US 2136689 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 15, 1938. D, HUGHES ET AL zasme MEANS AND METHOD OF ORIENTING PIPE Filed Aug. 7, 1957 '5 sheets-sheet 1 50 Cl/ 40 g i r- I l 56 42 if M H v I 9.. 2 ii 55 Fig .1
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1938- J. D. HUGHESET AL 2136689 MEANS AND METHOD OF ORIENTING PIPE Filed Aug. 7, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Flrvucnfm v ZFAs. D. HUGHES RAY F 50 LTON NOV. 15, J D HUGHES ET AL MEANS AND METHOD OF ORIENTING PIPE Filed Aug. 7, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 3745 D. HUGHES RAY F BOLTON.
Patented Nov. 15, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MEANS DIETHOD OF ORIENTING PIPE poration of California Application August 7, 1937, Serial No. 157,847
The invention relates to an apparatus and the method of using such apparatus in order to: orient a string of pipe into or out of a Well bore where it is desired to ascertain the circumferential position for some particular purpose.
The present invention relates to the general type of method and apparatus disclosed in the patent to Stokenbury, No. 2,088,539, granted July 27, 1937, for a means and method of orienting deflecting tools in wells.
It is one of the objects of the invention to pro vide an apparatus which may be detachable and periodically arranged upon the string of pipe as it is lowered into or raised from the well bore so that when the vertical moving of the pipe has been terminated a predetermined circumferential position'will be known at the surface.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method of placing reference lines and points at convenient locations to be used in orienting a string of pipe into or out of a well bore.
Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for clamping a sighting device and a target upon a string of pipe to be used in orienting the pipe into or out of a well bore.
Another object of the invention is to provide a sighting device which may be utilized to sight along the pipe either upwardly or downwardly from its aflixed position so that the circumferential positionupon the pipe may be transferred along the pipe to longitudinally spaced positions.
Still another'object of the invention is to provide orienting clamps for supporting the sighting and target devices upon a string of pipe so that such devices may be releasably connected to the clamps.
Still another object of the'invention is to provide an illuminated target for well bore orienting operations.
Other and further objects of the invention will be readily apparent when the following description is considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
Fig. 1 is an edge elevation of the socket portion of one of the clamps which is used in supporting the devices upon the string of pipe.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the socket portion of the clamp of Fig. l with certain parts broken away to illustrate the construction thereof.
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the socket portion of one of the clamps showing certain parts brok- I Fig. 4 is a'section through a piece of ,pipe to which one of'the clamps has been afiixed and where the sighting device is shown as supported in the socket portion of the clamp.
Fig. 5 is a top plan view of the target to be used inpracticing the invention.
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of such target.
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view of the target and illustrates the construction of the sight line therein and the manner of illuminating it.
Fig. 8 is a section taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. '7.
Fig. 9 is a top plan view of the sighting device illustrating the stem and yoke by which it is vertically supported.
Fig. 10 'is a side elevation of the structure of Fi 9.
Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic view showingpne form of practicing the invention where various lines and points of reference have been illustrated.
In Fig. 11 the general arrangement and assembly of the apparatus for practicing the invention have been illustrated and the derrick floor is shown at 2 and one of the legs of the derrick at 3. The rotary table 4 is used to rotate the string of pipe in the rotary method of drilling wells and in some instances this rotary table may be utilized to rotate the string of pipe after it has been oriented into the well or for other purposes such as supporting the string of pipe upon suitable slips while it is being lowered into or removed from the well bore.
In the present illustrationthe string of pipe is indicated generally by the pipe section 6 and this pipe section, may be supported by suitable block and tackle from the top of the derrick or it may be supported by slips deposited in the opening 1 in the rotary table 4.
Regardless of how the pipe section is supported the structure has been illustrated as embodying a whipstock or deflecting tool 8, which is about to be lowered into the well bore. This deflecting tool is of a type embodying a collar 9 at the upper end thereof bywhich the deflecting tool is supported upon a drill bit Ill, which is aflixed to the lower end I l of the string of pipe 6.
It is usual to have the whipstock releasably affixed to the bit so that after the whipstockis lowered into position into the well bore the bit may be released therefromand the drilling operation started in such a mannerthat the defleeting face l2 of the whipstock or deflecting tool 8 will cause the drilling of the well bore in the desired direction.
orient this whipstock 8 into the well bore so that when it is anchored in position in the well bore the deflecting face l2 will face in the exact desired circumferential position to accomplish deflection of the well bore in that direction.
The azimuth of this position may be determined, if desired, and in one manner of practicing the invention a line I5 may be projected outwardly from the face l2 as a normal to that face. This line I5 may or may not be marked upon the derrick floor 2 so that there will be a permanent indication of the direction in which the deflecting tool is to be located, or, if desired, this azimuth or circumferential position may be made of record in any other manner.
If desired, in order to have a line of reference a base line such as I 6 may be surveyed into the well bore and such line is shown as passing through the center of one of the derrick legs 3 and into the circumferential center of a string of pipe 6. This line may or may not be marked upon the derrick floor 2 for purposes of reference and to further indicate whether or not the pipe remains in the same concentric position with respect to the well bore during all of its operations.
When the string of pipe 6 and the deflecting tool 8 have been properly suspended in the well bore then the problem of surveying the string of pipe into the well bore is begun, it being apparent there is carried along the pipe some predetermined circumferential position or point on the pipe. This circumferential position may be the circumferential position of the normal line l5 or it may be any other arbitrarily selected position or point on the pipe, but, of course, it is desired to know the angular position of this assumed point or position relative to the normal line I5 or relative to the base line I6, so that when the raising or lowering operation has been completed the drill pipe may be turned as a whole to bring the deflecting face l2 to the desired circumferential position or azimuth which has been previously selected.
When the pipe has been positioned as just described, then the clamp 20 may be afllxed to the pipe in any desired circumferential position. This clamp 20 is shown as carrying a target 2|. The detailed construction of both the clamp and the target will be given later.
The circumferential position at which the target 2| is afllxed to the pipe may or may not be the same as the normal line l5, but if it is afflxed at some other circumferential position than that of the normal line l5, then the angular position with respect to the normal line l5 should be noted. In other words, if the azimuth of the line I5 is known and the azimuth of the target 2| is kndwn, then acomparison-of these azimuths will, of course, show the difference in the circumferential position of the target with respect to the normal.
' would be to compare the relative azimuth of the Another manner of obtaining a reference line pipe at a higher elevation and this clamp is arranged to support the sighting device 26, which will be later described in detail. This sighting device is such that it may be pivoted about a horizontal axis in a vertical plane, and, as seen by the lines 21 in Fig. 11, it can be used to view the sight line of the target 2|.
Before the clamp 25 is securely aflixed to the pipe it may be circumferentially adjusted and this adjustment is obtained by sighting through the device and moving the clamp circumferentially until it is looking vertically downward upon the target 2| in a vertical plane.
When the clamp is thus adjusted it seems apparent that any line of sight through the sighting device 26 will be along the same vertical plane. In other words the circumferential position which was first selected or determined has now been transferred along the pipe to a longitudinally spaced position and is now represented by the circumferential position of the.sighting device 26, as it is clamped in position by the .clamp 25. If it is now desired to establish this point as an additional safeguard or point of ref erence a sight may be taken upon the derrick floor 2 and a point such as 21 may be established on the derrick floor.
The next step in one method of practicing the invention is to remove the clamp 20 and the target device 2l, which is supported thereby, from the pipe. If desired, the sighting device 26 may be removed from its socket in the clamp 25 and the entire string of pipe lowered into the well bore so that the clamp 25 moves down to substantially the elevation of the clamp 20 or adjacent the elevation of the top of the rotary table 4.
It should be borne in mind, of course, that this clamp is securely affixed to the pipe. If the sighting device was removed before lowering the clamp then the target 2| may now be inserted in the socket in the clamp 25 which had previously held the sighting device 26. The clamp 20? -Which had previously been removed is now raised in the derrick and a new section of pipe is attached to the upper end 28 in the coupling or tool joint 29, so that the parts now appear the same as they are shown in Fig. 11'
except that the deflecting tool 8 has moved down intothe well bore and the clamp 25 is adjacent the derrick floor, whereas the clamp 20 is now aflixed to the-upper end of the new or added section of pipe. The sighting device 26 is placed in the socket of the clamp 20 in its new or upper position and the clamp will then be adjusted circumferentially about the pipe so that a line of sight may be taken through the sighting device 26 onto the target 2|. In this manner the circumferential position is again reestablished on the pipe at a longitudinally spaced point and this operation may be repeated periodically until the entire string of pipe has been lowered into the well bore. The circumferential position of these clamps as they have been alternated on the pipe will, of course, reflect the circumferential position of the point or plane which was determined.
When the tool or string of pipe arrives at the desired elevation in the well then the circumferential position which was originally selected is apparent at the surface and is reflected by the position of the last clamp which was affixedto the pipe.
During this lowering operation the pipe may or may not be rotated and it might be that the.
clamp will now be in some other than its original azlmuth.
In order to orient the deflecting face I2 to the desired azimuth it is only necessary now to rotate the entire string of pipe through the necessary angle in order to bring the sighting device 26 into that azimuth which was originally selected. As previously pointed out this may be the same or some angular relation with respect to either the normal I 5 or the base line 26, or it may be the point 21 or it may be the notation which was made of the desired azimuth at which the deflecting face I2 was to be set. In any event'it has been possible to carry along the pipe the circumferential position which was originally selected and to have accurately carried along this vertical plane so that the information desired is directly at hand. Any opera- I tion then desired may be carried on. a
If the orienting operation was to be one of removing a string of pipe from. the well the operations just described as to alternating the clamps on the pipe would be reversed in that the known position would be the uppermost position and the adjustment of the clamp would be of the lowermost clamp so that it would coincide with the circumferential position of the uppermost clamp.
Another manner of carrying out the invention with this apparatus would be to utilize only one of the clamps 2|) or 25, and to affix this clamp to the pipe in the manner described for aflixing the clamp 20 upon the pipe originally. The sighting device 26 would be inserted in the clamp and when the circumferential position of the clamp had been established the sighting deof pipe is added the sight device could be turnedvice could be pivoted about its horizontal axis and a sight taken on the pipe at a position higher up on the pipe. This circumferential position could be marked .on the pipe in any desired manner by placing a mark or suitable indication upon the tool joint or coupling 29. The clamp 20 could then be completely removed and the string of pipe lowered into the well bore. The new section of pipe would then be added and the clamp positioned about the top of this new section of pipe. The clamp would then be adjusted circumferentially by sighting through the sighting device 26 so that it would be circumferentially positioned to coincide with'the mark or indication which was placed on the coupling or tool joint 29. This operation would be accomplished by sighting downwardly through the sighting device at the coupling which would 30w be adjacent the elevation of the derrick oor.
When this'position is established the pipe could be again lowered 'into the well bore and when the sighting device arrived at the elevation of the derrick floor and the new section end for end and a sight taken upwardly on the pipe to establish a new circumferential point or indication.
It seems clear that in this method of practicing the invention but one clamp would be required and it would be possible to transfer these markings along the pipe as an indication of the vertical plane which had previously been selected.
It is to be understood that either method may be practiced-in following out the invention and that the reference lines or the point 21 may or' may not be used, as may be desired.
As to the detailed construction of the various parts, reference is had to Figs. 1 to 10, inclusive. In Fig. 4 the clamp 20 is shown as being made up of a substantially semi-circular body portion 30, which has an enlarged boss 3| at one end thereof which is threaded to receive the set screw 32. The knurled handle 33 thereof may be used to set this screw in order to aflix the clamp on the pipe by forcing the point 34 thereof against the metal. To resist the force applied to this set screw 32 the opposite end of the body 30 has spaced lugs 36 thereon which are arranged to abut the periphery of the pipe 6. In this manner a three-point contact is had with the pipe and the clamp may be secured in this manner.
An extension 40 on the end of the body 30 opposite to the set screw has been provided and this extension is best seen in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 as embodying a lateral support portion 4|, which is 'reenforced by the brace portion 42. This support portion 4| is formed with a recess or chamber 43 which is to receive the operating mechanism for the socket 44. The socket is in the nature of a bushing which is rotatably mounted'in the chamber 42 so that it will rotate about a vertical axis. This socket is provided with a wheel 45 which has gear teeth 46 on the periphery thereof to mesh with the worm wheel 41 mounted on the shaft 43. This shaft is in turn rotatable by the knurled head 49 so as to effect rotation of the socket 44. The upper portion of the socket is formed with a transverse boss 50, which is internally tapered at 5| with a taper which is generally known in the trade as a Morse taper in device which is carried thereby to the desired horizontal inclination or plane. An extension 5| protects the knurled head 49 against injuryand a cover plate 52 may be positionedover the top of the recess 43 to prevent the entrance of dirt and foreign material.
With the foregoing construction either the sighting device or the target which is carried by the tapered socket may be rotated about the center of the wheel 45 so as to obtain any desired adjustment.
Fig. 2 shows that the lugs 36 have a substantial length so that the clamp will be properly aligned in a longitudinal position relative to the pipe.
Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 illustrate the sighting device 26 and its supporting structure which includes the stem 60, which is also constructed with a Morse taper so that it will be frictionally retained within the socket 5|. This stem has a yoke.6l thereon with the legs 52 which are arranged to receive the ends of the cross shaft or pivot pin 63 by which the sighting device 26 is supported. The sighting device 26 maybe of any suitable type, such as a telescope or a dioptric gauge by which a direct line of sight may be obtained. The particular construction of this sighting device per se forms no part of the present invention. It will be noted from Figs. 9 and 10 that the sighting device 26 may be turned end for end while it is supported in the yoke so that asight may be taken in opposite directions from the location of the device. A safety cord or strap 55 may be attached to the sighting device.
Figs. 5 to 8,i'nclusive show the target upon which the sight is to-be taken and it will be observed that this target 2| is also provided .with a stem 60 which is identical with the stem 60 which is used to support the sighting device. This stem is also provided with a Morse taper to be received in the socket of the clamps.
While a specific form of target is hereinafter described it is to be understood that a suitable straight edge may be used in the daytime and an illuminated rod or straight edge at night.
The target comprises an elongated sleeve or housing I0, which has a plurality of openings H in the upper face thereof and a plurality of lateral openings 12 in the sides so that light may enter the sleeve and facilitate in observing the sight line or wire 13. This wire is suitably supported in the end 15 and 16 of the target by means of adjustable bushings I1. In this manner the wires 13 may be drawn tightly so that it will provide a straight line upon which a sight may be taken.
Fig. '7 is a sectional view showing a plurality of illuminating bulbs 15, which are positioned inside of the sleeve below the sight line or wire 13, so that suflicient illumination may be provided -inside of the target to facilitate its use at night.
A plug 18 is connected to the ends of the wires 19 leading to these various sockets so as to provide a source of current when this plug is connected to an electrical circuit. A cover plate 80 may be held in position by the screws 8| to protect the wiring. The cap 82 on the end of the sleeve may be removed so" that suitable adjustment may be made to the sight wire I3. If desired, one end of the sight wire may be resiliently supported as by the spring 84, so that a suitable tension may be maintained thereon. The nut or washer 85 which confines the spring 84 against the end 86 of the sleeve can be adjusted to apply the desired tension. If desired a neon tube may be substituted for the sight wire 13 and a sight taken directly upon this illuminated line.
The invention broadly contemplates a means and method for practicing the invention of orienting the pipe by sighting along the pipe and may or may not utilize both clamps or the reference lines.
What is claimed is:
1. An orienting clamp for use on a string of pipe being oriented into or out of a well bore comprising a body to partially encircle the pipe, means to affix the clamp to a pipe, an extension at one side of said body, a tapered socket in said extension, means to adjust said socket about a vertical axis, a tapered stem to fit in said socket, a yoke on said stem, and a sighting device pivoted in said yoke.
2- A target device for use in orienting pipe into or out of a well bore comprising a body, a tapered stem thereon, a hollow target sleeve also on said body, a sight line in said sleeve which is visible thru openings in said sleeve.
3. A target device for use in orienting pipe into or out of a well bore comprising a body, a tapered stem thereon, a hollow target sleeve also on said body, a sight line in said sleeve which is visible thru openings in said sleeve, and means to illuminate said sight line.
4. A target device for use in prienting pipe into or out of .awell bore comprising a body, a tapered stem thereon, a hollow target sleeve also on said body, a sight line in said sleevewhich is visible thru openings in said sleeve, andmeans to apply a tension to said sight line.
5. A method, of orienting a string of pipe into or out of a well bore which comprises affixing an indication on the pipe at a desired ircumferential position which is to be transferred vertically as an indication of that circumferential position during connection or disconnection of the pipe sections making up the string of pipe, sighting upon the afiixed indication from a point on the pipe which is longitudinally spaced therefrom, so that the'circumferential position first indicated on the pipe is now transferred longitudinally and is represented by the circumferential position of the sighting device, aflixing the sighting device in this position on the pipe, moving the pipe longitudinally, inverting the sighting device, sighting with the device along the pipe to establish the indication on the. pipe, and repeating this sequence of steps until the pipe arrives at the desired elevation.
6. A method of orienting a string of pipe into or out of a well bore which comprises afiixing an indication on the pipe at a desired circumferential position which is to be transferred vertically as an indication of that circumferential position during connection or disconnection of the pipe sections making up the string of pipe, sighting upon the aflixed indication from a point on the pipe which is longitudinally spaced therefrom, so that the circumferential position first indicated on the pipe is now transferred longitudinally and is represented by the circumferential position of the sighting device, aflixing the sighting device in this position on the pipe, marking this circumferential position upon some fixed location other than the pipe, moving the pipe longitudinally, inverting the sighting device, sighting with the device along the pipe to establish the indication on the pipe, repeating this sequence of steps until the pipe arrives, at the desired elevation, and
turning the pipe if it has rotated during its vertical movement so as to again sight on the reference mark.
7. An orienting clamp for use on a string of pipe being oriented into or out of a well bore comprising a body to partially encircle the pipe, means to affix the clamp to a pipe, an extension at one side of said body, a tapered socket in said extension, a tapered stem to fit in said socket, a yoke on said stem, a sighting device pivoted in said yoke, and a gear and worm connection supporting said tapered socket in said extension so that said socket may be turned in a horizontal plane.
JAMES D. HUGHES. RAY F. BOLTON.