US 2130110 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 13, 1938. J. H. VICTOR Er AL 2,130,110
LAMINATED METAL AND ASBESTOS GASKET Filed Aug. 19, 1936 JOHN H. l//C TOR JOSE/DH B. V/C TOR A TTOR/VEY enema sept. 13, 193s UNITED STATES LAMINATED METAL AND ASBESTOS GASKET John H. Victor, Wllmctte, and Joseph B. Victor,
Oak Park, Ill., assignors to Victor Manufacturing & Gasket Company, Chicago, lll., a corporation of Illinois Application August 19, 1936, Serial No. A96,'1'13 2 Claims.
This invention relates to an improved laminated metal and asbestos gasket, and the present application describes an improvement over the prior patents` of one of these joint inventors,
namely, John H. Victor, the patents being numbered 1,823,341 and 1,823,342, both dated September 15, 1931.
The invention also contemplates an improvement over a prior patent on Gaskets No. l0 1,472,133, granted to Frank J.' Oven on October One of the important objects of this invention is the provision of a gasket which will be particularly applicable for use between the head and the block of an internal combustion engine, particularly the high compression engines now in vogue, and which will successfully resist the stresses and strains of continuous operation under all conditions of heavy loads, high speed and extreme heat.
A further object is to provide a laminated I the head and block so that the joint therebetween will be eil'ectively sealed.
A still further object oi' the invention is to provide a combination of laminations of metal and softer packing materials such as asbestos, ar-
ranged in a manner so that a practically continuous or solid metallic barrier is provided at those points of the gasket which are subject to the most deterioration by heat, namely, the edges of the same which surround the combustion chamber openings.
Another important object is to provide a laminated gasket wherein the flanges which connect the laminations and which surround the combustion chamber and other openings shall be countersunk so as to provide a ilush surface over the entirety of the gasket, while, at the same time, providing the necessary and required cushioning features.
Another and still further important object of the invention is to provide additional and special reinforcements around the combustion chamber openings and also between the same, particularly at points where two cylinders of the motor are so closely associated that the ordinary gasket would be destroyed or rendered inoperative in a comparatively short space of time.
Other and further important objects of the invention will be apparent from the disclosures in the accompanying drawing and following specilication.
'Ihe invention, in a preferred form, is illustrated in the drawing and hereinafter more fully described? In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a top plan view of a representative 5 cylinder head gasket embodying the invention.
Figure 2 is a partial sectional view illustrating one embodiment of the invention.
Figure 3 is a sectional view similar to Figure 2, illustrating a slightly diierent embodiment of the 'i1-0 invention.
Figure 4 is a further sectional view, showing a further modiilcation.
Figure 5 illustrates still another modified form..
As shown in the drawing: 15
Therei'erence numeral I0 indicates generally the top plate of the improved gasket of this in, vention, the same being of a rather tough and flexible 'metal such as steel, copper or the like, and for most purposes, this metal should be approxi- *20 mately .010 inch thick.
The gasket has the usual bolt holes I2, water holes il and combustion chamber openings I6 therein.
The bottom plate of the gasket, preferably also 25 of the same type oi' metal, is, in one embodiment of the invention, turned up into integral flanges i8 around the combustion chamber openings, as best shown in Figure 1. Other anges 20 which may or may not be integral with the bottom plate 30 are turned up around the water openings.
Asdescribed in the earlier patents afore-mentioned. an al1-metal gasket, even though composed of laminations, is unsatisfactory from many viewpoints in that it does not have the required com- 35 pressibility necessary to produce a good seal between the cylinder head and block of the modern internal combustion engine regardless of whether this be the usual high compression engine or even an engine of the Diesel type.
Therefore, we have incorporated one or more layers of asbestos or other similar fibrous packing material into the laminated metal gasket.V For example, in Figure 2, there is shown a number of laminations of metal 22 which may be four to six 15 or more, and between these laminations, preferably in the middle thereof, is a layer of asbestos 24 which, in most cases, should be made slightly thicker than the metal layers, preferably from .015 to .020 inch. lit will be noted that the bot- 50 tom layer of metal v26, which has an integral turned-up portion 28 to form a flange around the combustion chamber and other openings, may also be slightly thicker than the other metal laminations. u
An inwardly turned edge 30 of the /nange l20 connects the laminations, together into an Yintegral unit, and, furthermore, so compresses the layer of asbestos 14, which can be beveledj at its edges, that very little of the same is exposed behind the flange 2l, thereby providing a practically all-metal barrier, which will effectively resist and carry away the excess heat prevailing at these parts of the gasket, namely, those portions around and about the combustion chamber openings, while, at the same time, providing a practically flush surface over both the upper and lower faces of the gasket.
A slight modification of this` idea is presented in Figure 3 wherein the metal laminations have a single layer of asbestos 34 spaced therebetween, the asbestos, however, being cut away at a point 38 so that there will be no necessity for unduly compressing the same when the flange 38 `of the lower face 40 of the gasket is bent down as at l2 to provide an integral construction as shown. This also acts to\bend down the upper laminations 32 and topresent a complete and souci metal barrier around and about the combustion chamber openings iwhile, at the same time, the necessary resiliency of the gasket over substantially all of its surface is retained.
If slightly more resiliency is desired, the gasket, may include one or more extra sheets of-asbestos fi of the like as shown at 44 in Figure 4, these being alternated with metallic laminations I.. A slightly diiferent manner of hanging and connecting the laminations together is' illustrated in this ilgurefthe flange 48 being separate from the laminations but clinching the same together by having its two edges bent rearwardly as shown. In this case, the asbestos layers M are preferably cut away or set back a slight distance from the cylinder openings so as to allow of a complete compressing of the metal laminations together within the flange without any intermediate layers, thereby again presenting a solid metal front or barrier at the parts subject to the most heat, while, at the same time, allowing of the necessary ductility and resiliency throughout the major portion of the gasket.
A' still further embodiment is illustrated in Figure wherein three or more layers of asbestos Il are provided having laminations of metal 52 therebetween, the asbestos layers being smaller in extent than the metal layers and with the edges of the metal layers bent rearwardly upon each other as illustrated at I4 so as to perform two functions. 'I'he first function is to compensate for the thickness of the removed asbestos, and the second function is to provide a solid metallic barrier in and about the combustion chamber openings. A unitary construction is assured by forming integral or other flanges 58 from the lower layer I8 as will be obvious. Here again is provided a gasket which includes the desired compressible qualities while, at the same time, providing a unitary smooth surface throughout its upper and lower faces together with an all-metal barrier about the combustion chamber openings. Another advantage of these' all-metal barriers is the quicker carrying away of heat from those parts of the gasket most subject to high temperatures and which would, otherwise, deteriorate more quickly.
It will be, therefore, obvious that herein is provided a combination metal and asbestos gasket which, on account of its laminated structure, is particularly well adapted for modern high compression internal combustion engine service, and which will, on account of its qualities of ductility and compressibility, enable an automatic adjustment to compensate for many irregularities in the surfaces of motor block and head. Furthermore, the expense of such a gasket is appreciably less than that composed entirely of metallic laminations. The use of somewhatl thicker layers of asbestos will enable an equalization under compression when the gasket' is installed, and the structure is such that this condition will prevail as long as the gasket is in use. The combination of solid layers of metal around the combustion chamber openings eectivelyv prevents burning out, and the backing of the same by intermediate or alternate layers of asbestos or other non-metallic packing material produces in jmany respects a better heat transferring principle.
The use of a heat resisting non-metallic nonconducting material with adjacent laminations of metal in a gasket, and', at the same time, the incorporation a'nd retaining of all-metal barriers and heat conductors around the combustion chamber openings, is believed to be new in the art. Another feature is countersinking of the flanges, tending to better hold the gasket in position, as, when. the head is tightened on the block, the thickness of the packing" material over the major portion of the gasket is still further reduced, thereby further avoiding the tendency to overheat. It is believed that there is also less surface friction between asbestos and metal than between layers of metal, thereby making the gasket more adaptable for automatic adjustment to irregularity, and this is particularly true when a gasket of this type is used in either cylinder head or manifold work.
We are aware that many changes may be made and numerous details of construction varied throughout a wide range without departing `from the principles of this invention, and we. therefore, do not purpose limiting the patent granted hereon otherwise than as necessitated by the prior art.
We claim as our invention:
1. A laminated gasket, including a plurality of metallic layers and at least one layer of resilient packing material, and means for joining the laminations together, said means comprising flanges around the openings of the gasket, the
edges of the flanges being countersunk flush with the gasket surfaces, that portion of the resilient packing material beneath said flange edges being cut back to allow the aforesaid countersinking, the edges of the metallic laminations being bent rearwardly upon each other to fill the spaces provided by the eliminated resilient material.
2. A laminated gasket, having openings therethrough, said gasket comprising a bottom metallic layer, flanges for the openings formed integral with said layer, a plurality of alternating laminations of metal and resilient packing material within and held by the flanges, the resilient packing material being cut back from the openings past the line of the outer edge of the flange, and integral bent-over portions of the metallic laminations replacing said cut-back portions of the resilient laminations whereby a solid metallic barrier is formed around said openings.
Y JOHN H. VICTOR.
JOSEPH B. VICTOR.