US 2131516 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
p 1938. H. LEFFER'IA ET A1. 2,131,516
PHARMACEUTICAL APPARATUS Filed Jan. 51, 1956 1N VENTOR5 HERMAN LEFFE'RT "M ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 27, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE A PHARMACEUTICAL APPARATUS Herman Lefiert and Edward E.
land, Ohio, assignors,
'10 Claims. This invention relates to a food into the patient.
We have found that rate of flow.
An object of our invention, vide an apparatus, which will level of the material in a reservoir; A device which has been used for rectal feeding thereof. Consequently there is no danger of discharging an excessive quantity into the patient at any time. i
A further advantage of our apparatus is the fact that it material to be mixed with water or other liquid that is used to create the suction. In our apparatus, the extracted material can be collected in harmaceutical Company, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application January 31, 1936, Serial No.
Woldman, Cleveby mesne assignments, to Inc., New York,
trating the operation of the apparatus shown in Fig. 2 for withdrawing gas from the stomach of a patient.
bed and above the level of the In such illustration, the
ing short of the bottom thereof.
An intermediate, or air flask I4 is disposed beside the medicine flask and is connected thereto by a tube l5. The ends of the tube I5 terminate which enters 2|, a valve 22 of flow.
At the start medicine is placed in through a tube being used for 20 from a reservoir controlling the rate It. By adjusting the valve 22 any desired number of drops per minute will enter 56 connection is not necessary the flask l4, and the corresponding volume of liquid will be dispensed from the flask l3. If desired, the discharge tube may be temporarily disconnected from the stomach tube during the syphoning action, so as to prevent the flow of an excess quantity of medicine into the patient, but as soon as the medicine flows at the same rate at which water enters the flask I4, the discharge tube is connected to the stomach tube. Such disin all cases, for it medicine used is not harmful, the delivery of an excess quantity for a very short period of time I will not be objectionable.
As soon as the level of medicine in the flask l3 drops below the entrance in the discharge tube, then the valve 22 is closed, the reservoir 2| and the flask l3 are refllled and the flask I4 is emptied. Ordinarily, the flask l3 holds a sufiicient quantity of medicine for permitting medication for a period of twenty-four hours.
To minimize the number of connections and thereby to avoid the possibility of air leakage into the vacuum line, and at the same time to eliminate the necessity of utilizing a fluid under pressure to start the flow of material into the dispensing tube, we have shown a modification of our invention which is illustrated in Fig. 2. In such modification, the material to be dispensed is placed in a container 30 which has a discharge tube 3| leading from the bottom thereof.
A valve 23 in the discharge tube prevents the flow of material therefrom until the apparatus is in condition for operation. The flask 30 has a stopper 25 into which a tube 32 extends. The flask end of the tube terminates above the level of the material-in the flask while the opposite end of the tube is in communication with an air tight chamber 33. The chamber or compartment 33 may be formed within a container 34 which has another compartment 35 in which water or other liquid can be held. A gas and liquid tight partition 36 separates the two compartments. The container 34 is illustrated as supporting a container 31 which is likewise adapted to hold water, and which is provided with a discharge opening 38 in the bottom thereof. A float controlled valve 40 is carried by the container 31, and is adapted to control the flow of water through the opening 38 from the tank 31 into the tank 34, the adjustment being such that the level in the tank 34 is maintained at the same position at all times.
At the start of the operation, the compartment 33 is empty, and the valve 4| in the drain conduit 42 is closed. Accordingly, as soon as the stomach tube is connected to the discharge tube 3|, the valve 23 is opened, and the material in the flask 30 starts to flow and to rarify the air in the compartment 33. As soon as the air is rarifled to the point where it will support the head of material in the flask, the flow ceases, and thereafter, it is allowed to continue only in accordance with the rate at which air in the compartment 33 is displaced. Such displacement occurs by allowing water to flow from the compartment 35 into the compartment 33 through a by-pass 45 that is controlled by a valve 46. A portion of the by-pass comprises a glass tube by means of which the number of drops per minute can be observed. The rate of flow from the compartment 35 to the compartment 33 is therefore, the identical rate at which material is allowed to flow from the flask 30.
As soon as liquid flows from the compartment 35, the float controlled valve 40 allows the same -empty and the a larger quantity of liquid than the flask 30 so that there is ample liquid in reserve to assure a discharge of the entire contents of the flask.
There is a slight difference in the operation of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 1 from that illustrated in Fig. 2 in that no syphoning action in the apparatus of Fig. 2 occurs at the time the dispensing operation is initiated. Furthermore, there are less connections in which air leaks may occur.
While we have explained our invention in connection with stomach medication, it is apparent that the apparatus may be used for rectal feeding, in which case the stomach tube is replaced by a rectal tube. The apparatus is likewise well adapted for use as a suction pump to remove gas' and liquid material from the stomach in postoperative treatment. To use the apparatus for the latter purpose, it is only necessary to connect it as shown in Fig. 3 and to have the flask 30 compartment 33 fllled with water. The valve 46 is closed, the valve 32 is fully opened, and then the valve 4| is adjusted so as to allow liquid to drain from the compartment 33 at the desired rate. As the level of liquid in the compartment 33 drops, gas or liquid contents are drawn into the flask 30 to replace the liquid which is drained from the compartment 33.
While we have shown in each modification an apparatus wherein a partial vacuum is utilized for restraining the rate of flow, and have illustrated apparatus by means of which the volume of air in the reservoir space above the liquid is automatically varied so as to assure a continuous flow at a uniform rate, nevertheless we may, if desired, eliminate the water reservoir, as well as 4 the intermediate compartment into which the water is allowed to drip, and vent the vacuum space by means of the valve 46. The valve may be adjusted so as to bleed into the vacuum space a very small quantity of air which acts as a vent to allow the liquid to flow out of the container. The valve may be opened to any desired degree so as to regulate the rate of flow.
An important advantage of our invention is the fact that material may be introduced into a 5 patient automatically at a constant predetermined rate. This is valuable in the treatment of stomach ulcers, as it permits medication without interfering with the normal introduction of food through the oral cavity. The apparatus is quite simple in arrangement and compact in size and is capable of being readily cleaned and sterilized for repeated use.
1. In combination, a container for storing material in liquid form, a discharge conduit leading therefrom, a vacuum chamber in communication with the container above the level of liquid therein, means for introducing a liquid into the chamber to displace the space occupied by a quantity of air therein, and a valve for controlling the rate of flow into the chamber whereby liquid from the container will be proportionately released.
2. In combination, a container for liquid, 9. 7.
discharge time leading therefrom, a valve for controlling the flow through the discharge tube, a vacuum chamber, a tube connecting the vacuum chamber to the space above the liquid in the container, a liquid reservoir, a conduit connecting the reservoir to the vacuum chamber so that liquid may flow from the reservoir into the chamber to displace the space occupied by the air therein, and a valve for controlling the rate of flow in the last named conduit whereby liquid from the container will be proportionately released.
3. In appar-atus of the character described, comprising in combination, a container for liquid material, a discharge conduit leading therefrom, a vacuum chamber in communication with the space above liquid in the container, a reservoir, the chamber being adapted to receive a liquid from the reservoir to displace the space occupied by the air therein said chamber having a capacity greater than the material in the container, and means for controlling the rate of flowof liquid into the chamber whereby liquid from the container will be proportionately released.
4. An apparatus of the character described, comprising in combination, a container for material that is to be dispensed, a discharge conduit leading from the container near the bottom thereof, a receptacle, a reservoir positioned thereabove and adapted to hold liquid, the reservoir having an opening through which liquid may flow into the receptacle, a float controlled valve for regulating the flow from the reservoir into the receptacle so as to maintain a uniform level of liquid at all times in the receptacle, an air chamber at a lower level than the receptacle, there being a passageway for liquid to flow from the receptacle to the chamber, a valve for controlling the last named flow, and means for providing communication between the air chamber and the space in the container above the liquid.
5. In a device of the character described, the combination of a container for holding liquid, a discharge conduit leading from the container so that liquid may flow by gravity therefrom, means for controlling the rate of flow, said means comprising a member having a lower air compartment, an intermediate liquid compartment, and a surmounting reservoir, there being a passageway between the reservoir and the intermediate compartment, and another passageway from the intermediate compartment to the air compartment, means for adjusting the rate of flow from the intermediate compartment to the air compartment and means for maintaining a uniform head of liquid in the intermediate compartment.
6. A method of dispensing material, drop by drop, for medicationor feeding purposes, comprising utilizing above the material a partial vacuum, which normally prevents the flow of material, modifying the volume of air under said vacuum, by utilizing a drop-by-drop flow of liquid other than the material in said partial vacuum,
mally to prevent the flow of whereby the material is caused to flow drop-bydrop in substantially volumetric equality with the flow of liquid.
7. An apparatus for dispensing material, comprising a container for material, a discharge conduit leading therefrom, means for maintaining a partial vacuum in the space above the material in the container, so as normally to prevent the flow of material therefrom, a second container in communication with the space in the first container and means for modifying the volume of air under said vacuum by admitting a liquid into the second container, drop by drop, whereby the discharge of material from the first container is substantially identical to the flow of liquid into the second container.
8. An apparatus for dispensing liquid material,
drop by drop, for medication or feeding purposes, comprising in combination, a container for storing the material, a discharge conduit leading therefrom, means for maintaining an air-tight seal within the container so as normaterial therefrom, an air-tight compartment in communication with the container and means for flowing liquid drop by drop into the compartment, whereby the discharge of material from the first container is substantially identical to the flow of liquid into the second container.
9. An apparatus of the character described, comprising in combination a container for liquid material, adischarge conduit extending downwardly into the container and having the entrance thereto below the level of liquid therein and having the discharge end thereof positioned below the entrance end,'a second container in communication with the first container above the level of the liquid therein, and means for maintaining a partial vacuum in thespace above the material in the first container so as normally to prevent the flow of material therefrom, and means for flowing liquid drop by drop into the second container whereby the discharge of material from the first container is substantially identical to the flow of liquid into the second container.
10. A device of the character described, comprising in combination, two containers, each having a stopper, one of the containers having liquid therein and having a conduit extending through the stopper for conveying material therefrom, the entrance to the conduit being below the level of the liquid therein, and the other container having a conduit extending through the stopper for introducing liquid thereinto, there being a third conduit having its ends projecting through the respective stopper means for maintaining a partial vacuum within the two containers so as normally to prevent the flow of liquid from one of the containers and means for admitting a liquid into the other container drop by drop whereby the discharge of liquid from the first container is substantially identical to the flow of liquid into the other container.
HERMAN LEFFERT. EDWARD E. WOLDMAN.