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Publication numberUS2135118 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 1, 1938
Filing dateApr 18, 1936
Priority dateApr 18, 1936
Publication numberUS 2135118 A, US 2135118A, US-A-2135118, US2135118 A, US2135118A
InventorsStewart Andrew H
Original AssigneeStewart Andrew H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tile-mounting structure
US 2135118 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

A. H. STEWART TILE MOUNTING STRUCTURE Filed April 18, 1936 Nov. 1, 1938.

2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1938. A. H. STEWART g 2,135,118

TILE MOUNTING STRUCTURE Filed April-l8, 1956 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 r" .6. Z '12 {:9 1p

INVENTOR mounting,

Patented Nov. 1, 1938 UNITE-1D. STATES ENT OF 18 Claims.

This. invention relates. to improvements in attaching tile andiother surface covering elements to a building construction, and more particularly, to attachingstructure which will permit the surface covering elements to expand and/or contractindependent-ly. of'the structureupon. which they are mounted.

Although it has been customary to mount. tiling -by. employing cementitious or plastic holding .materials, metal structures for mounting tiling without the use of cement are known. The metal structures have not. been commercially successful, however, possibly. due to the fact that they aremore expensive, require. tedious work in and are not satisfactory when mounted.

Previous to the present invention, neither of the above-mentioned mounting methods have been entirely satisfactory and this is particularly true when certain types of surface elements or tile are to be employed. I have particular reference to artificial tile constructions such as may be inexpensively and readily formed into beautiful designs, but which may have a brittle j, hardness and/or have a differentcoefiicient of expansion and/or contraction than the structure to which they are to be attached. That is, glass and other vitreous, plastic, and/or ceramic materials when mounted in accordance with the previously known methods, become cracked, chipped and/ or loosened by reason of the stresses and/or strains to which they are subjected. These-stresses may be compressive, tensile and or shear. They are especially. acute when the temperature conditions of a room, for example, change from hotto cold, or vice versa. Glass tile is more subject to breakage than the ceramic tile, thus more difliculty is encountered in finding a really satisfactory method of mounting it.

I have also found that after a period of time, where the tiling has been set in cement or some similar material, that the exposed portions. of the material begin to deteriorate and the bond is lost between adjacent tile and between. the tileand the cementitious backing. As a result, the

" tile will become loose and drop off. In such been anobject ofmy invention to provide an inn.

provedmethod for attaching tile and similar surface covering elements to building constructions.

Another object has. been the provision of an improved tile attaching structureof a, type that permits, quick attachment and/or detachment of'the tile.

Another: object has, been to provide an improved attaching or mounting structure, for tile that permits the tiletorexpand and, contract independently of; the building surface to which it isattached...

A further object hasbeen to securely but flexibly attach, tile, and other surface covering elements.

A still further object hasbeen the provision of almethodof mounting tile whereby it is insulated fromthe surfaceupon which itis mounted' and from adjacent tiling These andmany th r ob e ts of my inv n o will appea t th se sk ed. in h art from t description her f; ak n in vi w f th r winssandthe la m havesh w certain p ferred fo ms; f. my nv ntion or; hepnrp s f illustration, in which- Fi ur 1; is. a r duc p an View o a aem of a tile structure constructed and attached in ac ordance w th th p n ip es-0 my v t o Fi ur 2. :8. ess-s i nal vi w tak n alon the line II-II of Figure 1;;

Figur a. is, showi es mi a to s- 2 Omitt ne. the i sulatin -Ins a t.

Fi res. and re ira nienta Q SrS taken along a'l e s m lar t Figure 2 u ow tilin mo nt d nd; ways o mounti t;

Fi ur to inclus v a ra m nta oss s c io s showin va c t r of m v t n;

Figure 8 is a section on the line VIII-VIII of Fi ure 7;-

E eur to 11.. y .a ei ae n ntaicr s se tions; s in other f rms. f my nv t Figure 12 isa reduced plan of a tile employed n h c n u tion. of Figure 1 7 Figures 13, to 17, inclusive, are fragmental cross-sectional views, illustrating still other QI' S. f m nv nt n; and

Figure 18 is a cross-section through a tiling mpuntedupon a ceramic or brick veneer or surface.

Althou h the p i cip o my nve n are appl cable to various-f m o rfa over n or facing elements, such as are generally employed, to provide apleasing interior finish for the wall, ceiling and/or floor portions of a building, yetthey are particularlyapplicable and valuable in application'in connection with vitreous tiling. When I speak of "tile or "tiling, not otherwise limited in the specification and claims, I include ceramic, vitreous, plaster board, composition, and other suitable types. I also have reference broadly to surface covering facing elements.

Particular difiiculty was had in attaching or mounting glass tiling, because of its relative brittleness and the fact that it has a high coefiicient of expansion and contraction which is considerably diiferent from that of the building surfaces to which it is to be attached, and thus, because it is extremely sensitive to changes of temperature.

In carrying out the principles of my invention, I employ a flexible mounting for the tile and preferably insulate each tile from the building surface to which it is attached, as well as from adjacent tile. As a result of the above considerations, it will appear that each tile is free to expand and contract independently of adjacent tile as well as independently of the portion of the building to which it is attached. Breakage has been reduced to a minimum, maintenance and installation costs lowered, and each individual tile can be quickly detached with respect to adjacent tiles and with respect to the building construction.

In some specific embodiments of my invention shown for the purpose of illustration, I provide mount elements attachable or attached to the back face of a tile and have also provided detachable, cooperatively-connected mount elements or inserts that are adapted to be set in a thickness of cementitious material. When I refer to cementitious materials in the specification and claims, I include such materials as cement, mortar, plaster, bitumen, etc., which may be employed to join objects by adhesion and which, although plastic or viscous, will set or hardenu It will appear that in Figure 18, I have shown a ceramic or brick veneer building surface having slots or hollowed-out portions for receiving mount elements 28 of a tile. =-It should also be understood that any other suitable type of material may be employed in this connection and that the application of the invention is in no sense limited to any specific type of material or building construction.

In Figure 1, I have shown a section of a portion of tiling that has been mounted in accord- V ance with the principles of my invention and which comprises a plurality of tile I. As seen particularly from the section of Figure 2, each tile is provided with a plurality of juts, male elements or knobs 3 that extend outwardly from a face or planar surface thereof and that are detachably engaged by female socket-like or insert elements 4. As seen in Figure 3, the insert member 4 may be first mounted in a thickness of cementitious material 2, or as seen in Figure 4, may be held on the knob 3 and mounted in position by pressing the tile, and thus, the associated knob 3 and the detachably connected insert element 4 into a thickness of wet cement or plastic cementitiousmaterial 2.

In Figures 1 to '7, inclusive, as well as Figures 11 and 12, I have formed the jut or male elements 3 integrally with the tile, and have provided the necessary resiliency of attachment by employing a rubber-like or flexible material for the insert or socket members 4; The compression lips of a socket member such as 4 are provided by shaping the socket member in sucha manner that its throatorlip portions have less spacing or diameter than the main body portion. Although the male or jut elements 3, such as shown in Figures 1 to 7, inclusive, are preferably formed by employing a partible mold in shaping the tile of which they are an integral part, yet the lug or jut members 3 of Figures 11 and 12 are so formed that they may be readily withdrawn from a tile mold without employing partible sections.

In the embodiments of Figures 5 and 6, I have shown modified forms of socket-like insert elements H) and I0 which are adapted to be embedded within the cementitious material 2 and which are provided with suitable spring-like clamp members H and II, respectively.

In'the modification of Figure 5, the knob or jut 3 is threaded to be received by a threadshaped flexible metal clamp element II, and in the embodiment of Figure 6, the knob or jut 3 is provided with a plurality of circumferential annuluses upon which a pair of corrugated, outwardly extending flexible metal members H are detachably clamped. To mount the tile in the embodiment of Figure 5, the insert I!) may first be screwed onthe knob and then pressed into place in the cementitious material 2 and the material allowed to harden, after which the knobs 3 of the tile can be forced within the spring-like threaded portions ll of the element H3. The same method may be used in the embodiment of Figure 6; the socket element l0 may, however, be first set in the cementitious material 2 and the male element 3 then pushed into a locked or clamped position within the element ll. 1

In both embodiments, the socket element It! may be first set in the material 2, the clamp portion H or H forced or screwed on the knob 3, and then, the clamp portion II or H may be coated with a suitable cement and moved into position Within the socket II] or I0. However, when the size and shape of tile permit, one set of mount elements 3, H), II is sufficient to attach the tile; the set is then preferably centrally located, In such a case, the tile I may, at any time, be readily screwed into and out of the socket l0.

In Figure 7, the knob 3 is cut out or slotted adjacent one side thereof, in order to receive a removable key or spring-like metal clamp element l2. The socket ID" is also slotted out adjacent the slotted out portion of the knob 3 to receive a shoulder of the clamp element [2. In mounting the tile, the clamp element or key 12 is first clamped in position on the knob 3, and the knob is then moved into position within the socket member l9" and turned until the shoulder of the key snaps into the slot in the socket.

In Figure 9, I have shown tile formed with one or more indentations or holes within which a suitable length or a jut mount element I4 is positioned and to which it is secured by some suitable adhesive, solder or cement 13. Another variation is shown in Figure 10. There, each tile I is covered on its back face with a suitable metal coating Hi. This coating I6 is preferably provided by a procedure such as set forth in my copending application Serial No. 9,121, filed March 2, 1935. In this manner a reflective surface may be provided whioh will be visible from the front face of a transparent glass tile. This gives a very pleasing effect. The metal coating 46 will be physically adherent to the glass and will serve to protect it from actual contact with the cementitious material 2 upon which it is mounted,-and1to: also hidezthe mount elements by which,- the: tile. is secured or: attached to the cementitious material: 2. I also contemplate manufacturing glass tile -of various shades and may employ ancopaque glass where it is desired to completely hide the mount elements. However, anopalescent or:a translucent type of tile may be employedin this: connection. From the above, it willbe apparent. that it is. preferable to provide a: reflective metal backing when. it is. desired to use a clear or transparent type of. tile.

InJ-theembQdiment of Figure 10,.a mount. element: or boss I51 is inwardly threaded to receive a second threaded mount. element IT. The element I is preferably securedtothemetal back-- ings. I5. by solder or sprayed: metal I6. .For the reasons-.pointed out: above-,Liti will: appear that a surface type of mount element I5v is preferable when it is necessary to provide a clear glass tile havingt aareflective surface.

Intheembodiment of Figures 1.1 and 12, opposite corners. of. the tile. I are provided with mounting lugs or juts 3' which project backwardly from the plane of the back face or surface'of'the'tile and: also project outwardly beyond the plane of an adjacent edge of the tile. If the socket elements 4 are firstset' in the cementitious material 2, it will appear to those skilled inthe art that each tile I may be mounted byfirst placing one of its lugs 3 in one of the flexible rubber-like inserts 4 and then moving it against the resiliency of such insert into position substantially parallel with the cementitious backing surface 2. This is not only a simple imethod of; removably mounting the tile, but, as

glass tile I and since it is physically adherent to the. tile, strengthens it to an astonishing degree and prevents it from shattering even when broken by a hammer or some other heavy object. The mount element or knob22. may be secured to the flexible wire netting by solder 2i or additional sprayed metal.

In Figure 1301., a flezc'ble rod or metal piece It issoldered or secured to the back of the tile l by sprayed metal. I6; This wire-like element I 8 is preferably given a spring twist adjacent the tileand. the mount element or knob 3 of rubber-like, ceramic or vitreous material is formed on its extending end. The twist provides the necessary flexibility to the attaching structure and the knob 3" may thus be set directly in the cementitious material 2.

In the embodiment of Figure 14, the tile is provided with a length of flexible wire or strap metal-23 which is secured to the tile at opposite edges thereof by a coating of. metal sprayed thereon.. This, length 23 is positioned in the cementitious material andholds the tile in spaced relationship with respect to the material in the manner: indicated. Thus, there is a certain amount of resiliency in the length of strap metal between the points where it is secured to the tile I' and the points where it is secured to the cementitious material: 2. The specific types shown in.Figures 13a and 14 are employed where quick detachability is. not. essential, although the employment of a rubber insert element 4 (see Figure 2) will make the type of Figure 13a readily detachable.

I In:- Figures 15 and 16, I employ rubber-like. knobs or:mount' elements suitably secured to the tile by air-adhesive orcement 2.6. In the embodiment of Figure 15, the knob fits on the back surface of the tile. I and. in the embodiment of Figure 16 the knob fits within adepression.

In Figure 17, I have shown a form of mount element 21 which has somewhat of a double keystone shape. More specifically it comprises two keystone-like portions which converge inwardly adjacentthe center of the element and which are provided with. an. outwardly extending annulus 28, which serves to space the tiling I. from the backing 2. One keystone-like portion is adaptedto fit within" an inwardly diverging opening: in the backing 2 and the other keystone-like portion is adapted to cooperate with complementary edge wallsof adjacent tile I. That is, eachtile has an inwardly diverging slot or groove extending along the edges thereof adjacent the back surface or face thereof. It will thus appear that the element 2'! by reason of its shape and complementary supporting action, holds the tilefiI in positionv and spaces it with respect to adjacent tile without the employment of additional mount elements. The elements 21 may be individually formed or integrally formed and spaced along a length of bead-like material which has a keystone shape and in eifect constitutes half of the element. shown in the figure.

In Figure 18, I have shown a brick veneer 2 having a depression: formed thereinfor. holding. a flexible mount element 29 which. may be secured thereto andalsoto the tile by a suitable adhesive or cement 26. The holes or depressions in the brick may be formed immediately after thebrick has left the pugmill, or, if desired, after each individual brick has been severed from the length fed from the mill. The tile may, if desired, be metal coated. No insulation: is necessarily required between the tile and. the brick surfaces even when the elements 3, 4 of the embodiments of Figure 2 are employed in place of the element 28- and. the tile I placed in actual abutment with the brick surface 2'. Various other expedients will appear-to those skilled in the art. tageous, before the brick leaves the plant, to mount the tile on the face or end of the brick which is to be exposed when the brick ismounted in a building construction. In other Words, the

brick and its facing are shipped as a complete unit and ,then the brick may be mounted in the usual manner at the job. Thus, additional labor for mounting the tile at the job is unnecessary; Of course, the tiling will be mounted in accordance with the principles of my invention in order that it will befree to expand. and contract independently of the brick upon which it is mounted.

From the foregoing, it will appear that I have provided various forms of flexible mount elements for attaching tiling to a suitable portion- Forexample, I find that it is advanner, each tile is mounted so that it does not come into actual physical contact with adjacent tile. The beading also serves a further function of aiding in holding the tile in a mounted relationship, and of eliminating the employment of any cementitious material between tiling. It is preferably located adjacent the back face of the tile to prevent any cementitious material used in the backing 2 from working between adjacent tiles.

I also contemplate employing an individual, continuous band of rubber or some other suitable material that may be snapped into place in the groove 5 of each tile (see the right section of Figure 2). In this manner a double bead 6' will be provided between adjacent tiles, and the bead may have any suitable shape that will effectively lend itself to the desired functions, that is, adjacent beads preferably have a complementary outline with respect to each other.

From the above description of my invention, it will appear that the socket members such as 4 of Figure 2, are open to the face of the cementitious material 2 of the building construction and are provided with compression lips, past which the knob 3 (see Fig. 3) or. the knob 25 (see Fig. 15) is pressed when the tile is to be mounted upon the face of the building. It will thus ap pear that the socket and knob portions have interlocking portions which detachably hold them in a mounted relationship with respect to each other after the knob has been pressed intoposition. Due to the flexible mounting of the tile both with respect to the face of the building 2 and with respect to adjacent tile, it is protected against chipping and breaking such as produced by expansion and contraction of the members, and particularly, by uneven expansion and com traction of abutting members. This construction also makes it possible to detachably mount a tile both with respect to adjacent tile and with respect to the face of the building, and to, in effect, seal off the edges of that tile with respect to adjacent tile without the employment of any cementitious material; the flexible or resilient bead, mounted to extend around the edges of the tile, functions in this manner.

Much of the deterioration which occurred in the previous tile structures was due to the fact,

previously pointed out, that the portions of cementitious material which were used to secure the edges of the tile, were exposed to the atmosphere and thus subject to the deteriorating effects of various gases and substances in the air. A flexible material such as rubber will last a lifetime and may be readily replaced by merely removing a tile and snapping a new band in position.

Although I contemplate forming the mount elements such as 3 and the bead elements such as 6, in such a manner that they will separate the tiling from the cementitious backing 2 and provide a small insulating or air space therebetween, I also contemplate eliminating these spacing portions and mounting a suitable insulating material I, such as a bituminous paper, see the left hand section of Figure 2, on the face of the tile and prevent actual physical contact with the facing 2. The metal coating lfi of Figures 10 or 13 may be employed separately or. in combination with insulation 1 for this purpose.

While I have described certain illustrated embodiments of my invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that many modifications, changes, substitutions, additions and omissions,

or combinations thereof, may-be made without departing from the spirit of the invention orthe scope of the appended claims.

I claim: 1 '1. In an article of manufacture, a ceramic or vitreous tile, a flexible wire mesh secured by physical adherence to a face of said tile, a mount element secured to said wire mesh andadapted to be attached to a portion of a building by a.

thickness of cementitious material or a suitable I support structure for attaching said tile to the building.

3. In a construction for attaching tile to a portion of a building, a mount element of suitable construction, a spring-like element'secured to said mount element, a tile, and a jut element secured to said tile, said jut element cooperating with said mount element, said spring-like element holding said jut element in a cooperatingrelationship with said mount element for flexibly attaching said tile to the building.

4. In a vitreous or ceramic tile, juts extending backwardly from a face thereof and outwardly beyond an adjacent edge thereof, and mount elements adapted to be secured to a portion of a building, said juts having diagonally opposite positions on the face of said tile, said juts cooperatively engaging said mount elements for attaching said tile to the building.

5. In an article of manufacture, a tile, anofl construction, tiling which comprises a plurality of tiles, a flexible bead mounted to extend around the edges of each tile, each tile being mounted in an edge-to-edge relation with respect to adjacent tile such that said bead prevents the edges of adjacent tile from abutting each other, and means for attaching said tiling to the building construction.

'7. In a tiling construction adapted to be attached to a building surface, a plurality of tile positioned in an edge-to-edge relationship with respect to each other, an inwardly widened slot extending along the edges of each of said tiles adjacent the back portions thereof, and a com plementary element cooperating with and fitting in the said slots of adjacent tile for holding said tile in position, at least one jut portion on said element for securing said element to the building surface, and means on said element for securely holding adjacent tile in position and for insulating the tiling from the building surface.

8. In an article of manufacture, a tile, a hollow insert adapted to be mounted on a portion of a building with its mouth open thereto, said hollow insert having flexible compressionlips, at least one mount element secured to said tile and extending therefrom, said mount element having a projecting lock portion interlocking with the said lips of said insert when said mount element is pushed into said insert from the face of the building against the force exerted by said compression lips.

9. In an article of manufacture, a tile, a socket member adapted to be mounted on'a portion of a building with its mouth open to a face thereof, a knob secured to and extending from said tile adjacent a back face thereof, said socket member and said knob having flexible portions that detachably interlock with each other.

10. In an article of manufacture, a tile for mounting on a face of a building, a socket member adapted to be mounted on the building with its mouth open to the face thereof, said socket member having flexible compression lips, a knob secured to and extending from said tile adjacent a back face thereof, said knob being of resilient material and having a larger diameter than said compression lips, said knob and socket member having interlocking portions that engage when said knob is pressed into said socket from the face of the building against the force exerted by said compression lips, said tile having grooved edge portions, resilient material mounted in said grooved portions and extending around said tile and insulating it with respect to adjacent tile and closing off the spacing therebetween, and a spacer portion on said knob adapted to abut the face of the building and insulate said tile therefrom.

11. In an article of manufacture, a transparent tile, a strong and physically adherent metal coating on a back face of said tile in direct contact therewith, said coating being light-reflective when viewed through said tile from a front face thereof, and a mount element secured to said coating and adapted to be attached to a portion of a building for holding the tile in position.

12. In an article of manufacture, a tile, an offset portion extending along at leastone edge of said tile; a flexible bead mounted on said offset portion and extending therefrom in such a manner that it will abut the edges of an adjacent tile or bead when tiling is in a mounted relationship, said offset portion and said beadhaving a shaped relationship such that said tile will be detachably held in position with respect to an adjacent tile by said bead;

13. In combination, a building wall member,

a tile, a flexible mount element attached tosaid member and extending outwardly from a face thereof, said mount element being attached to a back face of said tile and holding said tile in a mounted relationship. with respect to said memher, said element having portions spacing the back of said tile with respect to said member. 4

14. In an article of manufacture, a tile, a socket member adapted to be mounted on a portion of a building withits mouth open to a face thereof, at least one mount element secured to said tile and extending therefrom, said socket member having a main body portion and suitable lips, said main body portion having a greater diameter than said lips, said mount element having a lock portion interlocking with the lips of said socket member, at least one of said members having a flexible construction such that said mount element may be pushed into said socket fromthe face of the building against the force exerted by such flexible construction upon said lips into a cooperative relationship with respect to said main body portion of said socket member.

15. In an. article of manufacture adapted to be attached to and to face a portion of a building construction, a tile, juts extending backwardly from a faceof said tile and outwardly beyond an adjacent edge thereof, said juts being arranged to cooperatively engage a mounting on the building construction and to attach said tile thereto.

16. In a tile, at least one jut extending from I a face thereof, said jut being constructed and arranged to interlock with a portion of a building construction and to detachably position said tile with respect to such building construction.

17. In anarticle of manufacture, a tile, an element adapted to be mounted on a portion of -a building construction, an element attached to said tile, at least one of said elements being of yieldable construction, said elements being arranged to detachably engage each other and to -mount the tile on the building construction.

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U.S. Classification52/396.1, 52/390, 29/453, 52/384, 52/704, 52/709
International ClassificationE04F13/08
Cooperative ClassificationE04F13/088
European ClassificationE04F13/08N