US 2131849 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 4, 1938. I E. o. TOLSO N MARKING DEVICE FOR ORIENTING WHIP STOCKS Fil'ed Feb. '7, 1936 INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 4, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Eugene 0. Tolson, Fort Worth, Tex.
Application February 7, 1936, Serial No. 63,353
This invention relates to oil field engineering instruments and it has particular reference to a methodfor aiding in controlled directional drilling of rotary drilled oil wells and its princi- 5 pal object resides in the provision of a method which is accomplished by apparatus capable of cooperative function with a conventional recording clinograph to accurately orient a whipstock so that the bit will be deflected in a predetermined direction.
Another object of the invention is manifest in the provision of a method wherein certain required results can be obtained through the use of a device in conjunction with a conventional recording clinograph which will indicate the position of a conventional whipstock and the direction the latter is facing with regard to the slope of the drill hole or its variation from the vertical and inform the operator as to thedirection in which the same will orient the bit before drilling operations will be resumed.
Yet another object of the invention resides in the provision of a marking or impression medium, in carrying out the method, which will record the proper indicia for assisting in the orientation operation and an accurately callbrated element upon which such record can be made.
Broadly, the invention seeks to comprehend the provision of a method which, by the use of certain apparatus, will afford an accurate means whereby it can be determined when a whipstock is properly oriented and thereupon control the directional movements of a drill bit when a predetermined subterranean course from the vertical is desired.
While the foregoing objects are paramount, other and lesser objects will become manifest as the description proceeds, taken in connection with the appended drawing wherein:
Figure l is a cross sectional view of a fragmentary portion of a drill stem illustrating a recording clinograph suspended therein showing its lowermost end suspended above a diametric integral rib of a marking ring arranged in the uppermost end of a drill bit and also illustrating a conventional whipstock attached to the bit.
Figure 2 is a plan view of the said marking ring, showing the integral rib extending diametrically through the said ring and having a knife-like upper edge, a portion of which is extended outwardly intermediate its ends to define, in substance, a half arrowhead or pointer.
Figure 3 is a lateral cross sectional view of the ring, taken on lines 3-3 of Figure 2, illustrating the knife-like form of the rib extending diametrically through the said ring and the outwardly directed portion of the knife edge.
Figure 4 is a partially cross sectional view of a drill bit illustrating in cross section the drill collar and also illustrating the marking ring, illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, adjustably positioned in the upper end of the bit and showing a soft metal impression plate, secured to the lowermost end of a conventional clinograph case, re-' posing upon the said integral rib.
Figure 5 is an inverted planjview of the soft metal impression plate, shown in Figure 4 to be attached to a clinograph case, illustrating the manner in which the same is graduated. around the periphery of its operative face and also showiiig a typical impression or marking thereon effected by the said knife-edged rib.
Figure 6 is a lateral cross-sectional view of the soft metal impression plate shown in Figure 6 illustrating the aperture through the center thereof to receive a screw, the said aperture having a recess in one end to accommodatethe head of the screw.
Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view of the lowermost'end of a clinograph case, to which the impression plate is attached, illustrating the recess for receiving the latter and the interiorly threaded recess for the attaching screw, and
Figure 8 illustrates a typical chart of the fluid type recording clinograph and shows the manher in which the chart is graduated.
The method herein described is calculated to facilitate setting a whipstock in an oil well so that the drill bit will be accurately defiectedin a predetermined direction to straighten a crooked drill hole, deflecting the drill bit around drilling equipment lost in the drill hole, or directing the drill bit in a relief well 'so that it will reach the bottom of a wild or cratered well some several hundred feet distance for the purpose of killing or bringing under control the cratered well by pumping heavy mud through the relief well into the producing formation of the cratered well. Such a method is highly desirable for the further purpose of deflecting the drill bit in certain predetermined directions so that more than one well can be drilled from the same foundation, such as a steel, concrete, or wooden foundation built in water, so that as much of the producing formation can be drained from several wells at one time as may be produced from wells with separate foundations and vertical drill holes.
Accordingly, therefore, the herein described method is accomplished by an assembly comprising primarily a ring, which has an integral diametrically arranged bar 2 extending through the said ring I, as shown in Figures 2 and 3. The bar 2 is so formed as to provide a knife-like edge a extending substantially the full length of the said bar 2, although the edge a is broken at b to afford a pointer c, which arrangement defines a substantially half arrowhead, in plan view, as shown in Figure 2, and whose function will be presently described.
Figure 1 illustrates a drill collar 3 having a drill bit 4 attached thereto, the latter being attached to a whip-stock 5 by means of a bolt 6. The whipstock 5 is of the conventional type commonly used for orienting oil wells, to effect a deviation from the vertical, and may be positioned at any point in the well where such deviation or orientation is proposed to begin. The whipstock 5 is usually supported by the bottom of the hole or by a plug of cement, or the like, (not shown).
It will be noted by reference to Figure 1, that the drill bit 4 is provided with a threaded conical head I, which is capable of being threaded onto the drill collar 3. The ring I, previously described, is shown in Figure 1 to be arranged within the top of the drill head I and reposes upon an annular shoulder d therein, as is more particularly illustrated in Figure 4.
Within the drill collar 3 is disposed a clinograph which is suspended from the surface by a small cable 9, preferably piano wire, or the like,
and whose function as is well known, is to indicate on a chart l0, shown in Figure 8, by acid bottles, or other means, the angulation or deflection of the hole as the drilling operations proceed. The clinograph may be of any of the known types of such instruments which are generally utilized by the industry for determining the variation from vertical which the bit 4 is operating and by the use of which directional drilling can be controlled, when used in conjunction with the herein described method.
The form of clinograph illustrated herein is provided with a cylindrical barrel or casing H, which serves as a water tight container for suitable recording elements, and is threaded at its uppermost end to accommodate a sleeve |2 which is interiorly threaded at each of its ends and is provided with an integral solid portion l3 intermediate its ends. The integral portion l3 has an eye-bolt |4 attached thereto to which the wire or cable 9 is secured.
Threaded into the upper end of the sleeve 2 is a substantially conical cap I 5 which is provided with an aperture through its apex to accommodate the wire or cable 9, previously described, by which the assembly is suspended into the well.
The case M of the clinograph assembly is provided, at its lowermost end, with an annular recess l6, as shown in Figure 7, to receive a preferably soft metal impression plate I! which is substantially disk-shaped, as illustrated in Figure 5, and the latter is secured to the barrel I l by means of a screw l8 which is passed through an aperture III in the impression plate I! and threaded into the interiorly threaded recess 20 extending into the lowermost end of the case M in the recess l6, as shown in Figure 7.
The-barrel or casing must be constructed of substantial material and be capable of withstanding a maximum of pressure usually present in subterranean areas. The plate I I is securely attached to the case M of the clinograph assembly and, as exemplified in Figure 5, is graduated at e around the outer periphery of its operative face.
The function of the graduations e will presently become manifest.
In the use of the herein described method it is desirable first to utilize a directional recording clinograph to determine the degrees of angulation 5 and the direction a drilled well is off-vertical. When this is accomplished the herein described method will enable the operator to properly position the whipstock 5 in the well to correct an improper deflection from a vertical or direct the 10 bit 4 in any desired course it has been previously determined upon.
The device used in accomplishing the method herein described is calculated to include both the ring I, with its knife-like edge a on the integral 15 bar 2, and the impression plate I1 and which are correlative in their function, as will be seen by reference to Figure 4, in that when the impression plate I! is caused to be positioned upon the upper edge a. of the bar 2, an impression I will result and 20 the pointer 0, due to its peculiar shape, as previously described, will produce an indicative mark at g which may be pointed in the direction of any one of the seyeral graduations e. The arrangement will aid the operator in determining the direction in which the whipstock 5 will orient the bit 4, as will be presently shown.
While, as previously stated, any of the several types of clinographs can be used in carrying out the herein described method, the liquid type clino- 3o graph is illustrated and described herein.
Referring to Figure 1, the clinograph case M contains the clinograph 2| which is provided with a cap 22 at its uppermost end and is rigidly secured against movement within the barrel H by 35 a pin 23 arranged through the cap 22 and thebarrel I l, as shown in Figure 1.
The chart I0 having a correlative function with the impression plate I! and the knife edge a of the bar 2 obviates the necessity of arranging these elements in such a manner as to cause them to register correspondingly on their respective graduations.
Thus, when the chart I0 is positioned within the clinograph 2| in the chamber 24, the "zero" marking on the chart |0 must be so arranged in the clinograph 2| as to correspond with the same marking on the impression plate I! attached to the bottom of the clinograph case M. In other words, the zero" marking on each of the elementsm and I! should be on a verticalplane.
The clinograph 2| is also provided with chambers 25, 26 and 21 which are each provided with syphon tubes 28 and 29, as illustratedin Figure l, and whose function will presently become manifest.
In operation, the ring I is positioned in the bit head I and secured in proper position by the set screws 30, that is, so that the integral bar 2 will be in alinement with the arrow 33 or in the direction in which the whipstock 5 is sloping or facing. 00 The bit 4 is then attached to the lowermost end of the drill collar 3 and the whipstock 5-is secured thereto, in the manner shown in Figure 1. The assembly is then lowered into the well.
When this is accomplished it is necessary to c5 determine the position of the whipstock 5 and ascertain the direction in which the latter is pointed to direct the bit 4. It is customary to lower into the well any of the conventional types of recording clinographs, with compass attached, 7| to determine the direction and the degree the drill hole is off vertical. With the information thus obtained, the operator is in a position to apply corrective measures and hence positions the whipstock 5 in the well so that the bit 4 can be 1 menace directed in such a manner as to correct the deviation from the vertical or effect a desired devia-' tion.
In order, however, to at once determine the direction and the angulation degree the hole is olf vertical and the position of the whipstock 5, that is, the direction the same is facing, and'although any conventional type of recording clinographcan be used, the liquid type of clinograph 2| is herein shown and described, in which ink is used to mark the chart In, illustrated in Figure 8, to indicate the lateral deviation from the vertical and attaching the impression plate I! thereto to cooperate with the integral bar 2 in the ring I to indicate the direction in which the whipstock 5 is facing so that the proper corrective operations can be applied.
In preparing the clinograph 2| for operation, the chart I is placed in the chamber 24 within the clinograph 2| and a quantity of ink is introduced into the chamber 25 thereof. The clinograph 2| is closed with the cap 22 and the assembly is placed in the'barrel II and immovably secured therein by a pin 23, as shown inFigure 1. The sleeve l2 and the cap l are threaded upon the barrel II and the impression plate I! is attached to the lowermost end of the barrel ll so that its graduations e correspond to those of the chart I!) and the assembly is lowered into the well. The pin 23 will prevent the movement or rotation of the clinograph 2| in the barrel II as the latter is lowered into the hole.
The arrangement of the chambers 24, 25, 26 and 21 affords. a 'means of obtaining a correct marking on the chart I0 and prevents the ink from coming into contact with the latter until the clinograph 2| comes to rest. upon the knife 2 of the ring I in the drill head 1 which is at the bottom of the hole. Thus, the ink is allowed to pass through an orifice 3| in the bottom of the chamber 25 until a sufilcient quantity is deposited in the chamber 26 to submerge the syphon tube 23 through which the liquid will pass into the chamber 24 in which the chart I0 is positioned. The latter is so arranged in the chamber 24 as to line the lower inner walls thereof and the liquid will leave its mark thereon when it comes 'in contact therewith.
The orifice 3| must of necessity be small in diameter and the greater the depth of the well the greater length of time must be allowed for the liquid to pass through the orifice 3| into the lower chambers 26, 24 and 21. The size of the orifice 3|, therefore, can be varied according to the conditions under which the device is used. A sufficient time must elapse after the device is loaded and its coming to rest in the well before the liquid is allowed to pass into the chamber 24 where the chart I0 is situated to prevent a distorted record thereon.
When the ink passes into the chamber 24 and records its level 32 upon the chart In the fluid willthe'n pass through the syphon tube 29 into the lowermost chamber 21 where it will remain until removed. The presence of the liquid in this chamber 21 will not affect the record made upon the chart Ill when ,the assembly is withdrawn from the Well.
Since the chart In has been so arranged in the clinograph 2| as to cause its graduations to correspond with those of-the impression plate attached to the bottom of the barrel II, a comparison of the readings can now be had. The degree of angulation from a vertical is indicated on the chart l0 and the direction in which the whipstock 5 is facing indicated on the impression plate l1 due to'tlie marking of the knife-like edge a. and the pointer c ofthe bar,2 in the ring I.
If the number of degrees as read from the low point of the ink mark 32 on thechart III, or the plumb-bob indicia of other recording clinographs, is numerically greater than the number of degrees shown on the impression block I! bythe impressions f and g, subtract the readings and rotate the drill pipe (not shown) at the top of the drill hole in a clockwise direction, looking downward, by this difference in degrees. vThe whipstock 5 is then facing the way the drill hole is sloping. If the number of degrees as read on the impression block is numerically greater than the number of degrees as read on the chart ID, or the plumb-bob indicia of other recording clinographs, subtract the reading and turn the drill pipe in a counter-clockwise direction, looking downward, by this difiference in degrees. The whipstock is then facing the way the drill hole is sloping.
Having previously determined the magnetic bearing of the slope of the drill hole'at this point, the whipstock 5 may now be directed toward any point of the compass. After facing the whipstock 5 in the required direction, the drill pipe' is lowered until the whipstock 5 touches the bottom of the drill hole or the top of a cement plug, and the weight of the drill pipe shears the bolt ii freeing the whipstock 5 from the drill bit 4. Drilling operations can now be resumed and the whipstock 5 will deflect the drill bit 4 into the formation in the desired direction.
Although the orienting of whipstocks is not new to the art, it is believed that the herein described method of orienting them is more accurate, more dependable and requires less time than the devices now being commonly utilized. One outstanding feature of the method herein described lies in the fact that the orientation of the whipstock can be checked any number of times before shearing it loose from. the drill bit.
Manifestly, the structure shown is capable of considerable changes and modifications by those skilled in the art and such changes and modifications as may be considered within the spirit and intent of the invention may also be considered within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination with a clinograph and a drill bit for deep wells, a marking device for use in orienting whipstocks comprising a graduated impression plate detachably fixed to the lowermost end of the said clinograph, a ring adjustably arranged Within the head of thesaid drill bit having an integral diametrically arranged rib there.- through, a knife-like edge along the upper side of the said rib having a pointer intermediate its ends, the said rib providing an impression in the said impression plate in the normal cooperation of the said clinograph with the said drill bit.
2. A marking device for use in orienting whipstocks in deep wells cooperating with a clinograph and a drill bit comprising a graduated impression plate detachably fixed to the lowermost end of the said clinograph, a ring adjustably arranged within the head of the said drill bit having a diametrically arrangedrib integral therewith, a knife like edge arranged along the upper side of the said rib and having a pointer intermediate its ends, the said knife-like edge marking the said graduated plate in the normal cooperation of the said clinograph and said bit.
3. In combination with a clinograph and a drill bit for deep wells, a device for predetermining the proper orientation of a whipstock comprising a graduated impression plate detachably fixed to the lower end of the said clinograph, a ring arranged within the head of the said drill bit for cooperation with the said impression plate, a rib integral with the said ring and laterally disposed thereacross, a knife-like edge formed on the upper side of the said rib, and a pointer arranged by angular lines and forming a part of the said knife-like edge.
EUGENE O. TOLSON.