|Publication number||US2130178 A|
|Publication date||Sep 13, 1938|
|Filing date||Jan 21, 1937|
|Priority date||Jan 21, 1937|
|Publication number||US 2130178 A, US 2130178A, US-A-2130178, US2130178 A, US2130178A|
|Original Assignee||Armin Elmendorf|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 13, 1938. A. ELMENDORF 2,130,178
COMPOSITE ROOF PANEL OR SHINGLE Filed Jan. 21, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet l Sept. 13, 1938. A. ELMENDORF 2,130,178
COMPOSITE ROOF PANEL OR SHINGLE Patented Sept. 13, 1938 UNQ'FED STATES PATENT OFFICE 12 Claims.
The present invention has for its object to produce a roofing material in which wood and felt or the like are so combined that the completed roof has the appearance of one covered 5 with wood shingles while the felt is concealed and provides the major portion of the overlap needed in a shingle roof.
A further object of the invention is to produce a novel roofing material which, although having 10 the appearance of a roof composed of wood shingles, when laid, may be laid much more rapidly and easily than wood shingles.
In carrying out my invention I form what may be regarded as very wide shingles constructed in 15 two sections, the lower of which consists of wood while the upper section comprises felt or other suitable flexible material, preferably saturated with asphalt or other water proofing material. The two sections of each shingle are preferably 20 of the same length, and they overlap each other somewhat, usually about two inches. When such material is laid in the manner of ordinary shingles, in horizontal rows, with the lower wood section of the shingles in each row overlying 25 and concealing the felt sections in the next lower row, there is produced a covering or facing of double thickness, one thickness consisting of wood and the other of felt or the like.
Therefore, viewed in one of its aspects, the
as present invention may be said to have for its object to produce a simple and novel roof containing a shingle-like facing or covering the exposed surface of which is composed of wood and which also contains felt or the like through- 35 out the entire length and breadth thereof.
The various features of novelty whereby my invention is characterized will hereinafter be pointed out with particularity in the claims; but, for a full understanding of my invention and of its objects and advantages, reference may be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figs. 1 and 2 are respectively frontv or outer 45 and back or inner elevations of one of my improved shingle units; Fig. 3 is an edge view of one of the units, on a larger scale than Figs. 1 and 2, looking at the righthand edge of Fig. 1 or the lefthand edge of Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a sec- 5 tion, on the same scale as Fig. 3, on line 4-4 of Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a section on line 55 of Fig. 3; Fig. 6 is a plan view of a fragment of a roof having thereon my improved roofing material, the scale being the same as that of Figs. 1 and 55 2; Fig. 7 is a section on line 'l--'l of Fig. 6, the
scale being the same as that of Figs. 3 to 5; Fig. 8 is a vertical section through a fragment of a roof, illustrating fragments of shingle units already laid and a fragment of another unit about to be laid; Fig. 9 is a plan view of a frag- 5 ment of a roof partially covered with a slightly modified form of roofing material; Fig. 10 is a view of a side edge of the wooden section of one of the shingle units in Fig. 9; Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 10, showing either the top or the 10 bottom edge of a wooden section; and Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 8, illustrating further the manner of laying the roofing material shown in Figs. 9 to 11.
In Figs. 1 to 8 I have illustrated shingle units 15 in which each unit is preformed and comprises a lower section i of wood and an upper section 2 of felt, the lower end of the felt extending a short distance over the upper marginal portion of the wood section and being fastened thereto in any suitable way, conveniently by so called metal stitching 3. The dimensions of each such unit are largely a matter of choice. However, the wood preferably consists of comparatively thin board material, say from three-eighths of an inch to one-half inch thick and having its grain run up and down as in an ordinary wood shingle. For most purposes each wood section may have about seven inches of its length exposed to the weather and, therefore, since there should be about a two-inch overlap between the felt and the wood, the wood sections may be made about nine inches long. The felt sections preferably have the same length as the wood sections so that each composite shingle unit, in the example given, is about sixteen inches long. The width of each unit is preferably several feet and, without placing any definite limits in this respect, ,it may be said that ordinarily a width of from three to six feet will be found satisfactory.
The wood section of each unit may be composed of narrow strips placed edge to edge, or of boards of any desired width placed edge to edge and slit or otherwise treated to produce the effect of narrow strips or strands. The assembly of wood pieces is held together near one long edge by the felt that is stitched thereto. A convenient way of tying together the strips in the vicinity of the other long edge of the sheet or panel is to place a strip of felt 4, or other suitable material, on the under side of the wood sheet parallel with and spaced half an inch or so back from the lower long edge of the unit; 55
this strip being fastened to the wood by a line of metal stitching 5.
In laying this material on the sheathing A or other roof base, the shingle units or panels are placed in horizontal rows, edge to edge, the joints in adjacent rows being staggered. In Fig. 6 two rows have been laid. It will be seen that the wood sections of the second row completely cover the felt sections of the first or lower row, so that nothing but wood remains visible. The shingles or panels are secured to the supporting base by a row of nails 8 driven through the overlaps between the felt and wood sections and into the roof base, as shown in Fig. 6. Thus, the lower ends of the shingles are left free as in the case of ordinary wood shingles. Since the wood pieces and the felt sheets or strips are of equal height or length, the upper marginal portions of the felt sections of the first row of shingles underlie the overlaps between the sections of the shingles in the second row. Consequently, when a nail is driven in the manner just explained, it extends not only through a double thickness of one shingle, but also through the upper marginal portion of the underlying felt section of a shingle in the next lower row, as best shown in Fig. 8.
The wood portions of meeting shingles in the same row may simply abut against each other because any water passing down through this joint meets a solid or imperforate portion of the underlying felt and may run down the latter until it escapes to the outside on top of the wood section to which that piece of felt is attached. However, there should be a definite overlap between meeting felt sections so that the felt in a row of shingles extending entirely across the roof shall be to all intents and purposes a continuous strip. For this reason each felt section I is made somewhat wider than the corresponding wood section, the excess of felt being permitted to project in the manner of a flap or wing 1 beyond one side edge of the wood sheet or panel.
With this arrangement, whenever two shinglev units are placed with their wood sections edge to edge, the wing or fiap on one unit overlaps the felt portion of the other unit. This is illustrated in Fig. 6 in which the wing or fiap I of the righthand shingle unit in the second or upper row overlies the righthand marginal portion of the felt forming part of the lefthand shingle in this row. If desired, suitable adhesive material, which is also waterproof, as for example, asphalt, may be interposed between each flap or wing 1 and the corresponding area of felt overlapped thereby.
The felt panels of course sag somewhat since their upper ends rest directly on the sheathing or other roof base, while their lower ends rest on top of the shingles in the next lower row. In some cases it may therefore be deemed advisable to provide supports underneath the joints between meeting felts so as to prevent such saggi-ng and insure against any opening of joints that would permit water to reach the under side of the felt. Such supports may conveniently be wedges of wood of the same length as the vertical dimension of the felt, less the amount 'of overlap between the felt and the wood; the thick portions of the wedges being of the same thickness as the wood portions I. These wedges may obviously be loose pieces, or they may be separate pieces fastened to the felt, or each wood panel may havea long board or series of narrow strips at one end. In the latter instance, the
upper end of the long piece of wood is fashioned into a wedge, as indicated at 8. The wedge, of course, underlies the marginal portionof the felt at the opposite edge of the shingle from that to which the flap or wing I is located. Consequently, when shingles are assembled, edge to edge, the flap or wing l on one shingle rests upon a marginal portion of felt on the other shingle which is firmly supported upon an underlying wedge.
In Figsn a to 12 I have illustrated a slightly diflerent form of my invention. In this modified construction the wood sections i are substantially the same as those in the other form, but the felt members iii are not fastened to the wood sections until the roof is being laid. This permits the'felt to be in long strips which may be in roll formation. In the laying of a roof, the felt may be unrolled and extend across the entire horizontal width of the roof in one continuous piece. in shorter pieces which may be placed so that their ends overlap each other for a considerable length. Each of the wood shingle sections is provided on the under side, near what is to be the lower edge of the shingle, with the tie strip 4, stapled or otherwise fastened thereto at 5, as in the other form. Since the felt is not originally stitched or otherwise fastened to the wood, some other holding means must be provided along the upper edge of the wood section of each shingle. In the arrangement shown, I have provided a second tie strip il running along the upper edge and on the under side of the wood section; this strip being similar to the strip 4 and being fastened by means of stitches or staples I2 corresponding to the stitches or staples 5. In laying this roofing material, a row of wood sections may be applied to the roof base, the sections being engaged with each other end to end. A sheet or strip of felt I0 is then unrolled with its lower marginal portion overlapping the Or, if desired, the felt may be upper marginal portion of the previously laidwood sections. Nails 6 are then driven throughthe .marginal portion of the felt along the lower edge and through the underlying wood shingles into'the roof base. A second row of wood shingle sections is then superimposed upon the strip of felt, and the process of applying another felt strip and nailing it down is then carried out in the manner previously explained; the righthand end of Fig. 12 illustrating more or less diagrammatically a condition in which a nail is about to be driven, while the next row of wood shingle sections is ready to be laid as soon as the driving of the line of nails has been completed.
Because the wood portions of shingles in adjacent rows overlap only a short distance, it is imperative that there be no cracks in the wood through which wind and rain could drive and reach the roof base underneath the felt. At the same time, the wood must have room to expand and contract'as it alternately becomes wet and dries out. Shingles ordinarily expand about three percent across their widths from a dry state to a wet state and, therefore, that much free space, in the form of cracks, must be left in a dry wood roof covering to avoid buckling of the wood when it becomes wet. Thus, the gaps between adjacent wood shingles of the ordinary type and having a width of six inches must be about eighteen hundredths or approximately one-fifth of an inch. Such gaps or cracks would be entirely too wide in a roof covering embodying the present invention, and wind and rain would find little ing or shingle material.
spaces instead of a single, wide one, and no wind or rain can be driven through them. For example, if the strips or strands be one-half inch wide, there are twelve joints for each six inches of wood and each of these needs have a width of only one-sixtieth of an inch instead of about onefifth inch, which is the gap required between two six inch ordinary shingles. The roughness of the wood surfaces is sufficient to provide the necessary room for expansion in the case of strips one-half inch wide or even a little wider, even though such strips be placed in loose edge contact with each other. When the wood becomes wet in use, the strips expand and simply produce firm, instead of loose, contacts between themselves. What is true with respect to individual shingles is also true of an entire row, and the wood sections of meeting shingles in a given row may be placed in loose contact with each other at the time of laying a roof with the material in a normal, dry state.
The wood sections of each shingle unit in both forms illustrated may be regarded as a flexible mat the overall width of which remains substantially unchanged under the variations in moisture content to which it is subjected while in actual use; the strip or strand construction solving the problem of allowing for expansion and contraction of the wood without at any time leaving open joints or causing buckling.
The wood may of course be treated to any suitable preservative as, for example, by soaking it in ,reosote. As heretofore stated, the wood sections of the shingles may be either individual narrow strips placed edge to edge or boards that have been slitted or otherwise treated to convert them into connected strips or strands. Where board material is employed, the strip or strand formation may conveniently be effected by slitting, in the manner disclosed in my Patent No. 2,018,712, or by rupturing, as in my Patent No. 1,819,775. The width of the strips or strands may vary, but for most purposes a width of about one-half inch will be found to be satisfactory.
It will thus be seen that I have produced a1 novel roofing material which may be applied in large pieces so that labor costs of building a roof is low. Furthermore, the materials are fairly inexpensive since the wood portions need not be more than three-eighths of an inch to one-half of an inch thick, while the felt need only a thickness of from one-sixteenth to three thirtyseconds of an inch. It will also be seen that while a completed roof is at least as attractive and neat in appearance as is a roof covered with ordinary wood shingles, there is no warping or curling of the wood as occurs in the case of such shingles and, at the same time, the roof is tighter and more leak-proof than is an ordinary shingle roof.
While I have illustrated and described with particularity only a single preferred form of my invention, with a single modification, I do not desire to be limited to the exact structural details thus illustrated and described; but intend to cover all forms and arrangements which come within the definitions of my invention, constituting the appended claims.
1. A roofing material of the shingle type comprising a lower section of wood and an upper section of felt overlapping each other at their meeting ends, the grain of the wood extending transversely of the lower edge of the shingle, and the wood being divided into narrow strips or strands lengthwise of the grain.
2. A roofing material of the shingle type comprising a lower section of wood and an upper section of felt overlapping each other at their meeting ends, the felt projecting beyond the wood at one side edge of the shingle to overlap the felt element of a meeting shingle in a roof, and a wedge strip underlying the marginal portion of the felt along the opposite side edge and extending from the wood section to the upper edge of the felt.
3. A roofing material of the shingle type comprising a lower section of wood and an upper section of felt overlapping each other at their meeting ends, the grain of the wood extending transversely of the lower edge of the shingle, the wood being divided into narrow strips or strands lengthwise of the grain, the felt projecting beyond the wood at one side edge of the shingle to overlap the felt element of a meeting shingle in a roof, and the wood being continued upward underneath the felt in the form of a wedge along the margin adjacent the opposite side edge of the shingle to provide a support for the corresponding overlapping felt elements in a roof.
4. A roof comprising a base for supporting a roof covering, panels of the shingle type each comprising a lower section of wood and an upper section of felt overlapping each other for a short distance only at their meeting ends, said panels being placed in horizontal overlapping rows'on said base, the felt projecting beyond the wood at one side edge of each panel and overlapping the felt element of the next panel in the same row, the Wood sections of the panels in a given row 'overlapping and covering the felt sections in the panels of the next lower row, and each panel being secured to the base by nails driven into the base through the overlap between the two sections of the panel. I 5. A roof comprising a base for supporting a roof covering, panels of the shingle type each comprising a lower section of wood and an upper section of felt overlapping each other for a short distance only at their meeting ends, said panels being placed in horizontal overlapping rows on said base, the felt projecting beyond the wood at one side edge of each panel and overlapping the felt element of the next panel in the same row, the wood sections of the panels in a given row overlying the felt sections in the panels of the next lower row and having their lower edges located as far down on the roof as are the lower edges of the latter felt sections, and each panel being secured to the base by nails driven into the base through the overlap between the two sections of the panel and through the underlying felt of the panels of the next lower row.
6. A roof comprising a base for supporting a roof covering, panels of the shingle type each comprising a lower section of wood and an upper section of felt overlapping each other at their meeting ends, said panels being placed in horizontal overlapping rows on said base, the felt projecting beyond-the wood at one side edge of each panel and overlapping the felt element of the next panel in the same row, wedge strips interposed between the base and the overlaps in the felt to' support the latter, the wood sections of the panels in a given row overlapping and covering the felt sections in the panels of the next lower row, and each panel being secured to the base by nails driven into the base through the overlap between the two sections of the panel.
'7. A roof containing a base, a roof covering comprising wide wood mats and long strips of felt, the mats being arranged in horizontal rows on said base, strips of felt underlying and being coextensive with each row of mats. the mats of each row and the underlying felt overlapping the upper faces of the mats of the next lower row; the covering being secured to the base by nails driven into the base through the lower marginal portions of each strip, through the mats overlapped by that strip, and through the felt underneath the latter mats; the mats in each row being in edge contact with each other and each mat being composed of narrow strips of wood extending from the upper end to the lower end and in edge contact with each other.
8. A roof containing a base, a roof covering comprising wide flexible mats of wood and long strips of felt arranged in horizontal rows on said base, each row of mats overlying and being coextensive with a corresponding strip of felt to produce a two-layer construction, each row of mats and the underlying strips of felt overlying and overlapping the upper marginal portions of the next lower row of mats, and nails driven into the base through the lower marginal portion of each felt strip, whereby each felt is secured along both the upper and lower margins and the mats are free along their lower ends; the mats in each-row making edge contact with each other, the grain of the wood in each mat running lengthwise of the mat, and each mat being divided along the grain thereof into narrow strips so close together that wind or rain cannot be driven lengthwise through the joints in the wood for any substantial distance while the wood is dry.
9. A mat adapted to form the weather facing of a roof covering which consists of a wide, short panel of thin wood in which the grain runs lengthwise, the wood. being divided along the grain into narrow strips lying close together when the wood is dry, and tie members extending along and secured to the margins at the upper and lower ends of the mat.
10. A mat adapted to form the weather facing of a roof covering which consists of a wide, short panel of thin wood in which the grain runs lengthwise, the wood being divided along the grain into narrow strips lying close together when 'the wood is dry, and tie members in the form of narrow strips of felt underlying and stitched or otherwise secured to the upper and lower ends of the mat.
11. A mat adapted to form the weather facing 'of a roof covering .which consists of a wide, short panel of thin wood in which the grain runs lengthwise, the wood being divided along the grain into narrow strips touching each other when the wood is dry, and means tying the strips together, the width of the strips being such that when the wood becomes wet the joints between them permit the wood to expand about three percent without buckling.
12. In combination, a mat adapted to form a weather facing of a roof covering which consists of a wide, short panel of thin wood in which the grain runs lengthwise, the wood being divided along the grain into narrow strips lying close together when the wood is dry, and tie members extending along and secured to the margins at the upper and lower ends of said panel, the tie at the upper end of the panel being in the form of a sheet of felt the greater portion of which projects upwardly beyond the panel.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2532017 *||Jul 10, 1947||Nov 28, 1950||Armin Elmendorf||Panel for sidings and roofs|
|US4402169 *||Aug 5, 1980||Sep 6, 1983||Otis M. Martin||Surfacing for roof and siding structures of buildings|
|US4754589 *||Jan 13, 1987||Jul 5, 1988||Dansk Eternit-Fabrik A/S||Roofing plate, a proofing strip for a roofing plate, and a method of producing a roofing plate|
|U.S. Classification||52/540, 52/553, 52/394|
|International Classification||E04D3/35, E04D3/365, E04D3/36|
|Cooperative Classification||E04D3/365, E04D3/35|
|European Classification||E04D3/365, E04D3/35|