing on the shoulder II5 of the upper intermediate body section III! and has external threadsengaging the threads H6. The outside lower cylindrical part 242 is preferably slightly smaller in diameter than the inside cylinder II1. Wrench grip notches 243 provide for threading this valve cylinder in place. Such cylinder has an internal cylindrical surface-244 with. a conical flare 245 at the bottom and a, conical piston engaging shoulder 248 at the top.
The piston assembly designated by the assembly numeral 250 has a piston rod section 25l cylindrical on its outside surface and provided at its upper end with a relatively large diameter piston 252. This is illustrated as having a stem 253 (note Fig. 5) with a plurality of cup leathers 254 separated by follower rings 255, these being held in place by a nut 255 at the top of the stem. Thes'e cup leathers it will be noted are faced upwardly to resist leakage of the locked the lower end of the cylindrical part of the piston rod 25! there is a converging conedseating plug 251 preferably formed integral with the rod section and below this is a small diameter piston There are a plurality of i This has a valve seat 2, a-
particularly Fig. 7).
depth at the lower end than at the upper end of such mandrel for a purpose hereinunder described.
u The sample shut ofi retaining valve designated by the assembly numeral 215 is illustrated particularly in Figs. 6, 8, 9 and 12. One side of the sliding mandrel I25 adjacent its lower portion is provided with a longitudinal groove 21 8. This has a fiat base surface 211 parallel to the bore I29 and has two side edges 218. These terminate at the top in a transverse shoulder 219 at right angles to the axis of the mandrel and at the bottom in the upwardly inclined shoulder 280. Below this shoulder the mandrel has a flat side 280" to provide upward fiow of the sample. Intermediate the length of this groove there is a port 281 leading to the bore I29. This port is shown as located within the area of an enlarged collar 282 on the mandrel which operates in an en-. larged internal diameter bowl 283 of the second or lower intermediate body section I50. The upper part of this collar has 'a bevel 284 adapted to engage the complementary bevel 285 pulling shoulder at the top of the bowl. The lower annular edge 286 is transverse to engage the seating shoulder or end I12 at the upper end of the lower body section I10. A sliding valve block 290 (note particularly Figs. 6, 8, 9 and 12) has an outer convex periphery 29I to have a snug fit in the bore of the bowl 283. The opposite vertical sides 292 are vertical and parallel to fit in the sides 218 of the slot 216 of the mandrel and the block is 'provided with a fiat base 293 to engage the fiat inner base surface 211 of this slot 215. The upper edge of the block is transverse as indicated at 294 and has a slight corner bevel 295 to fit against the bevel 285. The lower edge has a transverse outer portion 296 fitting on the shoulder I12 of the lower body section I10 and from this there is a slight bevel 291 to conform to the upwardly inclined shoulder 280. The block is provided with a liquid flow duct 288 and a port 289 which is brought into and out of registry with the port 28I of the mandrel I25 when this mandrel moves up and down. It.will be understood that the block 290 is held practically stationary but there is a slight clearance at each end'providing for a slight up and down movement to take care of any inaccuracy of fit. In order to tightly seatthe valve block against the mandrel to prevent leakage therepast, the block is provided with one or more recesses 298 in which are fitted compression springs 299 bearing on the base of a recess 2.3g against the cylindrical surface of the bowl The slot and stud assembly 3I0 for regulating the position of the sample shutoff valve 215 employs a first or a long vertical slot 3 in the second or lower intermediate body section I50 (note This extends vertically upwardly from the upper end of the bore of the bowl 283 and terminates with rounded end 3I2 at the top. An upwardly slopi'fi'fs lot 3I3 extends laterally from the vertical slot 3, the upper edge of this slot being positioned below the rounded upper end 3I2 and extending upwardly from this slot 3I3 there is a second or a shorter vertical slot 3M also terminating in an upper each ball there is a rubber plug 328.
ond vertical slots 3 I 4 are opposite one to the other. The mandrel is provided .with two diametrically opposite substantial studs 3I6'to operate in these slots, themannerof operation and functioning.
being detailed hereinunder.
The by-passor equalizer valve assembly 325 (note particularly Fig. 6 employs one or more transverse perforations 325 in the thick lower portion .of the lower body section I10 and leading to the cylindrical bore I15. In-each of these bores there is a ball 321 adapted to contactthe outside surface of the, by-pass mandrel I35 adjacent its lower end and immediately outside of The plugs are seated by a tubular nipple 329 threaded in the outer threaded end of the perforation 326. It is manifest that as many of these balls and valve assemblies will be utilized as are 'necessary to give the desi ed by-pass or'equalizing flow downwardly below the packer as are necessaryf These' valves are held in their inactive or closed position by the lower portion of the by-pass mandrel I35 engaging the balls and preventing theballs and plugs being forced inwardly.
The re-circulating valve designated by the assembly numeral 335 includes a ball 336 seated upwardly against the seating ring I36 which is 10- cated in the recess I extending upwardly from the bottom of the sliding mandrel I25. The ball has a sliding fit in the cylindrical .valve seat section I31 of the'by-pass mandrel I35. Below the ball there is a rubber plug 331 which with the ball is inserted upwardly through the open lower end of the by-pass mandrel I and has suflicient friction to prevent the rubber plug and the ball being forced outwardly until this is accomplished by a downward hydraulic pressure by pumping slushing fluid or the like.
. The manner of operation and functioning of my well testing apparatus is substantially as follows: The various sections are assembled at the top of the well. For instance, the valve cylinder 240 is inserted in the upper intermediate body section IIO prior to locating the confining fluid cylinder 20I, the piston assembly 250 having the small piston end inserted in the cylinder 240, the fluid chamber 256 may be filled with water or other fluid before connecting the frangible orifice duct device 220, the upper body section IOI is then connectedto'the upper intermediate section H0. The second or lower intermediate body section I50 is fitted over the sliding mandrel I25, the slide valve 215 is assembled and the studs 3I6 on the mandrel are guided into the first vertical slots 3 seating against the upper end 3I2. The bypass mandrel I35 with the re-circulating valve assembly 335 is fltted to the mandrel, the remaining lower intermediate body section I10 is then assembled with the by-pass valves 325 and a suitable type of sub indicated at I80 with a suitable packer and perforated intake pipe which may ha e the function of an anchor completes the installation. As above mentioned if the sample is to be taken from a rat-hole, a cone packer such as I82 ls utilized but if the sample is to be from the full bore well hole a suitable type of expanding packer is utilized, these being well known in the art. After assembly of my equipment it is lowered into the well'by connecting the various stands of drill pipe. In the procedure of lowering, all of the parts below.th e upper'interniediate body section IIO are suspended from the studs 3I6 on the mandrel engaging, the upper end 3I2 of the first vertical slots 3. This positions the. sample shut off valve assembly 215 in a closed position, that is, the port 28I on the mandrel and the port 289 in the valve block are out .of registry; Thus the hydraulic pressure in the well is shutoff from the bore I29of the mandrel above the recirculating ball valve However any possible leakage past this is immaterial asthe pistdns of the piston assembly 250 are locked in theclosed position by the locked in the chamber 255.
.' When the packer is seated a slight downward movement of the mandrel in reference to the lower body section I10 and the lower intermediate body section I50 brings the lower annular edge 205 on the collar 282 of the mandrel in contact with the shoulder I12 on the upper end'of the lower intermediate body section I10. Thus sufilcieht weight may be placed on the packer to secure a tight seal and to close off the rat-hole where a tapered'packer is used from the main well bore.
Likewise when a test is being made of the full well borethe packer makes a hydraulic seal between the slushing fluid above the packer and the fluid in the well below the packer. This action of seating the packer and lowering the sliding mandrel in reference to the parts whiph are held stationary aligns the ports28I and 289, thus developing a hydraulic pressure in the' upper or large bore I28 of the sliding mandrel immediately below the valve cylirider-Hli. This cylinder is closed by the lower or small piston 258 which as above mentioned, has the cup leathers facing downwardly to prevent-upward leak of the fluid of the sample being tested. Such fluid develops a pressure through the perforated pipe I83 from the rat-hole or the part of the well to be tested. When everything is ready to make the test a go-devil indicated at 350 (Fig. 11) which may preferably be in the form of a bar, is dropped down throughthe dry or empty drill pipe. This is guided by the drill pipe and the opening I04 at the upper. end
' of the upper body section and also by the tubular sleeve 230 so that it wedges between such sleeve and the frangible oriflce bar 222, thus causing a breaking'of this bar at the weakened section 228.
(note Fig. 11) Therefore the lock confining the lock fluid in the chamber 256 is released and due to the very high hydraulic pressure pressing upwardly on the small piston end 258, the whole piston assembly is forced upwardly causing the large diameter piston 252 at the top which has the cups facing'upwardly to be forced in an upward direction in the cylinder 20I. This action develops an upward flow of the confined or locked fluid through the small orifice 221, this being a bleeder. Such action unseats the ball valve 2 I 3.
The graduated flow of the sample under test which is usually at a very high pressure compared with the atmospheric pressure in the dry or empty drill pipe is developed as follows: As the piston assembly 250 is forced upwardly there is a full and complete seal in the valve cylinder 240 until the cup leathers pass above the upper end of the cylindrical section 244. This then brings the upper end of the flutes 266 in the further upward movement of the piston assembly, into the cone 246. Such action allows first a somewhat slow flow of the sample from the well and as the piston assembly is still forced higher, the larger or bottom end of'the flutes on the displacement manf drel 265 allow an increased flow. Then as the piston assembly is forced up still further, the
small piston entirely clears the cylinder 240. The
sample being taken flows upwardly through the series .of ports 203 in the collar 202 and passes upwardly in the annular space between the cylinder I and the inside of the upper body section IOI. .The piston assembly 250 is driven upwardly by the pressure into the upper part of the cylinder 20I somewhat as illustrated in Fig. 11. The
flow of the sample follows substantially the direction of the arrows indicated as passing outwardly through the perforations I39 by the numeral I past the flat side 28!) at the lower end of the slid-. ing mandrel as indicated at 352, through the aligned ports of the slide valve at 353, upwardly through the mandrel as indicated at 354, through (the cylinder 244 at 355 and upwardly following the arrows 356 and 351 (note Figs. 11 and 12).
After allowing the upward flow'of the sample to be obtained for the desired length of time, it is necessary to close the sample retaining valve 215.
This is don by slightly lifting ,the string of drill ports 28I and 289. Then a slight rotational turn of the drill string which causes a slight rotation of the mandrel guides the studs 3I6 upwardly in the inclined slots 3 I3 into the second vertical slot 3 when a vertical lift on'the drill pipe brings these studs upwardly in these slots' 3I 4. Such action dis-aligns the ports 28I and 289 shutting off the sample retaining valve. In the rotation of the mandrel the block 290 of course rotates with the mandrel. The drill pipe is lifted until the pulling shoulder 285 in the lower intermediate body section I 50 is engaged by the inclined shoulder or bevel 284 of the collar 282 on the mandrel.
' When so engaged there is a clearance between the studs 3| Ii and the end 3I5 of the slots 3I4. Hence the entire lifting pull is taken between the complementary shoulders 284 and 285.
However, before unseating the packer and lifting the sample it is necessary to equalize the pressure in the well above and below the packer. During the taking of the sample the by-pass valves 325 have been retained in their closed position on account of the balls 321 engaging the lower portion of the tubular by-pass mandrel I35.
These valves are held in this position manifestly when the assembly is being run in the well and while the sample is being taken. However when the studs 3I6 are located in the slots 3I4 the mandrel with the by-pass mandrel I35 is raised so that the lower end I40 is brought above the valves 325. Then the pressure of the slushlng fluid and any other fluid in the well above the packer forces the plugs 328 with the balls inwardly so that these may drop downwardly into the perforated intake pipe I83 or an anchor where such is used. This gives a free passage for the fluid above the packer to equalize the pressure below the packer and maintains an open passage so that the assemblywith the packer may be elevated to the top of the well, stand by stand of the drill pipe being removed in this procedure. Thus as the sample taken from the well is trapped in the formerly dry drill pipe, an accurate sample may be taken of the flow of oil and other liquid from the well, that is, from the portion under test.
The function ofthe re-circulating valve 335 is as follows: This valve is only intended to come amazes into operation when through some reason or other the circulation to prevent so-called freezing of the equipment in the well. After a sample has been taken, this of course necessitates losing the sample. Thus for instance, presuming a sample has been taken and everything is ready to lift.
the equipment by the complementary shoulders 284 and 285 engaging, then if the drill pipe above the sample taken is filled with slushlng fluid and this .is pumped downwardly under the high pressure usually developed, the pressure of the fluid 'in the small bore I29 in the mandrel forces the plug 331 with the ball 336 downwardly completely through the by-pass mandrel I35, this plug with the ball descending into the perforated intake tube I83 or into an anchor where such is used.
or at any rate, the plug is driven out of the way it is found necessary to re-start the circulation of I ,the slushlng fluid. This may be necessary to give sufficient pressure to seal off the well or to start so that the slushlng fluid pumped downwardly through the drill string may pass out through the g perforated tube I 83. properly established, the assembly may be elevated to the top of the'well, the hydraulic locked valve reset and the dry drill pipe again lowered into the well to make another test.
, It is sometimes desirable to have a positive high After the circulation is pressure on the hydraulically locked fluid in the space 256. Forthis purpose a valve assembly 350 may be installed in the confining fluid cylinder 2M and after attachment of the frangible duct device 200, fluid may be forced in under pressure.
with an instrument similar to a grease gun. This causes a. positive and forcible seating of the tapered plug portion 251 of the piston rod section 25I against the cone shaped shoulder 246 at the top of the valve cylinder 240. These may be provided with surfaces sufliciently accurately made to develop a closed seal independent of the packing cups.
In the construction of Figs. 1, ,2 and 3 relating pressure by an instrument similar to a grease gun.
Such action exerts a considerable internal pressure on the liquid Ill and forces the piston assembly upwardly so that the upper end of the lower piston 38 has a tight seat and if desired, seal, against the downwardly facing shoulder 21 at the upper part of the body I6.
I wish to emphasize the important function of the action of tapered flutes 266 in the displacement mandrel 265 in reference to the valve cylinder 240. When the piston assembly is forced upwardly and the upper end of the flutes are positioned slightly above the cylindrical section of the valve cylinder 240, on account of the small cross sectional area only a small amount of the fluid from the well which is under high pressure may flow upwardly. Then as the piston is further raised and the tapering flutes give a larger cross sectional area the flow of the well fluid becomes more rapid but the increase of velocity'is at a regular increment until the piston assembly is removed entirely out of the valve cylinder 240 when the full cross sectional area of such cylinder comes into operation for the upward flow of the well fluid. This, which might be termed delayed chamber for a first fluid, a movable valve struc-' ture and a sealing means, a structure having a communication with the well formation whereby pressure of a second fluid may be exerted on the valve, the sealing means and the said valve locking the first fluid in the chamber and thereby restraining the valve from movement, the said sealing means having a construction for unsealing or opening from a distance remote from the valve, means for bleeding the locked fluid from the chamber due to a differential pressure on the valve between the pressure in the chamber and the pressure in the formation and means operative after discharge of a substantially predetermined amount of the hydraulic fluid flowing the second fluid from the well formation.
2. In a well tool, the combination of a hollow structure adapted for immersion in a fluid in a well, such structure having a hollow chamber for a locked second fluid, a frangible sealing means forming a closure for one part of the chamber and a movable valve means forming a closure for the other part of the chamber whereby when the chamber is filledwith fluid, such fluid is locked from out-flow by the sealingmeans andthevalve means,
the frangible sealing means being adapted to be broken when desired, there being a bleeding outlet from the said chamber, means forming a fluid communication between the first fluid in the well fluid after draining of a predetermined amount of the locked fluid by the movement of the valve means.
3. In a well tool, the combination of a tubular structure adapted for lowering into a well and forming a passage from a desired depth to the top of the well, a hydraulic locked valve assembly connected to the lower end of said structure, said assembly including means forming a hollow chamber, a frangible sealing means with a bleeding opening communicating with said chamber, a movable valveelement forming a closure 'for another part of said chamber whereby a flrst and locked fluid is retained in said chamber between the frangible sealing means and the valve element, means forming a fluid communication from a second fluid in the well to the side of the valve outside of the said chamber, the said frangible sealing means being adapted to be brokenby a go-devil or the like dropped downwardly through the said tubular structure, the said bleeding opening communicating with said tubular structure whereby a differential pressure between the second and well fluid and the first and locked fluid develops a movement of the valve means to bleed a substantially predetermined amount of the locked fluid out of the said chamber and means opened by the movement of the valve for the flow of the well fluid into the said hollow structure.
4. In a well tool, the combination of a tubular structure adapted for lowering into a well and forming a passage from a desired depth to the top of the well, a hydraulic locked valve assembly connected to the lower end of said structure, said assembly including upper and lower cylinders with "connected slidable valve pistons therein, the upper piston operating in the upper cylinder and the lower piston in the lower cylinder, a structure forming a chamber for a first and locked fluid connected to one of said cylinders, a frangible sealing bleeder device also connected to said chamber and having a bleeder duct positioned to communicate with the tubular body structure, means forming a fluid passage for a second or well fluid to exert a pressure on at least one of the pistons, the first or locked fluid being trapped between one of the pistons and the frangible sealing means, one of said pistons preventing upward flow of the second or well fluid, the hydraulic pressure in the tubular structure being adapted to be very much less than that 01' the well fluid, the first or locked fluid engaging one of the pistons preventing movement of the piston assembly, the said frangible sealing means being adapted to be broken by a go-devil or the like dropped through the tubular structure and thereby opening the bleeding duct for communicationwith the tubular structure, the pressure of the second or well fluid on one of the pistons then being operative'to move the piston assembly and force the locked fluid through the bleeding duct until the piston preventing flow upwardly of the well fluid is moved to such a position as to free the well fluid for upward flow into the said tubular structure.
5. In a welltool, a dry pipe starting valve comprising in combination a string of oil tubing, a
valve body structure connected thereto at the bottom and having a small bore cylinder at an upper part, a large bore cylinder at a lower part with flow ports therebetween, means forming a closure at the lower part of the large cylinder, a piston assembly including a piston rod having a small upper piston and a large lower piston fitted respectively in the upper and lower cylinders, the pistons and the rod having a passage therethrough, the upper piston having a frangible sealing device connected thereto with a bleeding duct, said duct communicating with the passage through the pistons and the piston rod, an inter-engaging means between the piston assembly and the valve body to restrict upward movement of the piston assembly with a flrst or locked fluid in the large cylinder below the lower piston, such fluid being sealed by the said sealing means and forming a positive lock against movement of the piston assembly, the said frangible sealing means being adapted to be broken by a go-devil or the like dropped through the oil tubing and thus open the bleeding duct to communicate with such tubing, the said ports admitting the second or well fluid to exert a pressure on the larger and lower piston and thus force the piston assembly downwardly and causing a bleeding through the duct oi the locked fluid, the upper piston thereby being retracted from the small I said assembly including an inflow means for well fluid from the bottom of the well, a packer engaging a wall of the Welland a relatively stationary tubular structure positioned above the packer with means to retain the said latter structure from movement, an upper tubular part connected to the drill pipe and having a tubular mandrel vertically slidable in the lower relatively stationary structure, a sliding sample shut-oil? valve assembly operative between the lower structure and the sliding mandrel and forming an open connection for the fluid from the well when the mandrel is in its lowermost position, a hydraulic locked valve assembly including a lower and an upper valve cylinder with a piston assembly having an upper and lower piston in each valve cylinder, a chamber forming structure connected to the upper cylinder and having a frangible sealing means at the top with ableeding duct therein to communicate with the tubular structure from the bottom of the well, there being a fluid passage through the mandrel, the lower valve cylinder and upwardly outside of the upper valve cylinder and the locked fluid chamber, said chamber being adapted to contain'a locked fluid between the upper piston and the frangible sealing means, said sealing means being adapted to be broken by a go-devil dropped from the top of the well to open the bleeding duct, the pressure of the well fluid being adapted to develop an upward movement of the piston assembly and thus move the lower piston upwardly in its cylinder to form a flow passage therethrough, after the trapping of the well fluid the tubular structure from the top of the well' being adapted for upward movement and moving the mandrel upwardly to close the said sliding valve and thereby retain the sample.
'7. In a well tool as claimed in claim 6, a bypass valve located in the relatively stationary tubular structure abovethe packer communicating between the inside of said structure and the outside to the well, means connected to the mandrel to retain said valve closed during the upflow of a sample fluid from the well and adapted when the mandrel is raised to shut off the sample to permit opening of the by-pass valve to equalize the pressure above and below the packing.
8. In a well tool as claimed in claim 6, a recirculating valve assembly mounted at the lower I end, of the passage through the mandrel with means forming a passage to the relatively stationary tubular structure whereby after obtaining a sample such sample and slushing fluid may be forced-downwardly through the drill pipe, the
mandrel and the relatively stationary tubular structure to the bottom of the well.
9. In a well tool' having means for attachmen to a string of drill pipe-or the like for lowering into a well and in which a packer shuts off the portion of the well from which a sample is to be obtained, the combination of a bottom intake structure for the sample fluid, a sample fluid flow valve, a hydraulic lock valve having a chamber structure with a frangible sealing means and a bleeding duct together with a cylinder having a valve piston therein, the said chamber being adapted to be filled with a locking fluid and said fluidpreventing movement of the piston valve inwardly, a second fluid flow valve operativly connected to the piston valve and subject to the pressure of the well fluid when the sample retaining valve is open, means to open the sample retaining valve for upward flow of the well fluid,
the frangible sealing means being adaptedto be broken by a go-devil dropped downwardly in the well, the said bleeding duct then allowing escape amazes ,well 'fluid being adapted to open the second flow valve and to force the piston valve to displace the locked fluid, there being a passage from the second flow valve upwardly in the well.
10. In a well tool, a hollow body structure having means for attachment to a drill pipe for lowering in a well and for flowing a sample of well fluid into the pipe combined with an inflow means'for well fluid from the bottom of the well, a sample fluid retaining valve, means to open said valve for upward flow of the well fluid, a hydraulically locked sample ,flow valve having a first valve means positioned to be under pressure of the well samplefluid when the sample retaining valve is open, a locked fluid structure forming a chamber with a frangible sealing means havinga bleeding duct and a third movable valve means, the locked fluid being trapped between the sealing means and the third valve and retaining the said second valve closed, the frangible means being adapted to be broken by a go-devil dropped downwardly and striking such frangible means to thereby expose the bleeding .duct whereby the pressure of the well fluid is adapted to move the second flow valve and the third valve to displace the locked fluid and open the second valve for a free upward flow of the sample fluid, the sample retaining valve having means for closing same after securing a sample.
11. In a well tool, an upper hollow body structure having means for attachment to a drill pipe or the like for lowering in a well, a'sample of well fluid being adapted to flow upwardly into the drill pipe, a lower hollow body structure, a tubular means connecting the upper and lower structures, the lower structurehaving means for inflow of well fluid, the upper body structure having a hydraulically locked valve including a cylinder positioned in the upper body but spaced from the walls thereof, with fluid passages to said space, a frangible sealing means at the upper end of the cylinder with a bleeding duct, a first piston in the lower end of the cylinder, the space in the cylinder between the piston and the sealing means forming a chamber for hydraulic locking fluid, the upper body having'a second cylinder with a second piston fltted therein, the two pistons being connected whereby when the fluid is sealed in. said chamber the second piston is fitted in its cylinder, a fluid sample retaining valve in the lower body structure with means to open said valve for the upward flow of the well fluid, said well fluid exerting an upward pressure on the second piston, the frangible sealing means being adapted to be broken and expose the bleeding duct for a bleeding discharge of the locked fluid, the pressure on the second piston forcing the first piston upwardly in its cylinder, the second piston having means to establish an upward flow of well fluid to the space surrounding the cylinder of the hydraulic locked valve and thence to the drill pipe.
12. In a device as described, a hydraulically locked valve assembly comprising in combination a tubular body structure having a chamber structure positioned therein with a first valve cylinder at the lower end thereof and a frangible sealing means with a bleeding duct at the upper end, there being a space between the body structure and the chamber structure for the upward flow of fluid, a second valve cylinder connected to the body structure and positioned therebelow and means for the flow of fluid to the lower end of the second cylinder, a first piston valve in the flrst cylinder, a second piston valve in the second cylinder, means connecting said piston valves, the second piston valve having a configuration at its lower end whereby when moved upwardly in the second cylinder it permits first a gradual and then an increased flow of fiuid upwardly, the said chamber structure and the first cylinder being adapted to contain a locking hydraulic liquid retained between the first piston valve and the seal ing means, the sealing means being adapted to be broken and thereby open the bleeding duct whereby the pressure of the fluid on the lower end of the second piston valve forces both piston valves upwardly displacing the locking liquid through the bleeding duct and thereby when the second piston valve is forced upwardly above the second cylinder, providing first for a gradual.
then an increased and then a full flow of the fluid.
13. In a device as described, a hydraulically locked valve including in combination a. chamber forming structure having frangible sealing means at one end, said sealing means comprising a barlike structure with a weakened portion and a bleeding duct extending upwardly beyond the weakened structure, a movable valve means at the other end of the chamber structure, an abut-v ment means with an inter-engaging thrust device between the valve means and the abutment means and the abutment means whereby when the chamber is filled with a locking liquid, such liquid is trapped between the valve means and the sealing means and the thrust device engaging the said abutment means, the thrust device being adapted to be subject to pressure and communicate pressure to the said valve whereby when the frangible sealing means isbroken the locked liquid may discharge through the bleeding duct permitting an inward movement of the said valve means thereby disengaging the thrust device from the abutment means.
14. In a well tool, a wellfluid sample retaining valve comprising in combination a lower tubular body structure having means for attachment to a string of drill pipe for lowering in a well and at its lower end being provided with an inlet means for well fluid, a tubular mandrel slidably and rotatably mounted in the said body structure and having a port, a first inter-engaging means between the mandrel and the body structure for lowering the body structure into a well with the body structure occupying a lowered position in regard to the mandrel, a valve forming means interconnecting between the, mandrel and the inside of the body structure and having a second port positioned out of alignment with the port of the mandrel when the mandrel and body structure are being lowered in the well, the said mandrel being adapted to be lowered relative to the body structure when at the desired depth in the well to bring the said ports into alignment for upward flow of well fluid into and through the tubular mandrel, the said mandrel being adapted for partial rotation and to be moved upwardly relative to the said body and a second inter-engaging means between the mandrel and the body structure whereby n hoisting the mandrel upwardly in the well, the body structure occupies a second lowered position in reference to the mandrel with the ports out of registry, thereby retaining the sample in and above the tubular mandrel.
15. In a well tool, a re-circulating valve assembly including in combination a lower tubular body structure having means for inflow of well fluid at the bottom, a slidable tubular mandrel mounted therein, means for connecting the mandrel to a string of drill pipe for lowering into the well, a well fluid sample retaining valve having an inter-acting valve means between the mandrel and the lower body for upward flow of well fluid and to retain the well fluid in the mandrel and thereabove, means for relatively moving the mandrel and the hollow body to operate said valve to its open and closed position, a re-circulating tube connected to the lower part of the mandrel and communicating with the well fluid'inlet part of the body, a plug means fitted therein and having a ball with means to retain the ball and the plug from upward movement due to the pressure of the well fluid, the ball and the said plug being adapted to be forced downwardly on re-circulating slushing fluid downwardly through the tubular mandrel when the sample retaining valve is in its closed position and thereby adapted to again discharge in the wellany sample retained and slushing fluid.
16. In a well too], an equalizing valve assembly including in combination a lower tubular body structure having means at the bottom for inlet of well fluid, a tubular mandrel slidable in the said body, a tubular by-pass mandrel connected to the lower end of the tubular mandrel, the hollow body having a bore in which the by-pass mandrel may slide longitudinally, a by-pass port extending from the outside of the said body to the said bore and having a ball fitted therein engaging the by-pass mandrel and a plug outside of the ball with a tubular nipple outside of the plug, means to retain the lower body structure at substantially a fixed position in the well adjacent the place for obtaining a. sample, an operative means for obtaining the sample and retaining a sample of the well fluid, a packing means on the body structure between the by-pass port and the intake for well fluid at the lower part of the body, the said by=pass mandrel when in its lowered position retaining the ball and plug forming a seal for the by-pass port and when in its uppermost position removing the by-pass mandrel fromengagement with the ball whereby liquid developing a free flow of the well fluid.
18. In the art described in which tubing is lowered in a well to a well fluid comprising providing substantially atmospheric pressure in the tubing which is very much less than the pressure of the well fluid, confining an incompressible liquid adjacent the lower end of the tubing, exerting a static pressure on the confined liquid by the well fluid, the well fluid being prevented by the confined liquid from entering the tubing, releasing the confined liquid for a slow displacement and positively displacing a predetermined amount ofliquid due to the differential pressure of the well fluid and the substantially atmospheric pres--' sure in the tubing, the liquid being discharged into the tubing, flowing well fluid upwardly in the tubing by the action of pressure of the well formation on the well fluid.
19. In the art described in which a confined body of incompressible liquid is lowered into a wellby a string of empty or substantially empty tubing, subjecting such liquid to a static pressure of a well fluid, utilizing such liquid to restrain the upward flow of the well fluid, releasing the.
10 sure of the well fluid acting on the liquid, arterdischarge 01' a predetermined quantity of liquid developing a substantially free and unobstructed flow of the well fluid into the tubing.
20. In the art described and claimed in claim 19, trapping the well fluid in the tubing to isolate the trapped fluid from the pressure in the well and elevating the trapped well fluid and the liquid to the top of the well to obtain a sample of the well fluid.
ARTHUR E. JOHNSON. 10