US 2137200 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 1s, 193s. J, A, BOYER 2,137,200
ABRASIVE ARTICLE AND ITS MANUFACTURE Filed ,June 28, 1957 e. 'lll/l.
JOHN A. BOYER l ATTORNEY.
Patented Nov. 15,1938 2,137,200
llNl'laD STATES PATENT orifice ABRASIVE ARTICLE AND ITS MANUFACTURE John A. Boyer, Niagara Falls. N. Y., assignor to The Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y., a corporation oi Delaware Application June 28, 1937, Serial No. 150,765'
6 Claims. (Cl. 51-280) This invention Arelates to metal bonded abraaluminum with otheralloying agents to form insive articles and their manufacture, and particutermetallic compounds. larly to the metal bonding of such abrasives as rIl alloying agents capable of forming intermesilicon carbide, boron carbide, fused alumina and tallic compounds with the aluminum are added 5 diamonds. The invention is particularly appli-l in proportions beyond those ordinarily used in 5 cable to the production of abrasive articles adaptstructural aluminum -base alloys, the `resulting ed for the cutting of extremely hard materials product when sintered contains an appreciable such as glass, tungsten carbide and other hard proportion of hard constituents which impart carbides. A I wear-resistance to the matrix. Itis possible to l One of the objects of the invention is the proobtain a hard matrix of this character even when 10 duction of a metallic bond which can be readily the original mix from which the article is pressed molded under pressure and which can be sintered is very soft and plastic. For example, a product to a coherent mass under relatively low temperawhich when slntered will consist almost entirely ture. Another object'is the production of a metal of -a hard metallic compound can be produced i bond which can be sintered with comparatively from a mix containing approximately, 70% of 15 little shrinkage even when formed under low conthe relatively soft aluminum powder. This high solidating pressures, and which permits the subcontent of aluminum in the original mix permits stantial retention of contour of the original the deformation of the powder under pressure pressed article. A further object of the invens0 as to form a dense mass.
tion lsthe production of a metallic abrasive arti-` In making abrasive articles by the process 20l cle which will cut or grind hard materials such herein described, the abrasive grain of powder is as glass or tungsten carbide with a comparatively mixed with powdered metal and the mixture A small loss of abrasive. These and other objects molded and sintered. 'I'he article can be molded will be apparent or will be hereinafter .pointed .by the simultaneous application of -h`eat and presout. sure lor lt can be cold molded and thereafter sub-v 25 In the bonding of abrasives with metallic malected t0 heat either With 0r Without the appliterials, it has been customary to use composication of pressure. As previously pointed out, tions which produce either s hard or a brittle a mix containing an appreciable proportion 0f matrix. Most of the materials used for this purfree aluminum possesses the advantage that the s zo pose have been characterized by relatively high aluminum iS plastic and the mixture can be ccnmelting points and, as they are comparatively solidated into a dense mass by the application hard or brittle, they have little or no plasticity at of pressure alone. I believe that' the' plasticity room temperature except under extremely high of the alumlnumand the-densityailorded bythe pressures. Such materials are difficult to mold deiclmaticn 0f the metal Particles under PlcSSlue :5 and, unless very high-consolidating pressures are may, et least in part account f01' the fcct that, 35 used, the articles when cold molded and subseduring sintering 0r alloying. such mixes are not quently heated tend to shrink during the coalescharacterized by a high shrinkage When the cence of the metal particles. As a result of this powdered mix consists entirely of particles which shrinkage, the original size and shape of the are hard und can not readily be deformed by 0 pressed article is not preserved, the pressure used for consolidation, the cold 40 The 10W mening metals, as for example those pressed material possesses considerable porosity, which melt below '700 C., are relatively soft, and ,and upon heating tqenect coalescen the mgte for this reason they have not been regarded as rial shrinks' The preservation of contour Wm" suitable bonds for abrasive articles used in the .out the application of pressue durmgtmtnf 5. grinding of hard materialswhich I have found to be c aracteris c o e aluminum base alloys of the type herein de- In producing abrasive Wheels and laps, I have fo d that sintered al .n bonds, d artic scribed, is of particular importance in the manu facture of curved laps such as are used for the ularly those containing lntermetalllc compounds grinding of lenses with Such laps the contour D as hardening agents' Win satisfactorily retain of the nished material must be predetermined 50 abrasive grains during cutting and grinding, and and accurately maintained-. that it is possible to form a relatively soft mix Commrcial aluminum powder is ordinarily containing aluminum, meld the miX under a fairmanufactured for use in paints, andthe metal is 1y low consolidating pressure, and thereafter profrequently contaminated with stearlc acid or 5 duce a hardening eiect by the Areaction of the other organic materials. Powder of this type is 55 also quite flaky, and in.' pressing, tends to give a laminated structure. Although it is possible to use such a material for sintering, I have found'it advantageous to -employ aluminum powder of a non-flaky character, that is, substantially developed 1n three dimensions. Such a material can be manufactured by comminuting the aluminum or the aluminum alloy to be used for sintering by spraying, or by a cutting or milling operation. A form of aluminum powder very desirable for sintering, when examined under the microscope, has the appearance of irregular shaped particles or chips, which may be more or less elongated in one direction but are not flaky. The particle size is preferablyless than approximately 200 mesh. The material should be as free as possible from organic materials or oxide on the surface of the particles. and in the preferred form is not unctuous vor adherent 'asis the case with the usual commercial powder. It is possible to obtain aluminum powder in which the particle surfaces are practically oxide free, and this material is very desirable Vfor sintering.
The exact nature of the invention will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description, considered in connection with the accompanying drawing.
v In the drawing:
Figure 1 shows an abrasive ring or disc of a type adapted for grinding tungsten carbide tools;
Figure 2 is a section of the disc shown in Figure 1, the section being taken along the section Figure 3 illustrates a method of ilrlng a number of flat discs or rings;
Figure 4 illustrates a metal cup wheel which can be used for the surfacing of refractories, particularly those composed of silicon carbide, which are difficult to cut by other methods;
Figure 5 is a section of a glass grinding disc or lap of the type used for grinding lenses;
Figure 6 illustrates the contours obtained insintering va lens grinding disc, the mixtures used being an aluminum base alloy and a copper base alloy respectively; and
Figure '1 shows a sectionof a furnace adapted for the production of lens grinding discs under pressure. A
A method of making an abrasive wheel of the type shown in Figures 1 and 2, can be illustrated by a specific example, although it'will be understood that other compositions and methods of molding and sintering can be used. A mixture of for example diamonds of 'from 80 to 140 grit, 10% silicon carbide of from 180 to about `600 grit, and 80% of powdered metal is introduced linto the mold to form the cutting surface 2. -If the metal consists of ingredients to be alloyed, it is thoroughly mixed, screened, and mixed with the abrasive. The` mix containing the diamonds is accurately leveled olf, and a backing mixture of 20% silicon carbide and 80% metal powder is added to the mold to form the backing 3. If the material is to be cold molded, the entire mass is then pressed into a ring under a pressure of, for example, from 10,000 to 40,000 lbs./sq.,in. This ring, after removal from the mold, can be sintered in an atmosphere which is non-reactive with respect to aluminum at the temperature used, without-the application of further consolidating pressure. It is desirable, however, to apply a slight pressure to the ring during sintering in order to prevent warping. Although aluminum melts at 660 C., the material can be heated to a temperature very closely der into a strong body can be readily eifected.4
It is possible, however, to obtain a strong sintered article without reaching the melting temperature of the aluminumand such a product is produced by the dlusion of the solid particles of metal into each other sol as to form a coherent mass.
After the ring has been sintered, it isl ready for mounting-upon a suitable backing so that it can be used as an abrasive wheel or lap. The backing 4 indicated in Figure 2 may be a reversible thermoplastic resin, or a backing of metal can be used, and the sintered ring soldered to the metal. l
A convenient method of sintering wheels. of the general type shown in Figures 1 and 2 is illustrated in Figure 3. In this gure, the wheels 6 are spaced between ceramic bats 'I and a weight 8 is placed upon the top of the uppermost bat to exert suiilcient pressure to prevent warping during sintering. The furnace is heated by a wire wound resistor 9; an inert gas is introduced into the furnace through the pipe I0 and the excess gas escapes through the pipe Il'.v
A number of different atmospheres can be used for the sintering operation, thesimplest and most convenient being ordinary illuminating gas. Helium and argon are also very satisfactory. If
desired, the wheels can be sintered under vachas been found suitable for the surfacing of refractories such as silicon carbide or iire clay bricks and shapes. The abrasive layer I3 may consist of diamonds bonded with metal or a mixture of diamonds, silicon carbide or other abrasive, and metal. The backing Il can be of resin, metal or any suitable material. sintered aluminum base alloy bonds and particularly those containing intermetallic compounds, have been found very satisfactory for wheels of this type.
In the case of metal bonded diamond wheels, and particularly those used for cutting or lapping glass, it is possible to use a relatively soft sintered bond providing there is sufllcient abrasive to make the surface of the material wearresistant. (In such cases, the bond is more or less resilient and during grinding or lapping the abrasive acts much as the hard particles in a bearing metal. The wear is taken almost entirely by the hard particles embedded-in the resilient matrix and the metal, even though soft, is not worn away. I have found .it to advantage to include with the diamonds a certain proportion of other abrasives such as silicon carbide, boron carbide or fused-alumina in order 'to increase the wear-resistant properties of the wheel. This additional abrasive may be somewhat nner in grit size than the diamonds, although with the finer grit diamond wheels this is not always necessary. The additional abrasive when distributed 'throughout the metal matrix stiilens the metal and makes itl very resistant to wear orabrasion. Thus, even in cases lwhen the additional abrasive does no cutting whatever (as when the wheel isused for cutting tungsten carbide, which is practically as hard as the addi- The addition of materials such as silicon carbide, boron carbide or fused alumina, quartz or glass to the mix makes possible the use of a fairly low percentage of diamonds to Ido the cutting, with very little wear of the surrounding matrix. The action of the softer abrasive in making the matrix resistant to wear is of special importance in the cutting of glass, silicon carbide or other hard materials which readily chip and form detritus which has an abrasive action upon the metal of the wheel.
A section ofa wheel which can be used for the grinding of lenses, in which the bond can be sintered aluminum or asintered' aluminum alloy, is shown in Figure 5. Such a wheel can be made by the method described in kconnection with the production of wheels of the type shown in Figures land 2.' The layer I6 containing' the diamonds is firstI introduced into the mold and leveled oi, and the mix to form the backing I1 then added. The backing layer may consist either of powdered metal or a mixture of powdered metal and an abrasive or filler cheaper than diamonds. The addition of an equivalent quantity of abrasive to the backing tends to give the same shrinkage to the backing as to the surface layer containing the diamonds, and minimizes warping.
Figure 6 shows diagrammatically the contour obtained with the type of wheel shown in Figure 5, with the use -of sintered aluminum base alloy and a copper-tin alloy respectively. 'I'he contour 20 (representing approximately that of the article as originally pressed) was obtained with a powdered mixture of 5% diamonds, 10% silicon carbide and 76.5% powdered aluminum and 8.5% copper, and a backing of the same composition except that the diamonds were replaced by an equivalent quantity of silicon carbide. The contour 2l represented by dotted lines was obtained from a composition containing 5% diamonds,
10% silicon carbide, '76.5% copper and 8.5% tin,-
with a similar backing in which the diamonds were replaced by silicon carbide. In contrast with the contour obtained withthe aluminum departs considerably from that of the original pressed article. y
Figure 7 shows diagrammatically a method of sintering a lens grinding disc having a grinding surface of metal bonded diamonds,in which pressure is applied during the sintering process. 'I'he furnace chamber 23 is heated by the Wire Wound resistance element 24, and the mold 25 is placed upon a support 26 resting upon the bottom of the furnace. Pressure is applied by means of the screw jack 21. The mold plunger consists of a cylinder 28 which is bored to receive the pin 29. This pin also extends through the bottom or curved portion of the mold. In assembling the mold, the pin and the outer ring 30 are placed in position with respect to the curved portion 25, the powdered mix 3| is introduced into the mold around the pin 29, and the cylindrical plunger 28 is then inserted so as to t into the ring and at the same time surround the upper portion of the central pin. The mold parts are preferably made of graphite or carbon, but` can be made of heat resistant metal. 'Ihe mix can be compressed during the heating process from loose powder, but it is desirable to preform the article by cold pressing before the combined application of pressure and heat. 'Iiis latter procedure results in a very dense article.
For most purposes, it is desirable to form a somewhat harder matrix than that afforded ty the usual aluminum base alloys and for this purpose metals which form hard intermetallic compounds with aluminum can be introduced into the mix. For this purpose, the following' mixture o metal powders can be used:
In the above compositions the percentages are given merely as examples and it will be understood that the hardness of the matrix will vary with the amount of the addition agent used.
Ternary mixtures 'of metal powder can also be used in which an intermetallic compound is formed from other metals than the aluminum. Examples of such mixtures are aluminum', magnesium and silicon, in which the magnesium and silicon react to forma compound MgzSi, which hardens the aluminum matrix. f
When a very hard matrix is d-esired, the a1u` minum can be combined with other metals to form a composition containing a relatively high proportion of an intermetallic compound. Examples of such compounds are CuAla, Mn`Al3, FeAla, NiAl3 (or NiAl). Similar compounds with cobalt and magnesium exist; the exact composition of these compounds is not known with certainty, but the approximate formulae are MgsAlz, MgzAliy and CosAlia. 'I'he compositions required to produce varying percentages of these com# pounds can be easily deduced from stoichimetric 1 relations involved in the formula of the com-` pound. Sonie of the compounds, as for example, the copper compound, are quite brittle, and it is desirable to retain some free aluminum in the alloy composition so as to .make the material resistant to impact or shock. Examples of satis- .factory compositions are:
Aluminum, 20 to 40% nickel. Aluminum, 20 to 40% cobalt. Aluminum, 15 to 35% iron.
In sintering compositions containing intermetallic compounds from mixtures of powdered metals, it is possible to produce an entirely different structure from that obtained in a cast alloy of the-'same composition. In a cast alloy, crystal growthis free to take place in all directions, and the compound may often be in the form of a continuous brittle network, or in the form of large dendrites. In many cast alloys, the network of compound renders the material very brittle before the composition of the mass of alloy has become such that the whole mass is composed of an intermetallic compound. In alloys made from sintered powders, the intermetallic compound is usually intermingled with thepure metal (or a ductile solidsolution in which the pure metal is the principal ingredient), and the structurels broken up to a greater extent than with a cast material... 'I'his structure makes possible a high degree o'f hardness Without encounteringthe extreme brittleness characteristic of someof the pure compounds.
In using metal powder, it is also possible to A get a much more uniform distribution of the abrasive than can be obtained in a cast alloy mixture.
proportion of previously anoyed material. with the harder alloys, especially with compositions containing very high percentages of high melting materials such as iron, cobalt and nickel, it
is desirable to form at least a part ofthe mixture from material which has been previously alloyed. For this purpose a certain proportion of the pure intermetallic compound can be added to the mix. These compounds can be readily crushed and it is possible to make up alloys approximating the compound compositions, crush them to powder and then mix them with additional aluminum or with aluminum and a further quantity of compound-forming ingredient.
In addition to the abrasive articles illustrated and described, the sintered aluminum and aluminum alloy bonds herein described are adapted for peripheral grinding and cut off wheels for the grinding and cutting of glass, silicon carbide, terra cotta, and all varieties of refractory and abrasive materials, as well as tungsten carbide and other extremely hard alloys.
Although the above description has been primarily concerned with Wheels containing diamonds, the bonds are applicable to the production of abrasive articles containing boron carbide either with or without an abrasive of a lower degree of hardness, and also to the bonding of silicon carbide and fused alumina. Abrasive laps containing boron carbide and silicon carbide have been found satisfactory for the lapping and cutting of glass, the surfacing of refractory articles and other similar operations. While the cutting rate is somewhat lower than that of the wheels `containing; diamonds, the greatly reduced cost makes suchwheels commercially practicable.
By the term intermetallic compound is meant an alloy ingredient consisting of two or more metals in which the metals form a chemical compoundcharacterized by homogeneity, a definite atomic ratio of each metal to each of the other metals, expressible in small integers, and chemi- 1. An abrasive article consisting of labrasive comprising diamonds and a sintered bond therefor composed principally of aluminum and containing in an aluminum base alloy, a hardening agent consisting of an intermetallic compound of aluminum and another metal, in such an amount as to harden the bond but not to destroy its ductllity.
2. An abrasive article consisting of abrasive comprising diamonds and a. sintered bond therefor composed principally of aluminum and containing in an aluminum base alloy, a hardening agent consisting of an intermetallic compound of aluminum and a metal of the iron group, in such an amount as to harden the bond but not to destroy its ductility.
3. An abrasive article as set i'orth in claim 2 in which the hardening agent is an intermetallic compound oi aluminum and nickel.
4. An abrasive article as set forth in claim 2 in which the hardening agent is an intermetallic compound of aluminum and cobalt.
5. An. abrasive article as set forth in claim 2 in which the hardening agent is an intermetallic compound of aluminum and iron.
6. A raw mix for metal bonded abrasive articles consisting essentially of diamond abrasive and aluminum powder, the particles of said aluminum powder beingirregular in shape, substantially developed in three dimensions and having their surfaces substantially freeirom oxide andorganic materials.
JOHN A. BOYER.