Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2132504 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 11, 1938
Filing dateFeb 17, 1938
Priority dateFeb 17, 1938
Publication numberUS 2132504 A, US 2132504A, US-A-2132504, US2132504 A, US2132504A
InventorsGrant C Whisler
Original AssigneeMorgan Smith S Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydraulic machine
US 2132504 A
Abstract  available in
Images(11)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 11, 1938. c, w s E 2,132,504 I HYDRAULIC MACHINE Filed Feb. 17, 1958 ll Sheets-Sheet 1 O7 208 .69 244 2 l5 I6 T ig. l INVENTOR GRANT C. WHIEBLERv ATTOR N EY 1938- G. c. WHISLER' 2,132,504

HYDRAULIG MACHINE Filed Feb. 17, 1958 11 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fs- 2 k TO CLOSE, amp

ISL-ER INVENT GRANT C. WH

1 BY/k ATTORN EY Oct. 11, 1938. G. c. WHISLER 0 HYDRAULIC MACHINE Fiied Feb; 17, 1958 11 ShetsSheet 5 INVENTOR I GRANT C. WHISLER MAQQQLPYQ" W I ATTORNEY Fig. 3

Oct. 11, 1938. c, w s I 2,132,504

IINVENTOR GRANT C- WHISLER ATTORNEY Oct. 11, 1938. G. c. WHISLER HYDRAUIJIG MACHINE Fild Feb. 17, 1958 .11 Sheets-Sheet 5 'lNVENTOR GRANT C. WHISLE R Oct. 11,' 1938. e. c; WIHISLER 2,132,504

HYDRAULIC MACHINE Filed Feb. 17, 1938 11 Sheets-Sheet s INVENTOR 7 GRANT C.WHISLER ATTORNEY Oct. 11, '1938. G. c. WHISLER 2,132,504

' I HYDRAULIC MACHINE Filed Feb. 17, 1958 ll Sheets-Sheet 7 GRANT ,C wl-us R Oct. 11, 1938. G. c. WHISLER HYDRAULIC MACHINE Filed Feb. 17, 1938 ll Sheets-Sheet 9 Lbm I m. N w w mo. mm N0 vm w y W P a bot rw n mm R 111i 1 m u A y 1 .QOQUUQM R mo. m9 & AZ vm H m8 1 A w m2 .2 m H C n: 5% mi PR 7 m V N A A MW 9N mi xv R A. 8 g. ms G v w mm mm; J J \N% WON MON l r El Em ia m mm. F +9 MM 2 @Q. 3 m: 7 W .EL 0w. a. IWP \m J BSOJJ A IGN- J ILNQ Qt; .3 i T 1 mE Tm: om: M 1.2.. Q2 w my wTwmmwfi mm; m 5. .w. E. .2- m: NQ H mm. E.

BY W

' ATTORNEY Oct. 11, 1938. G. c. WHISLER 2,132,504

7 HYDRAULIC MACHINE I Filed Feb. 17, 193a I 11 Sheets-Sheet 1o ATTORNEY Oct. 11, 1938. G. c. WHISLER 2,132,504

I I HYDRAULIC MACHINE Filed Feb. 1'7, 1938, ll Sheets-Sheet 11 INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 11, 1938 UNITED STATES HYDRAULIC MACHINE Grant 0. Whisler, York, Pa., assignor to S. Morgan Smith Company, York, Pa., a corporation oi Pennsylvania Application February 17, 1938, Serial No. 191,095

41 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in hydraulic machines and more particularly to hydraulic turbines of the type wherein the blades of the runner are adjustable to vary their angle and the area of the water opening through the runner to correspond with the angle and opening of the wicket gates or guide vanes which control the admission of water to the runner.

An object of the invention is to provide an improved adjustable blade hydraulic turbine having a control mechanism in which means are provided by which the operating mechanism for the runner blades is electrically actuated under the control of the wicket gate controlling means,

so that when the wicket gates are adjusted, the relative position of the runner blades will also be correspondingly adjusted and thereby maintain a definite relationship between the angle or position of the wicket gates and the angle or position of the runner blades at all times.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved hydraulic turbine of the above type in which the runner blade adjusting mechanism is operated by an electric motor which is, during the normal operation of the turbine, under the control of self-synchronous electrical devices associated with the wicket gate controlling mechanism.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved electrical system for controlling the operation of adjustable blade hydraulic turbines which can be installed in existing turbine settings of the fixed blade or propeller type, without changes in the generator equipment or turbine setting.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved control system for adjustable blade hydraulic turbines which is adapted to be combined with a standard turbine governor mechanism without the necessity of changing the governor or increasing the cost. thereof.

Another object of the invention is to provid an improved control system for hydraulic machines. of the type having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates and governor mechanism, for varying the positions of the runner blades and the wicket gates in accordance with variations in load so that the runner blades are correspondingly positioned with respect to the wicket .gates during operation of the hydraulic machine, wherein means are provided by which the runner blades can be moved independently oi any movement of the governor from closed position when the hydraulic machine is idle and set at a desired position preparatory to starting up the machine and the governor can be manually actuated to shift the position of the wicket gates from closed position to a position corresponding with the runner blades as the runner attains speed.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved hydraulic machine of the character mentioned, which is simple in construction, and reliable and exact in function under all conditions of service.

The invention also comprises certain new and useful improvements in the construction, arrangement and combination of the several parts of which it is composed, as will be hereinafter more fully described and claimed.

In the accompanying drawings:

Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in "section, of a hydraulic machine having a runner of the adjustable blade type and embodying blade adjusting and controlling means according to the present invention;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical section of the lower end of the runner shaft, showing the construction of the parts within the hub of the runner;

' Figs. 3. 4 and 5 are vertical sections on an enlarged scale of the mechanism at the upper end Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic view of the automatic electric control system shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 14 is an enlarged diagrammatic view of the magnetic reversing switch'device shown in Fig. 13; and

Fig. 15 is a diagrammatic view of a manually operated electrical control system.

Referring to the drawings, and especially to Fig. 1, the improved hydraulic turbine comprises a casing H which forms a peripheral water inlet in which are mounted an annular series of movable wicket gates l2 and an annular series of stationary guide vanes l3, the guide vanes surrounding the wicket gates.

Projecting from the wicket gates l2, are shafts l4 which are journalled in suitable bearings carried by the casing II and terminate a suitable distance thereabove.

The wicket gates I2 are adapted to be rotated simultaneously into different angular positions to control the flow of water into the hydraulic turbine in a well-known manner, and for this purpose the upper ends of the shafts H are usually provided with gate operating arms l5 which are fixed to said shafts and operatively connected to a gate adjusting ring IS.

The gate adjusting ring I5 is connected by link means I! to a shaft 18 which is usually vertically disposed, as shown at the right in Fig. 1.

Fixed to the upper end of the shaft I8, is an arm l9 which is connected by links 20 to a cross head 241 of a governor 2|, (see Figs. 1, 8, 11 and 13).

If so desired, the governor 2i may be of the usual type employed with hydraulic machines to adjust the gates thereof and thereby maintain the turbine at its rated speed notwithstanding variations in the load thereon.

As shown in Figs. 1 and 11, the governor 2| includes in its construction a hand wheel 39 by which the governor can be manually operated in well known manner to effect adjustment of the relative positions of the wicket gates 12 preparatory to starting the hydraulic turbine, as will be hereinafter more fully described.

The governor hand wheel 39 is mounted on a shaft 240 carrying an eccentric 2 and a worm gear 242. The eccentric 24l is adapted to move the gear 242- into and out of meshing relationship with a worm gear 243. The worm gear 243 is fixed to a shaft 244 extending transversely of the governor, said shaft having also fixed thereon a pinion gear 245. The teeth of the gear 245 are in meshing relationship'with teeth 245 formed on the cross head 241. The cross head 24'! is slidably mounted in the housing of the governor 2|, one end of the cross head 24! being connected to the links 20. The opposite end of said cross head is connected to the rod 248 of the main governor piston 249. The piston 249 functions as a servo motor for automatically operating the wicket gates l2 in accordance with changes in load, and fluid under pressure is adapted to be supplied by suitable mechanism (not shown) to the cylinder 25!] through ports 25! and 252, connected respectively, to the chambers on opposite sides of the piston 249.

The lower end of the casing H forms an axially directed chamber 22 in which the runner 23 operates.

As shown in Fig. 2, the hub of the runner 23 is fixed to the lower end of a hollow or tubular shaft 24 which extends upwardly through the casing I I in the usual manner.

The upper end of the runner shaft 24 is connected to the lower end of a tubular casing 40, the upper end of said casing being connected to the shaft 25 of an electric generator 26 which is mounted in superposed position above the hydraulic turbine, as shown in Fig. 1.

Any suitable type of setting may be used, a concrete setting 21 being shown in the present instance. This setting forms a scroll case 28 which surrounds the turbine inlet and is connected to receive water from a flume or other source of supply. The portion of the setting below the runner forms a draft tube 23 into 'hub of the runner 23.

which the water is discharged. The electrical generator 25 may rest on the top of the setting as shown.

As shown in Fig. 2, a suitable number of blades 30 are rotatably supported in the hub of the runner 23 and project radially therefrom. In the present instance four blades are shown (see also Fig. 1).

The inner end of each blade 30 is formed with a trunnion 3| which is journalled in bearings 32 and 33 supported in the hub. The construction is such that the blades are rotatable into different angular relationships with the axis of the runner.

Means are provided for simultaneously rotating all of the blades 30 and for maintaining them in equal angular relationships, such means comprising preferably an arm 34 rigidly fixed on the trunnion 3| of each blade and links 35 which pivotally connect each arm 34 to a cross head 36. The cross head 36 is guided to reciprocate in a direction axially of the runner by guide pins 31 which are mounted in the hub of the runner in the manner shown in Fig. 2.

It will be understood that the relative positions of the blades 30 governs the area of the water passage or openings between the blades, and that when the blades are rotated, the area of the water passages is increased or decreased depending upon the direction in which the blades are moved.

As shown in Fig. l, a cap 38 is bolted or otherwise removably secured to the lower end of the Since the hub of the runneris otherwise enclosed and the hub is hollow, the cap 38 provides a closed chamber or reservoir for containing a supply of grease for lubricating the various working parts of the mechanism contained within the hub of the runner.

In the usual construction of hydraulic turbines the runner shaft is made of sufiicient length so that said shaft can be bolted directly to the lower end of the generator shaft. However, in the present instance, the shaft 24 is made comparatively short so that the elongated-tubular casing 40 can be interposed between the shaft 24 and the generator shaft 25. The casing 40 encloses elements, to be hereinafter described, for operating the runner blade mechanism within the hub of the runner 23, and said casing is adapted to be bolted to the runner shaft 24 and the generator shaft 25 and thereby constitute a rotary portion of the main shaft of the turbine. For convenience of manufacture the casing 40 is composed of two vertically divided sections, which sections are adapted to be bolted together at intervals throughout their length, as shown in Figs. 3, 4, 6 and 7.

The casing 40 is constructed in such a manner that the elements contained therein can be mounted on one half or one section of the casing so that the other halfor section of the casing can be removed without dismantling any part of the turbine, the generator, shafts and motor operating mechanism. In this way inspection, adjustment and replacement of the parts within the casing 40 can be readily accomplished in a minimum amount of time.

As shown in Figs. 6 and '7, the casing 40 may have lower and upper inlet and outlet vent openings 255 and 256, respectively, formed therein for inducing currents of air to flow through the interior of the casing when the runner is in operation, so as-to prevent overheating of the ele- On the other hand, as shown in Fig. 6, the wall 258 at the outlet opening 256 is so formed as to permit the air to pass outwardly from the interior of the casing.

The upper portion of the shaft 24 is enlarged,

' as indicated at 4|, Figs. 4 and 5. This enlarged portion of the shaft 24 is secured to the lower portion of the casing 40 by a plurality of bolts 42, as shown in Figs. 4, and '1. i

The lower portion of the generator shaft 25 is formed with a flange 43 which is secured to the upper portion of the casing 48 by bolts 44, as shown in Fig. 3.

In this way rotation of the runner shaft 24 will be transmitted to the shaft 25 of the generator 26 by the casing 40'.

Disposed within the casing 48 is an electric motor 45 which is adapted, through mechanism to be hereinafter described, to operate the runner blade adjusting mechanism in the hub of the runner 23. I

Since the runner blades are adjusted by slowly moving the cross head 36 either upwardly or downwardly, and since it is of advantage to employ an electric motor of standard design, which motors usually have a comparatively high speed, it is necessary to provide means in the mechanism which is employed to operatively connect the electric motor with the cross head 36, for reducing the speed from the motor sufficiently to effect the desired slow movement of the cross head 36. V

As shown in Fig. 2, the cross head 36 is bolted or otherwise fixed to the lower end of an operating rod 46 which extends upwardly through the hollow runner shaft 24.

As shown in Fig. 5, the upper end of the rod 46 is fixed to an internally threaded sleeve 41 which is slidably mounted in the bore of the runner shaft 24.

Fitted to the sleeve 41 is a screw 48, which is connected to the driven member 49 of a speed reducer 5,6.

As shown in Figs. 4 and '7, the speed reducer comprises a driving member in the form of a shaft 5|, and the driven member 49.

The driving member or shaft 5|, which is connected to the shaft 52 of the motor 45 by a coupling 53, has an eccentric 54 thereon which supports a ball bearing or other anti-friction bearing 55.

The outer member or race of the ball bearing 55 is surrounded by a series of radially disposed plungers 56. The inner ends of the plungers 56 bear on the outer race of the bearing 55 and the outer ends of said plungers are arranged to cooperate with teeth 51 formed concentrically within the outer or stationary member 58. Both ends of the plungers 56 are bevelled, and the teeth 51 are bevelled.

The number of teeth 51 differs from the number of plungers 56 so that rotation of the eccentric 54 will cause the plungers 56 to be forced outwardly in succession around the circular series of teeth 51 and in consequence will cause the a member 56 which is fixed to the driven member 46 by pins 68 so that the creeping motion of said plungers around the toothed interior of the stationary member 58 will be transmitted to the driven member 49. The motion of the driving member 5| is'thus transmitted to the driven member 49, but at a great reduction in speed ratio.

The speed reducer 50 is mounted between upper and lower supporting members 6| and 62, respectively, which are fixed within the casing 40 by bolts 63 attached to the enlarged portion 4| of the runner shaft 24, as shown in Fig. 4.

Upper and lower roller thrust bearings 64 and 65 are, respectively, provided for the speed reducer 50, and above the upper thrust bearing 64 there is a ball bearing 66. The roller thrust bearings are adapted to carry the forces imposed on the operating rod 46 by the runner blades.

The driving member of the speed reducer 50 is connected to the armature or other rotating part (not shown) of the motor 45, so that the speed reducer will be actuated by said motor.

Since the driven member 49 of the speed reducer 58 and the screw 48 are directly connected together, the rod 46 will be operated by the sleeve 41 to effect changes in the angular positions of the runner blades.

For the purpose of indicating the relative positions of the runner blades, at a convenient point the runner shaft 24 is formed with an elongated slot 68 (see Figs. 1 and 5).

Disposed within the slot 68 is a pointed pin 69 which is fixed to the upper portion of the operating rod 46, In the present instance the pin 69 is shown as being carried by the sleeve 41.

As shown in Fig. l the exterior of the runner shaft 24 adjacent to the slot 68 carries suitable marks for indicating the several angles of runner blade positions, as determined by the position of the pointed pin-- 69.

Preferably the electric motor is a threephase alternating current induction motor which is adapted to be supplied with electric current from a main power line I25, I26 and I21, in such a manner that the motor will operate in either direction. The electric circuit for conducting high voltage electric current to the motor 45 will be hereinafter fully described.

When the motor 45 operates in one direction the screw 48 will, through the sleeve 41, cause a rectilinear movement of the rod 46 in one direction, and when the motor 45 operates in the other direction, the rod 46 will be moved in the opposite direction, due to the reversed movements imparted to the screw 48 by the motor.

As shown by the arrow, Fig. 2, when the rod 46 moves upwardly, the runner blades 38 are moved towards closed position, and when the rod 46 moves downwardly in a direction opposite to the arrow, Fig. 2, the runner blades 30 are moved toward open position.

The construction of the speed reducer 50, screw 48, and sleeve 41 is such that, when the shaft 5| is rotated by the motor 45 in a clockwise direction, the runner blades will be moved toward closed position, and when the motor is reversed and the shaft 5| is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, the runner blades will be moved toward open position.

For the purpose of controlling the operation of the electric motor 45, an electrical system is utilized which comprises a self-synchronous motor 1| operativeiy connected to the electric motor 45 and a self-synchronous motor 12 operatively connected with the governor 2|. The motors 1| and 12 are electrically connected in a manner to be hereinafter described so that operation of one of said motors effects operation of the other motor.

The self-synchronous motors 1I and 12 are similar in construction, each having a singlephase field winding and a polycircuit armature winding, one of these windings being on the stator and the other winding on the rotor of the respective motors. The field windings are excited from a suitable source of single-phase alternating current and thereby set up fields which interlink with their respective armature windings. The like points of the polycircuit armature windings are electrically connected so that a change in the angular position of the rotor of one device will set up unbalanced voltages in the armature windings, in consequence of which a torque is developed which acts to bring the rotors of the different motors into the same or corresponding angular positions.

According to the present invention the selfsynchronous motor 12 constitutes the transmitting device and the self-synchronous motor 1I constitutes a receiving device.

As shown in Fig. 3, the motor II has a spur gear shaft 18 carrying a gear 19 which is in meshing relationship with a gear 80 fixed to the shaft 52 of the motor 45. In this way the motors II and 45 are operativeiy connected for a purpose to be hereinafter more fully described.

The casing 40 carries a plurality of collector rings 8I, 82, 88, 84, 85, 86, 81 and 88. Thes collector rings are preferably mounted on vertically disposed bars 89 which are connected to the upper portion of the casing 40, as shown in The collector rings 84, 85, 86, 81 and 88 are I connected to the self-synchronous motor II by conductors 94, 95, 96, 91 and 98 respectively.

The conductors are preferably contained within insulated cables which are passed through openings in the top of the casing 40 and extend downwardly to the motors 45 and 1 I, respectively, as shown in Fig. 3.

As shown in Figs. 1 and 13, brushes IOI, I02, I03, I04, I05, I06, I01 and I08 which are carried by a bracket I09 suspended from the generator 26, engage, respectively, the collector rings 8|, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 81 and 88.

For the purpose of controlling the motor 45, a magnetic switch device 18 is utilized.

As shown diagrammatically in Figs. 13 and 14, the switch device 13 comprises two sets of movable switch elements or blades 14 and 15, which are adapted to be operated by magnets 16 and 11, respectively.

The magnet 16 is associated with the switch 14 comprising'the switch elements I28, I29 and I80.

The magnet 11 is associated with the switch 15 comprising the switch elements 202, 208 and 204.

The movable switch elements I28, I29 and I80 are adapted to engage electrical contacts I I0, III and II 2, respectively.

The movable switch elements 202, 208 and 204 are adapted to engage electrical contacts I I8, H4 and H5, respectively.

The construction of the switch device 13 is such that when the magnet 16 is energized, the switch elements I28, I28 and I80 will be simultaneously operated to engage the contacts II 0, III and H2, respectively, and thereby close an electric circuit through which electric current is supplied to the motor 45 for operating said motor in one direction, and when the magnet 11 is energized, the switch elements 202, 208 and 204 will be simultaneously operated to engage the contacts H8, H4 and H5, respectively, so that an electric circult will be closed through which electric current is supplied for operating the motor 45 in the opposite direction.

As will be hereinafter more fully described, means are provided for controlling the electric circuits of the magnets 16 and 11 in such a manner that when current is supplied for energizing one magnet, the other magnet will remain deenergized.

The main power lineconductors I25, I26 and I21 are connected to the contacts I I0, I II and H2 of switch 14, by conductors II6 and,I I9, III and I20 and H8 and I 2|, respectively.

The main power line conductors I25, I26and I21 are also connected to the contacts I I8, I I4 and H of switch 15, by conductors H6 and I22, H1 and I28, and H8 and I24, respectively.

The main power line conductors I25, I26 and I21 supply three-phase, sixty-cycle electric current to the apparatus from a suitable source of supply.

The terminal of the switch element I28 is connected to the terminal I8I of switch element 202 by a conductor I82, and terminal I8I is connected to terminal I83 of the switch device 13, by a conductor I34.

The terminal of switch element I29 is connected to the terminal I36 of switch element 204 by a conductor I31, and terminal I86 is connected to terminal I88 of the switch device 18, by a conductor I89.

The terminal of switch element I80 is connected to the terminal I4I of switch element 208 by a conductor I42, and terminal I M is connected to terminal I48 of the switch device 18, by a conductor I44.

The brushes IOI, I02 and I08 are connected to the terminals I38, I48 and I88, respectively, by conductors I45, I46, and I41.

A pilot switch device I50 is provided for controlling the electric circuits through which electric current is supplied for operating the magnets 16 and 11 of the reversing switch device 18.

As shown in Fig. 13, the pilot device I50 comprises two switch members I 5| and I 52, which are operated, respectively, by relays I58 and I54.

The switch member I5I is adapted to engage contacts I55 and I56, and the switch member I52 is adapted to engage contacts I51 and I58.

The contact I55 is connected to one terminal of the magnet 15, by a conductor I59, and the contact I58 is connected to one terminal of the magnet 11, by a conductor I60. The other terminals of the magnets 16 and 11 are electrically connected to the pilot switch device I50 in a manner to be hereinafter more fully described.

The shaft I6I of the self-synchronous motor or transmitter 12 carries an electrical contact I 62, which contact is disposed between a pair of electrical contacts I68 and I 64. The arrangement of the parts is such that the contact I62 has a limited swinging movement between the contacts I68 and I64, before the contact I62 engages either the contact I68 or the contact I64.

The movable contact I62 is connected to the brush I04 by conductor I65, terminal i68, conductor I61, terminal I68 and conductor I69.

1 The contact I63 is connected to one terminal of. the relay I53 of the pilot switch device I50 by conductor I18, terminal "I, and conductor I12.

Contact I63 is also connected to a terminal I93 of the magnetic'switch device 13 by conductor I94, incandescent lamp bulb I95, terminal I86, conductor I88, terminal I89, and conductor I90.

The terminal I93 is connected to the magnets 16 and 11 of the magnetic switch device 13, by fuse I9I and conductor I92.

The contact I64 is connected to one terminal of the relay I54 of the pilot switch device I50 by conductor I13.

The other terminals of the relays I53, I54- together with the contacts I56 and I51 are connected to a conductor I15 leading to a terminal I16.

' The terminals HI and I16 are electrically connected to a time delay switch device I14 oi switch device I96, the other element I83 of which switch device is adapted to engage a contact I84 electrically connected to main power line conductor I26 by a conductor I85. The terminal of switch element I83 is connected to terminal I86 by a conductor I81.

The self-synchronous motor or transmitter 12 has a three-phase, delta-connected armature winding 205 and a field winding 206. One terminal of thefield winding 206 is connected to a conductor 208 and the other terminal of the field winding 206 is connected to a conductor 209. The conductor 208 is connected to a terminal 2I0, and the conductor 209 is connected to terminal I66 heretofore referred to.

The terminal 2I0 is connected to the brush I05 by a conductor 2i I.

The different phase points of the armature winding 205 of the transmitter 12 are interconnected to the like phase points of the three-phase armature windings 2I3 of the-motor-1I, by conductors 2M, 2I5 and M6. the brushes I06, I01 and I08, the collector rings 86, 81 and, and the conductors 96. 91 and 98. respectively.

The motor H has a field winding 2I1, one terminal of which is connected to the conductor 94 from the collector ring 84,,and the other terminal of which is connected to the conductor 95 from the collector ring 85 so that the field winding 2I1 is excited.

For the purpose of actuating the contact I62. the shaft I8 has fixed thereon a plate 22I formed with a. cam 222, as shown best in Figs. 8 and 13.

Projecting from the shaft I6I of the motor 12 is an arm 223 having a roller 224 mounted thereon for engaging the cam 222. i

As shown in Figs. 1, 8 and 9 the transmitter motor 12 may be .mounted on a portion of the 4 housing of the governor 2i at a. point adjacent to the shaft I8. This portion of the governor housing also serves as bearing means 225 for supporting the upper portion of the shaft I8.

Fastened to the, bearing 225 is a bracket 226 which supports a solenoid device 221.

The movable part 228 of the solenoid 221 is connected to a rod 229 having an elongated slot 230 in its outer end.

The journal 23I of the roller 224 extends through the slot 230 so that when the rod 229 is actuated by the solenoid 221 in a manner to be hereinafter described, the arm" 223 will be actuated to turn the shaft I6I oi the transmitter motor 12.

When the solenoid 221 is deenergized the journal 23I will be disposed at the inner end of the slot 230 and the roller will be in engagement with the cam 222.

' 223 back against the cam 222 independently of any action of the solenoid 221 or rod 229, there is provided a counterweight 233 which is suspended from a cable 234 connected-to one end of a coil spring 235 which is in turn connected at its other end to the journal 23I. The cable 234 may be passed over a grooved wheel 236 carried by a bracket 231 secured to one end of the solenoid 221.

For energizing the solenoid 221 electric current is supplied from the main line conductors I25 and I26 when the switch device I96 is closed and the switch elements I80 and I83 engage the contacts I8I and I84, respectively. The solenoid electric circuit comprises, from the conductor I25, the line I82, I19, I91 and I98 to one terminal of the solenoid-221, and from the conductor I26,

the line I85, I81, I88, I99, terminal 2I0, line 201,

switch device 200 and conductor 20I to the other terminal of the solenoid 221.

The switch device 200 is operatively associated with the field switch 232 of the generator 26 in such a manner that when the field switch 232 is closed the solenoid switch device 200 will be in open position so that solenoid 221 will be deenergized.

As is well known, field switches for electric generators control the electric circuit from the exciter to the generator, and these switch devices may be of the double pole type as shown -in Fig. 13, the operating arm of which is connected to the switch 20I, When the generating apparatus is idle the field switch is open, and after the prime mover has been started up and attains its desired speed, the field switch 232 is closed, thereby connecting the generator to develop power on the power line.

In operation, the adjustable runner blades 30 are adapted to maintain a definite relative position with respect to the wicket gates I2. When the wicket gates I2 are moved to vary their angle and the area of the water opening to the runner, the runner blades 30 are adapted to be correspondingly moved. However, the actuation of the runner blades to efiect a change in the position thereof to correspond with the new position of the wicket gates follows closely the initial actuation of the wicketgate operating mechanism to effect the change in the position of the wicket gates. Y

Assuming that the turbine is in operation and that the line switch I55 andt'he generator field switch 252 are both'closed. when the'governor 2| operates to swing the wicket gates I 2 toward open or closed position to vary the gate opening to conform with variations in the load on the turbine, the arm 225, will, through the action of cam 222, turn the rotor shaft I5I oi the transmitter 12, and move the contact I52 into engagement with either of the contacts I55 and I54 according to the direction in which the governor 2I operates, thereby closing the electrical circuit through which either the relay I55 or the relay I54 is energized.

For instance, when the governor 2I operates to move the wicket gates toward open position. the cam plate 22I will be moved in the clockwise direction, indicated by the arrow in Figs. 8 and 13, and consequently the movable contact I52 will be moved into engagement with the contact I55,

thereby closing the electrical circuit through which the relay I55 is energized. 0n the other hand, when the governor 2i operates to move the wicket gates toward closed position, the cam plate 22I will be turned in a counter-clockwise direction, and consequently the movable contact I62 will be moved into engagement with the contact I55, thereby closing the electrical circuit through which the relay I55 is energized.

When the shaft I" is rotated and contact I52 engages with either contact I55 or contact I55, the shaft I5I may continue to rotate beyond the point at which the contact of the switch elements is made. Since the armature winding or rotor 205 is fixed to the shaft I", obviously said rotor will also be rotated.

When the relay I55 is energized, the switch member I52 is engaged with the contacts I51 and I58, and the electrical circuit oi magnet 11 is closed so that electric current is supplied for energizing the magnet 11 from the main power line conductors I25 and I25.

With the energization of the magnet 11, the switch 15 will be operated so that the switch blades 202, 205 and 205 engage the contacts 5, I I4 and H5, respectively, and close the circuit from the main power line conductors I25, I25 and I21 to the brushes I05, I02 and IM. respectively. The motor 55 will then rotate in a counter-clockwise direction and its motion is transmitted through the speed reducer to the screw 48. The screw 48, rotating in a counterclockwise direction at greatly reduced speed within the threaded sleeve 51, will lower the operating rod 55, and said rod will correspondingly lower the cross head 55. The cross head 55, acting through the links and arms 55 will simultaneously rotate the runnerblades 30 about .their trunnions as axes toward open position.

The motors 12 and 1| each have a single-phase, alternating current rotor with definite poles.

These two motors are electrically connected together in the manner heretofore described, forming one system and energizing the rotors creates induced voltages oi unequal magnitude in the three legs of the field windings or stators 205 and 2" respectively, with the voltages varying with the position of the rotors.

equal and opposite and there is no flow of electric current in either stator winding.

Movement 0! the transmitter rotor 205 from, its original position unbalances the voltages at the three legs of the stators 205 and 2", creating a now of electric current in the stator winding. This electric current sets up torque in both stators 205 and 2" and with the rotor 2" held in a definite position by the motor 55, the unbalanced torque causes the rotor 205 to hold the contact I52 in engagement with the contact I Since the motor 55 is operatively connected to the armature winding or rotor 2I5 oi the receiver motor 1|, by gears 15 and 50, the rotor 2I5 will be rotated by the motor 55 when the motor 55 operates to effect a change in the angle or position 01 the runner blades.

The rotation of the rotor 2I5 of the receiver motor H is transmitted to the rotor 205 of the transmitter motor 12, under the influence oi the voltages in the interlinked rotor windings tending to bring the rotors into angular agreement.

When the rotor 2 I5 has been rotated by motor 55 ton position corresponding to the position into which the rotor 205 01' the transmitter 12 has been rotated by cam 222, the voltages in the field windings 2| 1 and 205 are equal and opposite and the flow 01' electric current in the stator winding ceases, with the result that contact I52 is caused to move away from the contact I55 so that the electric circuit through which the magnet 11 is energized is opened and said magnet deenergized.

. when the magnet I1 is deenergized the switch 15 will be moved to open position, thereby opening the electric circuit through which electric current from the main power line conductors I25, I25 and I21 is supplied to the motor 55 for operating said motor. with the cessation in 0 other until the wicket gates I2 are again operated, whereupon a runner blade adjusting operation similar to that Just described will. again take place to automatically move the runner blades into proper position with respect to the position assumed by the wicket gates I2.

On the other hand, when the governor 2| operates to move the wicket gates toward closed position, the earn 222 will be moved in a counterclockwise direction, and consequently the movable contact I52 will be moved into engagement with the contact I55, thereby closing the electrical circuit through which the relay I55 is energized. I

When the relay I55 is energized, the switch member I5I is engaged with the contacts I55 and I55, and the electrical circuit of magnet 15 is closed so that the switch 15 will be operated by said magnet and thereby close the circuit from the main power line conductors I25, I25 and I21 to the motor 55. The motor 55 will then rotate in a clockwise direction with the result that the runner blades will be rotated towards closed position.

when the rotor 2I5 oi the receiver H has been rotated in the manner hereinbei'ore described to a position corresponding to the position into which the rotor 205 of the transmitter 12 was rotated by earn 222, the motors 12 and II will be synchronized, with the result that contact I52 is caused to move away from the contact I 55 so and I21 is supplied to the motor 45. with the cessation of operation of the motor 45 the runner blades will have been brought to a position corresponding to the position of the wicket gates I2.

It has been described that there is an electric lamp bulb I95 in the electric circuit between the transmitter switch device and the magnet switch device 13. Another electric lamp bulb 220 is mounted in the circuit from the contact I64, conductors 2I9, 2I8, I11 and I to relay I54. The purpose of the lamps I35 and 220 is to indicate to an attendant at the hydro-electric power station when the wicket gates I2 and the runner blades are synchronized. When the.

lamps I95 and 220 are not illuminated, it is an indication that the runner blades are synchronized with respect to the wicket gates. due to the fact that the motors H and 12 are correspondingly positioned. Should the runner blades, through some fault in the mechanism, fail to respond to a change in wicket gate movement, one or the other control circuits would remain alive, thereby causing a flow of electric current through one of the lamps. The exact position of the runner blades can then be noted by observing the position of the indicator 63 and thedefect in the control system repaired.

In the above description of the operation of the apparatus it was assumed that the turbine was in operation and the manner by which the runner blades are maintained synchronized with the wicket gates was set forth.

When a unit is idle the wicket gates I2 and the runner blades 30 are in closed position, and it is necessary to first manually operate controls to put the turbine in operation, before the unit functions automatically in the manner heretofore described.

In starting up an idle unit embodying the present invention, the first operation is to close the switch device I96 so that the magnetic control circuit will be energized from the power line conductors I25 and I26.

As shown in Figs. 1 and 13, when the apparatus is idle, the generator field switch 232 is open and the switch- 206 of the electric circuit of the solenoid device 221 is closed. Thus, when switch I96 is closed electric current will energize the solenoid 221, thereby moving contact I52 into engagement with contact I64. Magnetic switch 15 will then be operated to close the electric circuit through which electric current is supplied from the main power line conductors I25, I26 and I21 to motor 45, in the manner heretofore described, so that the runner blades are moved toward open position.

The movement of the runner blades toward open position, which is effected in the manner just described at the beginning of the operation of starting up a unit, is independent of any movement in the governor 2| and its associated mechanism. In other words, the runner blades are first moved towards open position while the wicket gates are closed.

When the runner blades have thus been opened, an operator moves the worm gear 242 into meshing relationship with the worm gear 243 by operating the eccentric 24I (see Figs. 11 and 12). The hand wheel 33 is next rotated manually to move the cross head 241 in the direction in which the wicket gates I2 are opened.

The opening of the wicket gates I2 admits water to the chamber 22 thereby actuating the runner As the turbine attains speed, the governor mechanism will function to control the operation of the cross head 241 and consequently the movements of the actuating piston 243 of the governor will be transmitted to the wicket gates I2 and to the transmitter 12. The operator then actuates the eccentric 24! so as to disengage the worm gear 242 from the worm 243, thereby uncoupling the hand wheel 39. The generator field switch 232 is then closed, and this action automatically opens the switch 200 of the electric circuit of solenoid 221, so that the solenoid is deenergized.

When the solenoid 221 is deenergized the roller 224 is pulled into contact with cam 222 by the counterweight 233. With the roller 224 engaging the cam 22 the transmitter 12 will function in the manner heretofore described so as to maintain the runner blades in definite relationship with the wicket gates.

In some cases it is desirable to provide a turbine with a manually operable control. In such cases the transmitter 212 is usually mounted on a control panel or switchboard in the power house. A form-of manual control embodying the present invention is shown in Fig. 15. The shaft 26I oi the transmitter 212 carries an operating knob 252 by which said transmltter'can be manually operated to close the electric circuits to the magnetic switch device 13. In a manual control system the same types of control and switch devices may be used as has been heretofore described, only the transmitter is not operatively connected with a governor to be operated thereby. Therefore, in Fig. 15 the parts corresponding to the same parts shown in Fig. 13 are given corresponding reference numerals.

Under manual operation, an operator moves the transmitter to the position at which it is desired that the turbine operate, such as half gate opening, three-quarter gate opening, etc. The receiver motor 16 will then function in the manner heretofore described to maintain the angular position of the runer blades synchronized with the position at which the transmitter 212 is set.

A manually controlled system is advantageous for use in hydro-electric power plants where units deliver substantially uniform loads. At intervals when changes in the load occur, the transmitter 212 of the manually controlled unit can be operated to effect a corresponding change in the position of the runner blades.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:

1. In combination, a hydraulic machine having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates adapted to operate in unison. a governor and said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the'runner, and means operable independently of the governor when the machine is being started up from an idle condition for initially setting the runner blades at predetermined position without imparting any movement to the wicket gates.

3. In combination, a hydraulic machine having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates adapted to operate in unison, a governor for controlling the operation of said runner blades and said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the runner, means operable independently of the governor when the machine is being started up from an idle condition for initially setting the runner blades at a predetermined position without imparting any movement to the wicket gates, and means for operating said wicket gates toward open position after the runner blades have been initially set to admit operating fluid to the runner for driving the runner.

4. In combination, a hydraulic machine having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates adapted to operate in unison, an electric motor for actuating the runner blade operating mechanism, electrical control means for controlling the operation of said motor and comprising a receiver unit operatively connected to said motor and transmitter unit, a governor for controlling the operation of said runner blades and said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the runner, means operatively connecting said transmitter unit with said governor, and means operable independently of the governor when the machine is being started up from an idle condition for initially actuating said 86 transmitter unit so as to set the runner blades at a predetermined position without imparting any movement to the wicket gates.

5. In combination, a hydraulic machine having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates, a governor for controlling said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the runner blades, said governor having an automatically operable servo-motor for actuating said wicket gates and said runner blades, means operatively connecting said governor and said runner blades for maintaining said runner blades correspondingly positioned with respect to said wicket gates and adapted to change the position of the runner blades when said wicket gates are moved by said governor, means operable hidependently of the governor for setting the runner blades at a predetermined position without imparting any movement to the wicket gates when said wicket gates and runner blades are in closed position and the machine is being started up from an idle condition, and manually operable mechanism adapted to be actuated independently of said governor servo-motor for setting said wicket gates at a position corresponding to the position at which the runner blades have been initially set.

6. In combination, a hydraulic machine hav- ,ing adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates adapted to operate in unison, mechanism for operating the runner blades and comprising an electric motor and electric means for controlling the operation thereof, a governor for con trolling the operation of said runner blades and said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the runner and having direct mechanical connection with said wicket gates and electrical means controlled thereby connected to said runner blade motor controlling electrical means, and electrical means operable independ- 7 ently of the governor for controlling the operation of said runner blade motor controlling means so that the runner blades can be set at a predetermined position independent of any movement being imparted to said wicket gates.

7. In combination, a hydraulic machine having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates adapted to operate in unison, mechanism for operating the runner blades and comprising an electric motor and electric means for controlling the operation thereof, a governor for automatically controlling the operation of said runner blades and said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the runner and having direct mechanical connection with said wicket gates and electrical connection with said runner blade operating mechanism, electrical means operable independently of the governor for controlling the operation of the runner blade motor controlling means so that the runner blades can be set at a predetermined position independent of any movement being imparted to said wicket gates, and means for manually moving the wicket gates so that the wicket gates can be set at a position corresponding to the position of the runner blades, said last named means being adapted to be uncoupled from the wicket gate operating mechanism when the position of the wicket gates corresponds to the position of the runner blades so as to permit automatic op eration of the governor.

8. In combination, a hydraulic machine having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates adapted to operate in unison, a governor for controlling the positions of said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the runner, said runner having a shaft containing operating mechanism for the runner blades and an electric motor for operating said mechanism, a pair of synchronous motor devices having rotatable rotors electrically connected together whereby movement of the rotor of one device effects a corresponding movement to the rotor of the other device, one of said motor devices being operatively connected to said runner blade motor and the other motor device being operatively connected to said governor and being operated by said governor whereby movements of the governor to efiect changes in the positions of the wicket gates is transmitted by said governor motor device to said runner motor device so as to effect corresponding changes in the positions of the runner blades.

9. In combination, a runner shaft, adjustable runner blades carried by said shaft, means for moving said runner blades and including an electric motor in said runner shaft, control'means for said motor comprising two self-synchronous electric motor devices one of which is operatively connected to said runner blade motor and the other motor device being disposed remotely with respect to the runner shaft and being electrically connected to the first motor device whereby operation of said motor devices is synchronized, and means initially operating said second motor device for controlling the operation of all of said motors.

10. In a hydraulic turbine, a rotating shaft, runner blades carried thereby and adjustable upon their axes, an electric motor carried by the shaft, operative connections between said motor and said blades for turning the blades upon their axes, two self synchronous electric motor devices one of which is carried by the runner shaft and has its rotor operatively connected to the rotor shaft of said runner blade motor and the other stator, respectively, of said ilrstmotor device whereby movement of the rotor of one of said motor devices is effective in causing a corresponding movement to the rotor of the other said motor device, electric switch means operatively connected to the rotor of the second motor device, electric circuits controlling the operation of said runner shaft motor, said electric circuits being controlled by the electric switch means of the second motor device, and means for controlling the operation of said second motor device.

11. In combinatioma hydraulic machine having adjustable runner blades and movable wicket gates adapted to operate in unison, a governor for controlling the operation of said runner blades and said wicket gates in accordance with variations in load on the runner, the runner having a shaft containing operating mechanism for the runner blades and an electric motor for operating said mechanism, two self-synchronous electric motor devices one of which is carried by the runner shaft and has its rotor operatively connected to the rotor shaft of said runner blade motor and the other motor device being remotely disposed with respect to said runner shaft and having its rotor and its stator electrically connected to the rotor and stator, respectively, of said first motor device whereby movement of the rotor of one of said motor devices is effective in causing a corresponding movement to the rotor of the other said motor device, electric switch means operatively connected to the rotor of the, second motor device, electric circuits controlling the operation of said runner shaft motor, said electric circuits being controlled by the electric switch means of the second motor device, and means for controlling the operation of said second motor device.

12. In a hydraulic turbine, a runner having blades movable into different angular positions, gates movable into different angular positions and controlling the fiow of the driving fluid to theturbine, a governor for adjusting the angular positions of the gates, mechanism foradjusting the runner blades, said mechanism being operable in opposite directions, an electric motor for operating said runner blade adjusting mechanism, magnetic switches for controlling the motor, one of said switches being operative to control the operation of the motor in one direction and the other said switch being operative .to control the operation of the motor in the opposite direction, an electrically operated pilot switch device having means for selectively controlling each of said magnetic switches, a pair of synchronous motor devices having rotors electrically connected together whereby movement of the rotor of one device eifects a corresponding movement to the rotor of the other device, one of said motor devices being operatively connected to said runner blade operating motor and the other motor device being operatively connected to said governor, and electricalswitch means operatively connected to the rotor of said second named motor device for controlling the operation of said pilot switch devlce.

13. In a hydraulic turbine, a runner having blades movable into difierent angular positions, gates movable into different angular positions and controlling the flow of the driving fluid to the turbine, a governor for adjusting the angular positions of the gates, mechanism for adjusting the runner blades, said mechanism being operable in opposite directions, an electric motor for operating said runner blade adjusting mechanism, magnetic switches for controlling the motor, one of said switches being operative to control the operationof the motor in one direction' and the other said switch being operative to control the operation of the motor in the opposite direction, an electrically operated pilot switch device having means for selectively controlling each of said magnetic switches, a pair of synchronous motorv devices having rotors electrically connected together whereby movement of the rotor of one device effects a corresponding movement to the rotor of the other device, one of said motor devices being operatively connected to said runner blade operating motor and the other motor device being operatively connected to said governor, electrical switch means operatively connected to the rotor of said second named motor device for controlling the operation of said pilot switch, and means operable independently of the governor for actuating said last named electrical switch means whereby the runner blades can be moved without imparting any movement to said gates.

- 14. In a hydraulic turbine, a runner having blades movable into different angular positions, gates movable into different angular positions and controlling the flow of the driving fluid to the turbine, a governor. for adjusting the angular positions of the gates, mechanism for adjusting the runner blades, said mechanism being operable in opposite directions, an electric motor for operating said runner blade adjusting mechanism, magnetic switches for controlling the motor, one of said switches being operative to control the operation of the motor in one direction and the other said switch being operative to control the operation of themotor in the opposite direction,

an electrically operated pilot switch device having means for selectively controlling each of said magnetic switches, a pair of synchronous motor devices having their stators and rotors, respectively, electrically connected whereby movement of the rotor of one device efl'ects a corresponding movement to the rotor of the other device, one of said motor devices being operatively connected to said runner blade operating motor andthe other motor device being operatively connected to said governor, electrical switch means operatively connected to the rotor of said second named motor device for controlling the operation of' said pilot switch, a cam operatively connected with said governor, an arm extending from the rotor of said second named motor device and carrying a roller adapted to engage said cam whereby movement of the cam is eifective to operate the electrical switch means of the second motor de- -vice, a rod having slotted connection with the arm for operating said arm independently of the cam, a solenoid for operating said rod, and means for controlling the operation of said solenoid.

15. In a hydraulic turbine having adjustable runner blades, a shaft rotatable by the runner,

a housing attached to said shaft, a blade operating rod extending coaxially of said shaft, an electric motor within said housing, electrical means including a reversible electrically operated switch for controlling the direction of rotation of said motor, a pair of synchronous motor devices having their rotors and stators, respectively, electrically connected whereby movement of the rotor of one device effects a corresponding movement to the rotor of the other device, one of said motor

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2474635 *Aug 18, 1943Jun 28, 1949Nichols Harry JVariable pitch propeller
US3098184 *Mar 11, 1960Jul 16, 1963English Electric Co LtdGearing mechanism motor drive
US4610599 *Sep 1, 1983Sep 9, 1986Allis-Chalmers CorporationApparatus for controlling a hydraulic turbine
US8125096 *Jul 3, 2008Feb 28, 2012Salvatore ShifrinHydro turbine generator
US8581430Feb 22, 2012Nov 12, 2013Salvatore ShifrinHydro turbine generator
WO2011031671A1Sep 7, 2010Mar 17, 2011Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc.Curable compositions that form a high modulus polyurea
Classifications
U.S. Classification415/19, 415/42, 415/21, 415/33
International ClassificationF03B15/00, F03B15/10
Cooperative ClassificationF03B15/10, Y02E10/226
European ClassificationF03B15/10