US 2130911 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
C. G. TEUNON BUILDING UNIT Sept. 20, 1938.
Filed Feb. 26, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Charles G Teunon INVENTOR ATTORN EY Sept. 20, 1938. c. G. TEUNON BUILDING UNIT Filed Feb 26, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 h arles GZTcunon INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented .1a 20,1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BUILDING UNIT Charles G. Teunon, Trenton, N. 3.
. My invention relates to building units and particularly to building units formed to simulate stone, rubble, flagging or other material for use interioriy or exteriorly of a building as siding, 5 flooring, roofing or the like...
It has been proposed heretofore to form building units to simulate brick of regular outline with horizontally and vertically extending mortar spaces or mortar simulating lines but such constructions are not capable of use in simulating material of irregular outline such as the uneven edges of stone, rubble or broken slate. It has also been proposed to form shingles and siding with irregular edges but these edges are free and tend to curl up or to be displaced by the wind. Flooring such as linoleum is sometimes formed to simulate broken flagstones or the like but such materials are expensive and are not adapted for use on open porches or in courtyards and similar locations where it is exposed to the weather.
In accordance with my invention difi'zlculties and disadvantages of constructions of the prior art are overcome and'attractive and inexpensive products are provided which may simulatebrolren stone, rubble, flagstone, slate or any other material of irregular form or construction as well as material of regular outline. In attaining this result I prefer to employ material arranged in two layers one of which layers constitutes a base member which may be laid directly on the surface to be covered or otherwise secured thereto. The other layer constitutes a surface layer carried by the base member which preferably overlaps at least a portion of the edge of the base member. The desired appearance, whether regular or irregular, may be produced in the surface layer and either or both layers may interlock with the corresponding layer of other units located adjacent thereto to aid in securing the units in position.
My invention further embodies novel methods for producing articles embodying my invention and apparatus for carrying out such methods.
Among the. principal objects of my invention are to provide attractive and inexpensive building units simulating material of regular or irregular outline. to provide units of this character having interlocking or overlapping "portions and.
Application February '26, 1935, Serial No. 8,249
intend. to limit the scope of my invention to those specific construction hereafter shown and described.
in the drawings:
Fig. l is a perspective of a single building unit embodying my invention.
Fig. 2 is a plan View of a number of the units illustrated in Fig. l as applied to a wall or floor.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the structure shown in Fig. 2 taken on the line 3-3.
Fig. i is a sectional view of an alternative construction as seen if taken on the line -t of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of the marginal portions of adjacent units illustrating an alternative construction embodying my invention.
Figs. 6 and 7 are sectional views illustrating alternative forms of joint construction that may be used between adjacent stone simulating elements.
Fig. 8 illustrates a flexible type of unit embodying my invention, and
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic illustration of typical means for producing articles embodying my invention.
In that form of my invention chosen for purposes of illustration in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 of the drawings, the structure embodies a base member 2, the sides of which may be straight and regular although I prefer that they be made irregular as shown presenting projecting portions d and recesses 6 arranged so as to permit assembling the units with the projections of one member extending into recesses of others. In this way the marginal edges of the base members of adjacent units may be made to abut so as to form a tight point insuring adequate insulation and protection of the surface on which they are laid. Furthermore, by forming the projecting portions 6 in suitable locations on the opposite edges of the base member and of such size and shape that they fit into recesses 6 of adjacent units I provide an interlocking engagement between the units on all sides thereof.
,The surface layer of each unit when designed to simulate rubble, stone or the like is formed with spaced elements 8 located on one face of the base member and permanently secured thereto. These elements may be arranged in any desired pattern and may be arranged differently in units having the same outline so that when assembled the units give no appearance of repetition. Preferably the elements 8 are so positioned on the base member that they have the same general contour as the base member. However,
' I prefer that one or more of the elements ediccent the margin of the base member on each of the sides shall extend beyond the edge thereof as adjacent the ends of the unit and an inteediote recess 6 between the so. The lower edge is formed with a projecting portion 6 adjacent one end of the unit oi such size and shops that it 'iit into the intermediate recess 6 in the upper edge of a. unit laid in on ad'lacent lower course. The recess t in the lower edge of the unit is equal in length to the two projecting por tions 3 on the upper edge of the unit end receives projections on the opposite ends of ts in to lower course. Whenconstructed with the pro jections t and recesses it inter-engoging in cm way the unim may be laid with the joints be= tween the some in staggered relation. interlocklug projections and recesses of this type may be produced on both the-ends and on the upper and.
lower edges as shown.
While I have made units in which the so members are of regular shape with straight edges I find that by forming both the base member and the surface layer with the some general outline as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 the projecting portions abutment. Ordinarily I prefer that all of the elements of the surface layer be spaced from the upper edge of the base member and extend beyond the lower edge thereof so as to provide ship-lap edges for the unit, to aid further in protecting the joints between the units in adjacent courses.
v In the modification of my invention illustrated in Fig. 5 I have shown a construction in which the base member itself is formed with a rabbeted edge ll which, with the projection M of on overlying surface element 8, forms atongue and groove connection between adjacent units providing further protection'against possible leakage'at the Joints between the units. In this way the interlocking and overlapping arrangement of the units relieves the tiresome regularity of straight line effects and presents a, broken .line
emphasis in the present description placedt on structures of irregular outline because of the very attractive and novel efiects obble in this manner. 1
I The base members 2 and the elements b may both be made of either rigid or flexible materiel aisoeii forming rigid building units the base 2 may con veniently be formed of a suitable plaster or cement mixture cast in a form with or without pressure. The thickness of the base will depend largely on the character of the product to be produced and may vary from say to /2 inch for relatively light units up to two or more inches for heavy units. The size and weight of the units may be similarly varied as desired to produce units of convenient form. I have also made very sntisfactory units in which the base member is made of predormed material such as plasterboard or fiber-board, sold under the trade names Celotex", lBeaverboard, Sheet Roch, etc., or various cement asbestos products of difierent weights and thicknesses.
The elements it may also vary in form and constructlomend may be made of any suitable materiel or of any desired thickness. Some of the elements may be of greater thickness than others so that they project outwardly from the base member for a greater distance or they maybe otherwise formed. to produce a very rough or uneven surface. In general I have found it more convenient to form the elements of a plastic composition rather than to use pro-formed elements because of the ease in applying plastic material -to the base member in a continuous operation by means of dies forming members or the like. However theelemeuts may be pro-formed by moulding or cutting the samefrom natural stone, cement, wood, metal, linoleum or the like, and
' arranging them on the base member asdesired.
In securing the elements 8 to the base member a very firm bond should be provided to avoid any possibility of removal of the elements after the units are completed or have been laid. When using a, moulded base member'the elements may be pressed onto the surface of the base member whileeither or both are in a plastic or semicured condition. If both the base member and the surface layer or elements 8 are moulded and iormed of compositions capable of bonding together the parts may be pressed together so that a strong bond is provided and a. substantially homogeneous and unitary structure is produced. A structure of this type is illustrated in section in Fig. 3 which also shows a preferred manner of applying the units to a structure.
In the alternative'the elements 8 may be secured to the surface of the base member by a suitable cement or adhesive material applied to the entire surface of the base member or to the lower surface of each element. This method is particularly desirable when the elements 8 or the base member or both are of a'pre-formed char-' 'acter.
, to be firmly and permanently secured'in place.
In each of the forms of my invention above described the spaces between the elements of each unit and between the various units may be fllled with mortar or other terial to provide a joint which is raised, sunken, flush or moulded as dc to give any preferred efiect. The more "ginal portions of the elements 3 may be close together and their edges depressed as shown at id, in. Figs. 5 and 6 to provide a recess for receiving mortar 20 or the elements may be spaced suitable material beside those speciilcallyi mentioned above and it is contemplated that various changes may be made in the form and composition of either or both layers of the product withthe mortar in the spaces between the elements 1 of different units will be identical in type and appearance with that between different elements in the same unit.
When making a rigid construction such as those described above the base member is preferably provided with nail holes 22 formed and arranged so thatthey are covered by the overlapping portions of adjacent units when the units are laid. The nail holes may be either punched or moulded and may be located to provide adequate support for the unit to prevent space between the units as described above.
warping or displacement thereof. Even though certain ofthe nail holes lie in an area which is not covered by an overlying element on an adjacent unit they will,' nevertheless be covered and concealed when mortar is applied to the In some instances it may be desirable to form the units initially with mortar or mortar-simulated material about the edges thereof and about the marginal elements in which case very little mortar or sealing means need be employed between adjacent elements or units. In such cases if the units are used in an interior or are not exposed to the weather no sealing means whatever need be used.
In those forms of my invention described above the unit is referred to as having surface elements extending throughout substantially the" entire area of the base member. However, this is not always necessary, particularly when the base member; is relatively thin so that one base memout departing from the spirit and scope of my invention.
In order to illustrate one convenient method of producing units embodying my invention I have shown'in Fig. 9 a. typical form of. apparatus adapted for making rigid units in a continuous operation. As shown the base member is formed by placing a pan or tray 28 on a belt 36 formed with lugs 32 for engaging the pan and moving it her may overlie another without materially increasing the thickness of the structure or causing unevenness in the finished surface. As illustrated in Fig. 8 my invention may be embodied in flexible building units similar in their construction to well-known types of shingles or siding material which have only a portion thereof exposed to the weather. The base member 24' in such constructions may be an asphalt saturated felt or other similar sheet material of suitable weight, strength and size with elements 8 applied to or formed on a portion only of the sheet. The irregular and overlapping features of the elements of the sheet may be carried out in forming or arranging the elements 8 on that portion of the sheet whichis to be exposed when laid. It is possible in such constructions to omit nail holes from the material and to employ nails 1 or securing means only in that portion 28.01 the sheet which is not provided with surface elements and which is overlaid by units in the same or adjacent courses. At the same time the interlocking and overlying marginal elements of adjacent units so serve to prevent displacement,
. lifting or curling oi the free edges of the units.
When the elements 8 of units of this type are formed to simulate stone. rubble, brick or the like they may be used as siding or flooring or may be applied to flat roofs on apartment houses, hotels and elsewhere. However, the surface layer of the units may be given any other desired form or design to simulate broken or irregularslatef shingles, thatch or other material as desired to adapt the same for use on sloping roofs or elsewhere.
In producing articles embodying my invention I may also employ linoleum, tile or any other along a support 39. The pan has a cavity therein of suitable shape and thickness to produce the base member and is formed with a bottom and wide marginal edges. Material such as a cement or plaster mix is discharged into the pan from a. hopper 36 to'flll the cavity therein, the pan is then moved along onto support 3! and beneath a press 38 which subjects the material to hydraulic pressure. Thereafter a frame 40 is applied to the pan to fix the marginal outline of the surface layer and a die 42 having one or more holes therein the shape of the stone or other element of the surface layer is applied over the pan and frame. The pan with the pressed material for the base member therein and with the frame 40 and die 42 in'place is then passed beneath a second hopper which introduces material for forming the elements of the surface layer into openings in the die. The material introduced into openings is then pressed into intimate contact with the material of the base member by means of a press 46 or if the material of which the elements of the surface layer is formed is suiiiciently stiff the die 42 may be removed without pressing the material.
Thereafter the die 42 is removed and a second die 43 with openingstherein located differently from those of die 42 is applied to the pan for producing other stone simulating elements of a different color or height and the operation repeated until all of the elements 8 have been applied. The openings in the dies which define the shape of marginal elements of the unit may extendover the wide marginal edges of the pans 28 so that overlapping or projecting portions of the unit are formed during the operation.
The number, shape and location of the openings in dies 42, 48, etc., determine the number. shape and location of the stone simulating elements applied to the base member. Ordinarily it is desirable that the color of the elements should be different throughout the unit and therefore each die is preferably used to apply only one or a few elements to the base member, all of which are of the same color although they may be of different shape and located in spaced relation.
After all of'the elements have been applied to the base member the whole unit may be subjected to a final pressing operation by means of a press 50 which may also form the depressed portions i8 in the margins of the elements 8 if desired. The units are then transferred to a truck 52 or the like and cured, or dried if necessary. When curing or drying is complete the units may be removed from the pans 28 and in some instances the removal of the units from the pans may be made while the unit is'still only partially cured.
The method above described can be carried out continuously and rapidly producing the units in an inexpensive manner and with any desired size or shape and with any type of surface design desired. V
While I have described a preferred method of manufacturing units embodying my invention it will be evident that the units may be made by other methods and with othermeans. Furthermore, the character of the unit and its component parts will to a large measuredetermine the manner of producing the same. It should therefore be understood that the specific forms, methods and means herein described have been given in order to illustrate my invention and are not intended to limit the scope thereof.
1. A method for producing building units which comprises the steps of forming a base member of cementitious material, applying to one face of said base member before the cement of said base member has completely set, individual stone simulating elements formed of incompletely set and differently pigmented cementitious material, pressing said stone simulating elements into intimate contact with said'base member and permitting said cement to'set, whereby the stone simulating elements are permanently bonded to the base member.
2. A building unit comprising a base member formed of cementitious material and having a 1 plurality of separate, irregularly shaped, stone simulating elements each of smaller area than said base member and formed of cementitious material differing in color from said base member, secured to said base member by a cementitious bond, said base member also having other irregularly shaped, stone simulating elements formed of cementitious material differing in color from said base member and from said first mentioned elements, secured to the base member by a cementitiousbond, all of said elements being arranged on one face of said base member and covering substantially the entire area thereof.
3. A method for producing building units which comprises the steps of forming a base member of cementitious material, applying to spaced areas on one face of said base member before the cement of the elements are permanently bonded to the base member. I
4. A method for producing building units which comprises the steps of forming a base member, locating a die having spaced openings therein over said base member, applying unset cementitious material of one color to said base member through the openings in said die, thereafter locating a different die having openings therein spaced from those locations on the base member to which cementitious material was previously applied, applying unset cementitious materialfldiffering in color from that first applied, to said base member and to areas thereof other than those cupied by the material first applied to said base member, pressing said cementitious material into intimate contact with the base member and causing it to set whereby said cementitious material becomes permanently bonded to said base member.
5. A method for producing building units which comprises the steps of forming a base member of cementitious .material, locating a die having spaced openings therein over the material of said base member before the cement thereof has completely'set, applying unset cementitious material of one color to said base member through the openings in said die, thereafter locating a, different die having openings therein spaced from those locations on the base member to which cementitious material was previously applied, applying unset cementitious material differing in color from that first applied to said basemember to areas thereof other than those occupied by the material first applied to said base member, pressing said cementitious material into intimate contact with the incompletely "set cementitious material' of said base member and permitting the cement of said base 'member and applied cementitious material to set whereby said cementitious material and base member become permanently bonded together.
6. A method for producing building units which comprises the steps of forming a base member, forming a plurality of stone simulating elements of unset and differently pigmented cementitious materal, successively applying to said base member those stone simulating elements which are differently pigmented before the cement thereof is set, pressing said elements into intimate contact with the base member and permitting the cement of said elements to set whereby the elements are permanently bonded to said base member.
CHARLES G. TEUNON.