|Publication number||US2131268 A|
|Publication date||Sep 27, 1938|
|Filing date||Jul 17, 1936|
|Priority date||Jul 17, 1936|
|Publication number||US 2131268 A, US 2131268A, US-A-2131268, US2131268 A, US2131268A|
|Inventors||Boes George F|
|Original Assignee||Boes George F|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (11), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
sept.A 27, 1938. REDES 2,131,268
PREFABRIGATED UNIT WALL' STRUCTURE Filed July 17, 193s 2 sheets-sheet 1 z MRI.
; .2 -BY legi /0 @0.4. fzln' Sept. 27, 1938. G, F B055 2,131,268
` PREFABRIATED. UNIT WALL STRUCTURE Filed July 17, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 V Wn \ INVENTOR. x 65e/wf F5056,
Patented Sept. 27, 1938 s'rA'riz-s PAT CFFICE 9 Claims.
'This invention relates to a building structure and more especially the side wall thereof.
The chief object of this invention is to provide a metallic side wall structure for a building, which side wall structure is comprised of a plurality of units, certain of said units including door openings and window openings and other of said units comprising inside and outside corner structures of the side wall.
The chief feature of the invention consists in forming a metallic side wall structure of a plurality of similar units interlcckingly connected together and so arranged that when assembled by carpenters or similar artisans, there results a side wall structure ready to receive the interior wall structure such as plaster or the like. Such a structure has hereinbefore dened, readily lends itself to prefabrication so that the units may be manufactured at the factory and thence transported to the structure site and erected afterthe foundation and floor have been erected.
Following assembly of the wall structure, if of single floor type, .the ceiling joists and rafters may be applied, the roof covered and then the interior walls may be erected in the usual manner. If the structure is two story character, a second oor wall may be applied to the first :door wall and supported by the ceiling joists in substantially the same manner that the rst floor illustrated. The walls of the upper and lower oors at their adjacent lower and upper edges, respectively, may be suitably connected together by a facing of ornamental character and this may be of metal or Wood, as desired. At the factory, units of this character will be made in 1 ft., 2 ft., or 3 ft. widths, preferably, and 'I ft. 6 in., 8 ft., 8 ft. 6 in., and 9 ft. lengths, respectively. Thus, a minimum number of sizes will be prefabricated. The corner units will be prefabricated in the different lengths, before mene tioned. 'I'he window units will be prefabricated and these will be of 2 ft., 2 ft. 6 in., or 3 ft. widths, respectively.
Hereinafter only the basic features of the invention are illustrated because it is recognized, as has been demonstrated in the construction of several of these structures, that variousdepartures may be made from the basic disclosure.
For that reason also, the door unit is not illus tom of the unit.
wall is supported by the box sill, hereinafter The full nature of the invention will be understood from the accompanying drawings and 'the following description and claims'.
In the drawings, Fig. l is a vertical sectional view of a one-story building structure embodying the invention.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional view through the upper portion of a unit in a building arrangement.
Fig. 3 is a similar view of the lower portion of the unit in a building arrangement.
Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view through two adjoining units. Y
Fig. `5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 but of a modied form, including a wedge or key interlocked pair of units.
Fig. 6 is an elevational view of the inside of the units shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 isan enlarged transverse sectional View of an inside corner unit associated with the adjacent wall units which are transversely positioned relative to each other.
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 7 and of an outside corner structure.
Fig. 9 is'an enlarged sectional view of a Window unit structure.
Fig. 10 is a transverse sectional view through the adjacent portions of a wall unit and an adjacent window u nit.
Fig. 11 is a perspective view of one of the unit panel anchoring clips. I
Fig. 12 is a view similar to a portion of Fig. 4 but of a. modified form of unit.
In the drawings I0 indicates an excavation, II a foundation of a'building structurewhich supports a box sill arrangement I2 having the joists I3 supporting a sub-floor I4 and an exterior wall bottom plate I5. This is a two-by-l four'. A top plate I6 supports the upper joists I1 and the rafters I8 to which the roof boards and roofing are secured.
Interposed between the 'plates I5 and I6 is the exterior side wall structure and the same is comprised of a plurality of units suitably associated together. Each unit includes a pair of vertical members comparable to studding and these are metallic. Each is of Achannel formation having the web I9, the intermediate portion 20 the web portion 2| terminating in a grooved portion 22 and a parallel web portion 23, the last three mentioned forming a U-shaped groove. The U-shaped groove is outwardly directed, reference being had to a pair of metal studdings of this character incorporated in a u nit.
Near the bottom of each of these studdings and extending across the same; is a 2 x 4 cross brace 24 and at suitable intervals thereabove are similar cross braces 25 and a top cross brace 26. A sheet of metal 21 having its inside face suitably covered with heavy asphaltic paint 28 has its upper end turned inwardly as at 29 to bear upon the upper face of the cross brace 26 and the same may be secured thereto as at 30. The lower end of the metal sheet 21 is directed inwardly as at 3| and thence upwardly as at 32 to form a groove 33 to receive the downwardly directed portion 34 of a channel shaped clip or bracket having the central portion 35 and the flange 36, see Fig. 11. cured to the lower plate member I5 as by a nail, or nails, 31. It is to'be understood that two or more of these clips or brackets are utilized with each unit and when mounted, as illustrated more especially in Fig. 3, the same prevents the metal sheet 21 from pulling away from the lower cross bracing. As will appear clearly from Fig. 4, the sheet 21 terminates in grooved edges 38 and inwardly directed tongueportions 39. The tongue portions 39 seat in the U-shaped grooves formed by the U-shaped portions of the metal studding. Each metal studding is suitably secured to the several cross braces by the nails 40.
Whenever desired or required, the upper and/or lower ends of the metal studding may have an extension on the portion 26 thereof, which is directed angularly and inwardly as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 4 and indicated by the numeral 4|. Thus, these inward extensions 4| underlie the lower cross brace and overlie the upper cross brace whenever utilized.
As shown clearly in Fig. 4 in the space formed by the two adjacent U-shaped grooved portions in adjacent studding in adjacent units, there is positioned a joint sealing member in the form of a metal strip 42 and this is usually applied after the units are erected and 'positioned side by side but prior to permanent anchorage to the bottom plate I5 or top plate anchorage. The clip shown more particularly in Fig. 11 and also illustrated in Figs. 1 and 3, serves to maintain the respective units in erected position. Thus, the subsequent insertion of these sealing strips serves to form a. unitary wall structure with lno open joints between units and it also permits to a limited extent flexible accommodation which may be necessary to secure a finished exterior wall structure.
If, as and when desired, the lower cross brace 24 may be suitably secured to the lower plate l5 as by the nails 43. 'I'hese do not pass through the anchoring plate or clip. Each cross brace is shownseeFig. i-notched as at 44 and notched as at 45 at each end, the notch 44 being smaller than the notch 45. Notch 44 nests the U-,shaped portion of the studding.k Notch 45 is slightly enlarged as at 46 to nest the web |9 of `the studding. The portion of the notch 45 immediately adjacent thereto nests the furring strip 41 suitably secured to the respective cross braces in the unit as at 48. 'I'he foregoing constitutes the simplest form of the invention with the ex ception of the addition of the inturned upper and/or lower portions 4|.
Whenever the exterior wall structure is to be lof insulated character. a mineral wall hat, or
equivalent material, 49 may be positioned in each of the pockets, as it were, formed by the cross bracing, the furring strips studding and the sheet Flap 36 is suitably se' `pforts the ceiling plaster 51.
21. 'This material is retained in each pocket or compartment by suitable metal lath material 50 tacked to the cross bracing and the furring strips.
It will be obvious that between adjacent furring strips in adjacent units, there is a groove and this` groove is preferably filled with a sealing strip, such as a strip of Celotex, plywood, wallboard or the like, and the same being indicated by the numeral 5|. To the same is secured a strip of metal lath 52lsimila`r in character to that indicated at 50 and the side edgesy thereof as at 53 overlap the sidexedges of the metal lath 50 of the adjacent units and the tacks or nails 54 secure the entire structure in completely lathed relation. Thereafter` there may be applied to said lath the plaster 55 in unbroken relationsee Figs. 1, 2 and 3. To the ceiling joists I1 may also be applied the lath 56 and the same sup- Now referring to Fig. 4, it will be noted the inserted sealing strip 5| forms a second seal between adjacent units.
It will also be apparent without departing from the broad invention herein set forth, that with the use of a pressure gun, suitable mastic insulation material may be applied to the groove between the immediately adjacent portions 38 of -adjacent studding in adjacent units, and thus form another air tight seal in the wall structure. As shown clearly in Fig. 2, whenever desired, the box sill arrangement may be fortified by the water table member 58 anda supporting plate or facing `59. There are conventional additions.
As shown clearly also in Figs. 1 and 3, the numeral 60 indicates the final flooring, 6| the mopboard and 62 the usual quarterround.
In Figs. 5 'and 6 there is illustrated a modified form of the invention, and in this form, similar numerals of the one hundred series indicate similar parts. In this form of the invention, one side of one unit between two cross braces is apertured as at |63.and extending through the same, is a tongue portion |64, including a iiange |65 suitably secured as by spot welding, or the like, |66 to the inside fa'ce of the supporting studding, 4leaving the major portion |64 of this angular member projecting outwardly toward an adjacent stud in an adjacent unit. The adjacent stud in the adjacent unit includes an aperture |61 and in the flange portion 9 of said stud, is another aperture |68. The portion |64 is apertured as at |69.
A tapered key |10 having the depending portion |1| is inserted in the opening |68 and opening 69 in the web portion ||9 and tongue portion |64 and driven home and thus whenever a mechanical interlock is desired'between units,
the laforesaid arrangement or its equivalent is satisfactory for said purpose. It will be apparent the wall units are all assembled in wall formation and then they are secured together by means of the wedges as well as the top plate I6. Y
It is to be observed that because of the small scale employed in Fig. 1 and for simplicity .in Figs. 2 and 3, the modification indicated by numeral |4| in Fig. 4 has been intentionally omitted from these gures. However, it is to be understood that the mechanical interlock as well as the inturned extensions may be all associated in the exterior wall structure.
It will also be observed that the plate portions 21 are imperiorate throughout their face portions and the only perforations'therein are those for the reception of the nails 30 if the said nails. be utilized. If they are omitted, the top plate I6 will hold down the top inturned portions 29 of each of the plates of the unit.
Reference will now be had to Fig. 12, wherein a modied form of the invention is illustrated. In this form of the invention, numerals of the two hundred series indicate like or similar parts. In this form, if desired, the rock wool 249 may be employed or may be omitted. Herein, however, in each pocket formed by the metal studding, the metal face 221 and the cross bracing, there is secured a sheet of heavy cardboard, solid bre board or corrugated board, as desired,`the same being indicated by numeral 212 and having angular edge portions 213 tacked or nailed to thel adjacent cross member as at 214. If the sheet of board 212 has side flanges, the same frictionally engage the metal studding immediately adjacent thereto. This leaves an open space on the opposite side of the sheet from the metal sheet or plate portion 221. The space between the metal sheet 221 and the board sheet 212 may not be filled with rock wool whenever desired.
Also, in said ligure, the structure is shown including furring strips 241 which support the lath 250 and the same may support plaster 255 whenever desired. It is preferred, when only partial mineral wool insulation isdesired, that the same be positioned immediately adjacent the metal plate 221, leaving a dead air space between the sheet board 212 and the plaster 255. The plate may be painted as at 228.
. For garage structures and the like, wherein plastering is not desired, or required, the insulation 249 may be employed together with the sheet 212 or said insulation lmay be omitted and merely the dead air space bev utilized between the sheet board 212 and the metallic plate 221 and also it will be understood that whenever no insulation is desired, the sheet 212 may also be omitted.
To preserve the metal, it, ofcourse, is under.
sood that the interior of the sheet 221 is preferably coated with a waterproongpaint 228, such as before described. It will also be understood the exterior of the unit will be painted in the usual manner that the outside surface of a house is painted.
y Naturally, the characteristic appearance of the completed building structure is thatthe joints or seams will be vertical instead of horizontal, as is customary in lapped siding wooden structures.
Reference will now be had more particularly to the more prominent details of construction .which lend the units to ornamental association and provide the openings for windows and doors,
, the same being illustrated in Figs. 7 to 10, in-` clusive.
'Ihe showing of the door type unit has been omitted because it is similar in framing to the window structure, except that in place of the window sill near the bottom, there is utilized a threshold at the bottom.
In Fig. `'7, numerals of the three hundred series indicate similar parts. .In said figure, the adjacent units of two -transversely arranged walls and a corner unit are associated in inside corner relation. In this illustration, the angular ends 4| on the studding are intentionally omitted fonclearness. Likewise, the wire or metal lath is not illustrated, although it is to be assumed that the plaster 355 covers the same.
In this form of the invention the metal studding is associated with the corner unit by spikes 340a, or the like, and these are positioned transversely of each other. Short cross bracing may be employed as indicated at 325a whenever desired. Associated with each of the metal studdings carried by the corner unit is the seal strip 342 of metallic character and the inner sealing strip 35| is also utilized. The plaster is indicated by the numeral 355 and is applied to the metal lath, the metal lath being suitably secured to the block or pillar studding 300 and lapping the inner seal strips 35|.
In this ,form of the invention, the inside corner of the exterior wall arrangement includes an angular metal strip portion 30| having inwardly directed ends 302 which are again inwardly directed as at 303, this forming grooves comparable to the groove on the side edge of each metal sheet 321,' and similarly interlockingly nested in the groove formed by the`adjacent metal studdings.
In Fig. 8 is illustrated a reverse form and outside corner arrangement, in which the block or post studding is indicated by the numeral 400 and the exterior angular sheet metal portion isindicated by the numeral 40|, each edge of which terminates in an inwardly directed portion 402 having an inwardlyextending portion 403. The metal sealing strip 42| serves to bridge the joint between an adjacent unit and the corner unit and the inside filling strip 45| does the same for the interior of the wall. The plaster is indicated by the numeral 455. As before with reference to Fig. '1, illustration of the metallath has been omitted for clearness only aswell as the anchorage of4 the same to the respective units. Likewise, the inturned bottom ends on the metal studding vin the corner unit have also been omitted for clearness.
The anchorage of the metal studding to the post studding may be by means of the spikes 440a and if desired, the short cross bracing 425a may be employed. This cross bracing is complementarily notched for metal studding accommodation. Numerals of the 400 series, similar to the numerals employed in Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive,
designate similar or like parts in this ligure.
In Figs. 9 and 10 there is illustrated a window unit. In these igures, 521a indicates the lower portion of the exterior sheet of metal and 5211 the upper portion thereof, the latter terminating in an outwardly directed flange portion 521e serv'- Iing as a flashing and being associated with a Water table 580. 'I'he sill 58| is notched as at 582 to receive the upper end or tongue 52141 on the lower metal portion 521a. VIn this iigure, as well as in Figs. 7 and 8, the paint covering, illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, has intentionally been omitted for clearness.
'Ihe numeral 583 indicates the head blockcf the window arrangement and 584 the stool. 585 indicates the side member unitingthe sill, stool and head block together. 590- indicates a metal sash, glazed as at 59|, and associated with a metal frame 592. The molding 593 isassociated with the interior of the window frame and the studding of the Window unit and the latter ac-y commodating the grooved end of the studding of the window unit, said studding being secured to the block as at 540. .The plaster is indicated by the numeral 555 and the apron upon the plaster is indicated by the numeral 59?. f
It is to be understood the door unit is somewhat similarly formed, exceptl the lower metal sheet 521a is omitted and that in place of sill 58| a threshold is substituted and various other changes are made which distinguish a door arrangement from a window arrangement.
From the foregoing, it will be apparent'that the several features of construction illustrated in Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10 are variations of the main invention illustrated and more especially in Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive, certainy modifications being shown in Figs. 5 and 6 and certain modifications also being shown in Fig. 4 and not being shown in Figs. 1 to 3 and still further modifications being illustrated in Fig. 12.
Y either of plain window or door character and likewise the units may be of the inside corner or outside corner type. With these units there may be assembled a wall arrangement which is comprised of interlocked units lockingly secured together if, as and when desired, but otherwise having exterior sealed joints and also interior sealed joints if, as and when desired, insulated and operatively associated together so that a single unitary wall, such as plaster, or the like, may be applied to the interior so that in all respects the interior wall of this sidewall arrangement will resemble the standard building interior wall construction. This invention, therefore, oiers every advantage of a metallic'structure and of aprefabricated structure, since but a minimum number of widths and lengths and character of units are required, which may be varied by the archiillustrated in similar detail, such specification,
description and illustration are to be considered as ,illustrative only and not restrictive 'in character. The various modifications hereinbefore illustrated and/or described as well as others which will readily suggest themselves to persons skilled in this art, are all considered to be within the broad scope of this invention, reference being had to the appended claims.
The invention claimed is:-
1. A side wall unit adapted for interlocking association with other units of like or similar character, including a pair of oppositely directed spaced'studding, channel shaped in cross section, and including a reversely directed flange forming an exterior groove, cross bracing interposed between said studding and in spaced relation, an exterior metal sheet having inwardly directed side iianges forming grooves and nestingly interiitting with the lstudding grooves rearwardly of the plane of the metal sheet, an inwardly directed ange at the upper edge of the sheet and overlying the uppermost cross brace, an interiorly positioned and upwardly directed groove forming portion at the lower edge of said sheet, channel shaped means having one iiange nestable in the last mentioned groove and another portion arranged for unit anchorage, and means securing the studding to the cross bracing.
spaced studding, channel shaped in cross section, and including a reversely directed flange forming an exterior groove, cross bracing interposed between said studding and in spaced relation, an exterior metal sheet having inwardly directed side iianges forming grooves and nestingly interiitting with the studding grooves rearwardly of the plane of the metal sheet, van inwardly directed ilange at the upper edge of the sheet and overlying the uppermost cross brace, an interiorly positioned and upwardly directed groove forming portion at the lower ledge of said sheet, channel shaped 'means having one ange nestable in the last mentioned groove and another portionar ranged for unit anchorage, means securing the studding to the cross bracing, insulation in each of the pockets formed by the studding, cross bracing and metal sheet, and means for retaining said insulation in position in the pocket when the unit is vertically positioned.
3. A side wall unit adapted Afor interlocking association with other units of like or similar character, including a pair of oppositely directed spaced studding, channel `shaped in cross section, and including a reversely directed flange forming an exterior groove, cross bracing interposed between said studding and in spaced relation, an
exterior metal sheet having inwardly directed side flanges forming grooves and nestingly intertting with the studding grooves rearwardly off the plane of the metal sheet, an inwardly directed flange at the upper edge of the sheet and overlying the uppermost cross brace, `an interiorly positioned and upwardly directed groove forming portion at the lower edge of said sheet, channel shaped means having one flange nestable in the last mentioned groove and another portion arranged for unit anchorage, means securing the studding to -the cross bracing, and an insulating and protecting coating upon the interior surface of said sheet for the purpose described. f i
4. A side wall unit adapted for interlocking association with other units of like or similar character, including a pair of oppositely directed spaced studding, channel shaped in cross section,
and including a reversely directed flange forming an exterior groove, cross bracing interposed between said studding and in spaced relation, an exteriorl metal sheet having inwardly directed side flanges' forming grooves and nestingly intertting with the studding grooves rearwardly of the plane of the metal sheet, an inwardly directed flange at the upper edge of the sheet and overlying the uppermost cross brace, an interiorly positioned and upwardly directed groove forming portion at the lower edge of said sheet, channel shaped means having one ilange nestable in the y last mentioned groove and another portion arranged for unitv anchorage, means securing the studding to the cross bracing, insulation in each of the pockets formed by the studding, cross bracnanges forming grooves and nestingly intertting with the studding grooves rearwardly or the plane of the metal sheet, an inwardly directed flange at the upper edge of the sheet and overlying the uppermost cross brace, an interiorly positioned and upwardly directed groove forming portion at the lower edge oi' said sheet, channel shaped means having one ange nestable in the last mentioned groove and another portion arranged for unit anchorage, means securing thestudding to the cross bracing, insulation in each of the pockets formed by the studding, crossbracing and metal sheet, and means for retaining said insulation in position when the unit is vertically positioned, said insulation retaining means forming a closure for the pocket and suitably secured to the cross bracing intermediate the thickness of the unit.
6. A side wall unit adapted for interlocking association with other units of like or similar character, including a pair of oppositely directed spaced studding, channel shaped in cross section, and including a reversely directed ilange forming an exterior groove, cross bracing interposed between said studding and in spaced relation, an
exterior metal sheet having inwardly directedside flanges forming grooves and nestingly interiltting with the studding grooves rearwardly oli the plane of the metal sheet, an inwardly directed ilange at the upper edge of the sheet and overlying the uppermost cross brace, an interiorly positioned and upwardly'directed groove forming portion at the lower edge of said sheet, channel shaped means having one ilange nestable in the last mentioned groove and another portion arranged for unit anchorage, means securing the studdlng to the cross bracing, insulation in each of the pockets formed by the studding, cross bracing and metal sheet, means for retaining said insulation in position when the unit is vertically positioned, said insulation retaining means forming a, closure for the pocket and suitably secured to the cross bracing upon the interior face of the unit, and tuning strips immediately adjacent each studding and secured to the cross bracing and to which and the iurring strips, the retaining means is secured.
'l'. A building side wall structure, including a plurality of prefabricated similar units, certain of same including door or window frames, of a common height and appropriate width, each unit including a plurality of parallel and spaced cross braces serving as a sheet tensioning member, an
rexterior metal sheet thereoni terminating in a concealed receiving groove at its lower end below the lowest cross brace, an inwardly directed end overlying the uppermost cross brace and reversely directed, interior anges on the side edges slightly spaced interiorly or the sheet, an elongated metal stud at each: side of the unit having its face secured to the ends of the cross braces, each side stud having at opposite side edges anges parallel to the sheet, one nesting in corner notches in the cross braces, a iurring strip in each off the registering cross brace notches and secured to the braces, and metal or like lathing secured to the cross braces and furring strips, mineral wool insulation in each pocket of each unit when desired, a bridging strip se'atable in'the groove formed by adjacent notches in adjacent units, including a sealing member, and lath means, the latter overlapping and being secured to the! adjacent fun-ing strips, the other side stud ilange having a reversely directed edge forming a groove, each sheet side flange comprising a groove nestable tongue, a metal sealing and expansion strip seatable in registering adjacentgrooves in adjacent units and bridging the gap between units, appropriate interlocking corner units, and tongued bracket means for anchoring each unit at the base and having the tongue nestable ini the lowermost sheet concealed groove.
8. A prefabricated and relatively independent side wall unit for a building structure having an architectural opening therein substantially the widtlr of the unit, frame means deilning said opening and adapted to have associated therewith closure means for said opening, said unit including a pair of oppositely directed, channel shaped studs each with an outwardly directed exteriorly positioned ange forming a groove for interlocking association with an adjacent unit, said frame means including portions extending from stud to stud above and below the opening and other portions immediately adjacent said studs and extending along the sides thereof, said several portions denning the opening, a metal sheet positioned exteriorly oi' the studs and having inwardly directed grooves interlocking with the stud grooves and having a downwardly and outwardly directed lower nange associated with the upper portion of the frame for ashing purposes.
9. A prei'abricated and relatively independent side wall unit for a building structure having an architectural opening therein substantially the width of the unit, frame members denning said opening and adapted to have associated therewith closure means for said opening, said unit including a pair of oppositely directed, channel shaped studs, each with an outwardly directed exteriorly positioned ilange forming a groove for interlocking association with an adjacent unit, said frame means including portions extending from stud to stud above and below the opening and.l other portions immediately adjacent said studs and extending along the sides thereof, said several portions dening the opening, a metal sheet positioned exteriorly of the studs and having inwardly directed grooves interlocking with the stud grooves and having a downwardly and outwardly directed lower ilange associated with the upper portion of the frame for flashing purposes, and another metal sheet below said frame and similarly formed at its side edges as the iirst mentioned sheet and similarly interlocked with the stud grooves and having an upwardly projecting tongue, said frame at its underface having a tongue receiving groove therein for nesting said tongue.
GEORGE F. BOES.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2424547 *||May 15, 1940||Jul 29, 1947||Raymond Behin||Wall construction|
|US2457086 *||Jul 31, 1944||Dec 21, 1948||Pullan Mitchell||Floor|
|US2481972 *||Jul 11, 1945||Sep 13, 1949||Chester A Betts||Means for joining elements of sectional cabinets|
|US2856039 *||Mar 4, 1954||Oct 14, 1958||Hawkinson Harold G||Building construction|
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|US4125982 *||Sep 19, 1977||Nov 21, 1978||Ward Bruce K||Floor joist insulation baffle|
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|US5743056 *||Jun 7, 1995||Apr 28, 1998||Balla-Goddard; Michael Steven Andrew||Building panel and buildings made therefrom|
|US20080178782 *||Jan 26, 2007||Jul 31, 2008||Frobosilo Raymond C||Wall construction|
|WO1993021406A1 *||Apr 8, 1993||Oct 28, 1993||BAILEY, Michael, Leonard||Building panel and buildings made therefrom|
|U.S. Classification||52/210, 52/275, 52/222, 52/464, 52/404.1|
|International Classification||E04C2/26, E04C2/284|