US 2137296 A
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c. A. MACREADY 2,137,296 WELL FLUID SAMPLER Filed sept. 14, 1936 :s sheets-sheet 2 Nov. 22, 1938.
N0 22, 1938 G. A. MAcRl-:ADY WELL FLUID SAMPLER Filed Sept, 14, 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 :nati:
l erated valves which be opened to admit a sample Patented Nov. 22,r 1938 -PATENT yOFFICE `2,13*?,296 WELL FLUmsAMPLEn. George A. Macready, Los Angeles, Calif. Application .September 14, 1936, Serial No. 100,663
My invention relates to bore holes or drilled Wells in whichit is desired to test formations penetrated by the drill to determine the character of duid in such formations.
My invention is an improvement over the inventions disclosed in my United States Patents Numbers 1,896,492, 1,896,522, 1,921,472 and 2,040,619.
. An object of my invention is to provide a tubular apparatus having a packer or sealing means adjacent its lower end and which can be lowered,
into a well to seal oil'` fluid above the seal from entering the tube. The apparatus has weight opof vfluid from formations below the level of seal and then closed after admission of the sample to the tube to exclude additionaliluid Vfrom enter# ing the tube after breakingzhe seal, weights for operating the valves,'means for suspending the weights and dropping them at the desired time, a swivel so that the tube can be rotated'while the sample is entering, Aa detachable bulky member below the seal to displace as muchas possible of the iiuid from the well below the seal which would otherwise dilute the sample, and an emergency circulation outlet.
An object of my invention is to provide avalve for a well fluid sampler that can be lowered locked in open position and then unlocked by dropping a weight on it to permit it to close.
An object of vmy invention is to provide a novel emergency circulation port for a well uid sampler.
An object of my invention is to provide a bulky Vdetachable mud displacer member below the packer of a well fluid sampler that will displace as much of the drilling iluid below the seal as is possible in order to lessen dilution of the sample byv drilling uid and which is made of non-metallic material that can be destroyed by the drill in the event it becomes stuck in the well when the sampling. apparatus is pulled out.
An object of my invention is to provide a novel eilicient swivel ,for a well fluid sampler- An object of my invention is to provide an ef- -flcient and novel means for suspending weights ready toebe dropped when desired throughthe sampling tube to operategthevalves of a well iluid sampler. ""'Awn' Y Y -Y Withthe foregoing and other objects in view o which will be made manifest in the following detailed description and especially pointed out in the appended claims, referenceris directed tothe accompannns' in which Similar nu' merals 'reien-to-similar parts throughout the sample,
several views, for illustrative embodiment of my invention, wherein:
Figure 1 is anv elevation of the upper and lower portions of my apparatus in suspended position,
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section o1' the upper end of my apparatus showing the means for suspending and releasing weights,
Figure 3 is a longitudinal section of the ball and seat valve for preventing escape of the fluid- Figure 4 is a longitudinal section of the flap valve which is held open until the sample is received and then closed",
Figure 5 is a longitudinal section of the lower portion of my sample tube showing the valve which excludes uid from the tube until ready for the sample, the packer, the swivel and the emergency circulation port,
Figure 6 is a longitudinal section of the mud displacer member below my sample tube showing -the longitudinal passages on its `external surface, the releasable swivel connection to the sample tube and perforations admitting sample to tube,
` Figure 'I is a cross section at line 'I--l' of Figure 6,
Figure 8 is a longitudinal section of a metal liner which may be used instead of the mud displacer member, l'
Figure 9 is a longitudinal section of a perforated bull plug or nipple which may be used instead of the mud diplacer member,
y sembled in elevation in Figure 1.and in longitudinal section details in Figures 2 to 6: the sample tube A: the upper element B for suspending and dropping weights: the third or ball valve C for retaining sample against escape from sample :tube A: the second .or iiap valve D -which closes the sample tube A against entry of addi-r y tional uid alter the sample has been taken: 50 theY rst vor toggle valve E which closes sample tube. A against entry olfy iiuid until ready to ad' mit sample: the swivel 'and emergency circulation ports and valves F to insure against the sticking of the sample tube A in the well: the I6 packer or sealing means G: and the tail element H occupying the well hole below the packer.
Described more in detail commencing at the lower end' the lowest element is the tail element H. This is illustrated in Figures l, 6 and 7 as a central solid mud displacer member'l of sufcient diameter to almost completely occupy the well hole below the packer'and provided with longitudinal grooves 2 on the external surface thereof. The mud displacer member may be solid with grooves cut in or it may be built up in sections as by wooden slats 3 attached by nails 4 to the central body 5 and spaced apart so as to leave the longitudinal grooves 2. In the event the length of mud displacer member is long it may be made in units to /be joined as by screw threads 6 or by selecting random length slats 3 sothat the slats overlap the sections of body 5. The ribs 3 of each section may be made short enough so that when sections of the mud displacer member are assembled a gap 'I is left between the ends of ribs 3 forming passages from each longitudinal groove to the adjacent groove through which in the event of obstruction of any groove by debris the flow of fluid may be diverted to an adjacent groove to continue its upward travel.
The mud displacer member I may be made of wood or moulded from plastic material such as cement, fiber, stucco, plaster of Paris, etc., with the longitudinal grooves and end connections cut or moulded.
During a test uid entering the well hole from the formation passes upwardly along the annular space |24 between the mud displacer member and the well wall. In the event that the well wall caves the cavings bridge across over the longitudinal grooves whose purpose is to provide a channel for upward flow of fluid inside the ring of cavings.
The lower end of mud displacer member I may be rounded or it may be irregular to resist turning during its ensuing destruction by drilling. The upper end of mud displacer member I is attached to perforated tube 8 preferably by a .rotatable swivel connection that can easily be sheared off by pulling in the event the mud displacer member sticks in the well as illustrated by readily destructible thimble 9 threaded into the mud displacer member I`above retaining boss I0. By making thimble 9 or an adjacent part of weak material it can be sheared off. By making mud displacer member I of nonmetallic material it can easily be destroyed by drilling.
The dimensions of mud displacer member I should b e chosen so that it is occupy most of the well below the packer G in order to displace as much as possible of the the lower part of the well hole, which fluid would otherwise dilute in the rathole is only suflicient to cause a rise of andthe liner can be as my mud displacer member becoming stuck in the well provision is made to detach same from the sample tube and to make it of material that can be destroyed by drilling so that the well may not be obstructed.
For the benefit -of operators who prefer to fish out a liner the liner illustrated in Figure 8 may be used instead of my mud displacer member I. This consists of a perforated liner having sections II, I2 and perforations I6a which may be `joined by collars having left hand threads I3 above righthand threads I4. This .is rotatably attached to a perforated tube 8a by means of a thimble 9a riveted to collar I5 above boss IUa. If the liner becomes stuck in the well the rivets shear when the sample tube is pulled recovered by washing over it instead of destroying it by drilling. By using collars with lefthand threads a long liner may be fished out piecemeal.
Another optional construction is shown by Figure 9 for use where neither liner nor mud displacer member are desired. It consists of the perforated bull plug or nipple 8b having no provision for attachment of mud displacer member or liner and is useful for short ratholes.
Perforated tube 8 (8a or 8b) is provided with perforations I6 (I6a or I6B) for admitting the sample of formation fluid into the interior thereof and is attached by coupling I8 to hollow spindle I9 which'in turn is attached as vby screw mometer.
Slidably and rotatably mounted about spindle I9 is a packer or sealing means G. A cone packer is illustrated for sealing against the shoulder 27 on the well wallat the top of a rathole II8 but where the well wall is vertical a 'straight wall pac 'er may be used. The packer illustrated consists of a main tubular mandrel I50.rigidly attached to an upper end piece 2|. A packing medium made up of discs 22 of rubber, belting or other material mountedabout mandrel is held inY compressed assembly between plates 23 and 24 by tightening screw collar 25. ternal surface is turned to a taper to fit rathole shoulder 2'I. Guide knobs 26 preferably of bronze on the lower end of mandrel |50 serve as bearings to align the mandrel on spindle I9. Springs y3Ilurge pins 28 outwardly to engage holes 33 in cap ring 29 to resist rotation of packing gland 3I on its recessed seat32 but permit the pins to retract when they are not in alignment with v holes 33. /V Swivel F consists of an upper race 34 slidably keyed by key I5I on spindle I9 and a lower race 35 rotatably mounted about spindle I9 between which rollers 36, either spherical or cylindrical, roll to reduce friction.
A projecting shoulder, preferably made by a split ring 31 in an annular recess holds the swivel in longitudinal assembly. Packing 38 is commamon l pressed between gland 3| and ring 39 to prevent leakage of fluid past the swivel. Iap ring 29 holds the packing and gland in assembly.
The emergency circulation portconsists of the outwardly opening check`valve in valve case 20 'discharging through longitudinal holes' 4|, an-
p nular passage 42 of upper rrace 34, and longitudinal holes 43 of upper race 34 and' thence out into the well between rollers 36. 'l'.'he check valve normally remains closed to, prevent fluid from Without entering the sample tube but permits fluid circulation to be established outwardly in an emergency.
The first or toggle valve E is similar in ccn-V struction to the toggle valvel disclosed in my Patent Number 2,040,619. It is contained in valve case 20 and includes the ball valve 44 seating on seat 45 which is preferably of a renewable type controlling inlet' passage 46 of member 41 attached in liquidtight iit to passage 48 through hollow spindle I9; A choke or bean 49 limits flow through passage 46 and may be selected of any desirable bore. Ball valve 44 is attached by bracket 50 to plate 5| and is held tight on its seat when pressure is applied by screwing down clamp ring 52 with toggle link 53 set. When a weight such as weight 54adropped from its original position 54a past position 54d shown in dotted lines on Figure 5 andv strikes target arm 55 the toggle link 53 is moved over dead center to collapse the toggle and plate 5I can raise to lift valve 44 off; its seat. Plate 5|, toggle link 53, target arm 55 and their respective pivots are held in assembly by a frame consisting of side plates 56 attached to spacer 51by screws56. f
A coupling 59 connects valve case 20 to valve case 6|) which houses the second or flap valve D.
To facilitate removal for inspection and repairs the flap valve closure 6| is mounted on frame 64 on a liner 62 which in turn is attached internally in liquid tight fit in valve case 60. The
valve 6| makes its closure by seating on lip 63 of line'r 62 to close the central passage there- When tubular member 65 is depressed against coil compression spring 66 the barbs 61 expand under shoulder 68 by cantilever springs 69 acting on the opposite end'of the barb to pivot it about retaining ringorv pin 10 tted into an annular recess or hole in Vmember 65 and in a notch |21 in each barb. 'I'he barbs are contained in slots |20 in tubular member 65. When tubular member 65 is depressedas shown in Figure 4 the ap valve 6| is held or locked in open position by the Vtubular extension |25 of tubular member" 65. The' bore of tubular member 65 is large enough to permit weight 54a. to pass through pushing valve 6|.wide open 'as it passes.
When it is desired to close valve 6| a second weight 1|a is dropped from itsv original position 1|a through sample tube A past position Hd shown in dotted lines. on Figure 4. Weight 1|a is provided with a wide dart or paddle 1 5 at its lower end wide enough to engage tubular plunger 12 to `depress same against coil spring 13and spread the lower ends of barbs 61 to retract the upper ends of barbs61. With barbs 61 retracted the strong spring 66 expands to lift tubular member 65 upwardly out of engagement with valve 6I `and cantilever spring 14pushes flap valve 6| onto its seat 63 to close the passage into sample tube A. f
The lower end of tubular member 65 lis beveled as at 16- and screwf|1 operating in longitudinal slot 18 insures proper alignment of the bevel. Screw 19 holds plunger 12 in assembly. Wrench notches 80 provide for tightening liner 62 in position. A guide plate 82 is provided with a passage 8l to center weight 1|a over plunger 12 and of suicient bore to permit passage of both 'weights 54a and 11a. Rubber washer 83 completes assembly when tool joint pin 84 'on the lower end of sample tube A is tightened.
' The third or ball check valve C may be installed in any standard drill pipe tool joint preferably the lowest above the flap valve D. This valve consists of a` ball 85 which is dropped Athrough sample tube after dropping weights 54a and 1 I a, to seat on a disc 86 held by rubber washer 81 in low pressure liquid tight it between box 89 and pin"90 of a tool joint as illustrated in Figure 3. The passage 88 through disc 86 should drill pipe may be rotated While the spindle and 1 parts carried by it are not rotated. A stuffing box with packing 94 and gland 95 prevents fluid leakage. A cross 96 is attached by lefthand threads to spindle 93. Take oil outlets 91 and 96 provide for discharge of sampleuid and may be controlled by valves or discharge to a line or hose.- By anchoring with a rope to a leg of the derrick rotation of the cross and its'iittings is prevented during rotation of sample tube A. A gate valve 99 may be provided above cross 96 if desired. A smallergate valve or suitable clampV |00 is tightened about the second weight 1inl as' illustrated in Figure 2 to suspend the weight and a bull pl'ug |0| prevents uid leakage. A rst `weight as 54a is suspended by a cord |02 knotted through hole |03 in dart 15 of weight Ha passing thence through hole |04 in weight 54a and up along side of weight 1|a 'to be passed outside through a smaller valve |05 and tied as at |06.
The first weight 54a is dropped by untying cord |02 at |06 and the second Weight Ha is dropped by opening valve |00 to unclamp the weight.
An optional weight suspension means is illustrated in Figure l10. Left hand threaded tool joints |01 and |08 provide forattaching it between grief stem v|22 and swivel |2| used in drilling the'well. Pins |09and ||0 threaded through holes in hollow spindle I`|| suspend weights 54h and 1lb so that weight 54h may first be dropped to open toggle valve 444 and weight 1lb dropped later to close flap valve 6|. A` take off casting |I2 provided with packing I|3, H4 to prevent leakage and with fluid outlets H5, ||6 is mounted about spindle III. 'Perforations ||1 in spindle provide for discharge 'of uid from the sample through the outlets. A back pressure valve is shown at |20.
` Operation y be large enough to permit passage of weights '542i ingto a level above the formation to be tested vious stratum above at |05 and released to permit weight 54a tween the mud displacer member leaving a shoulder 21 preferably at a firm impera rathole III and below the large size hole IIS. The well bore is usually full of the mud fluid used for drilling.
The assembly illustrated in the lower part of Figure 1 and in Figures 3 to 7 is then lowered intol the well by means-of a sample tube which usually'is the rotary drill pipe used in drilling. During lowering valve 44 is locked closed, valve 5| is locked open and valve 85 is withheld at the surface.
Packer 22 is firmly seated on shoulder 21 by spudding if necessary. Cord |02 is cut or untied to fall freely through the sample tube to pass through valve seats 86 and 16 to strike target 55 which kicks toggle link 53 over dead center and causes valve I4 to open. If the fluid level outside the sample tube subsides'it indicates that the packer has not made a should b withdrawn for a new trial.
If the uid level in the well does not subside or the packer settle rotation of the sample tube is commenced. Packer G and the lower swivel race 35 remain stationary with spindle I9 rotating within. Fluid tightseals are made 1) by packer 22 against shoulder 21, (2) by gland 3| seating in recess 32. and (3) by packing 38 being compressed to seal about the rotating spindle I0 by weight of sample tube applied through the packing to gland 3|. The seal prevents fluid in the well above the seal from entering the sample tube or the formationI being tested.
When my mud displacer member is used below the packer most of the mud drilling fluid in the rat hole is displaced to above the packer leaving in the rat hole the small quantity beand the wall of the well. FluidV from the formation tested enters the rathole when pressure is relieved therein by opening valve 4l and displaces the mud fluid from the rathole up into the sample tube A following it up along the annular space between the mud displacer member and the well wall to also enter the sample tube to form the sample of formation uid brought up for inspection. The sample passes through perforations I0 into tube 8 and through passages Il and 40 through valve 45. During the admission of the sample, the sample tube A can be rotated. Mud displacer member I may or may not rotate and may become stuck depending on the character of the well, because of its swivel connection at Il. Pins 30 lock the packer and lower swivel race against rotation so as not to injure gland 3|.
Rotation is continued until sumcient sample is believed taken or until difiiculty of rotation warns of danger. Weight'l la is then dropped by opening valve |00. By. closing valve |00. immediately it can be determined if the weight actu- 'ally dropped. The weight falls through the samup the pipe stretch the ring 2l engages under shoulder |20 on gland 3| to lift gland 3| o! its seat'l! which-permits fluid above the packerto proper seal and the apparatus rush down between mandrel 20 and spindle l0 through the annular space to equalize the hydrostatic pressure on both sides of the packer.
Additional upward pull brings collar I8 against the bottom of packer mandrel |50 to jar the packer upward. -If the packer is stuck it may require lowering and raising the sample tube several times to jar the packer free from its seat. If mud displaces member (or the liner) is stuck the thimble -9 (or 9a) being of weak material strips or shears oi leaving the core (or liner) in the rathole when the sample tube is raised.
When the packer has been pulled free the upper length of the sample tube with the upper connections is disconnected and ball 85 dropped through the sample tube A to seat on its seat 85 and prevent the sample escaping from the sample tube when it gets above the fluid level of the well. The sample tube is then removed from the well a section 'at a time bringing up the sample of formation fluid contained within to the surface for inspection. 'Ihe valves and packer are then removed from the well.
'Ihe drill is then lowered into the well and mud displacer member I being of soft material is destroyed by drilling. Or the liner if left in the well canbe fished out. The operation of drilling the well is then resumed. s
In the event the sample tube itself should become stuck mud fluid or oil may be pumped down through the sample tube and out through the emergency ports 40 to establish circulation to aid in loosening 4the tu 'I'he short perforated bull plug or nipple 0b may be used instead of either the mud displacer member or liner particularly in short rat holes.
Instead of the construction shown in` Figures lv and 2 for the upper end of the sample tube the construction shown in Figure l0 may be used. Both have their advantages and disadvantages. That in Figure 10 permits rotating the sample tube while suspended from the main drilling swivel but has the disadvantage that old grief stems still in use do not have a sufllciently straight passage to permit the weights to drop.
l. A well fluid sampler consisting of a sample tube, sealing means thereon adjacent the lower end of said tube for forming a seal between said tube andthe wall of a well to exclude fluid in the well above the seal from entering the interior of check valves with passages discharging between the rollers of the swivel, openings for admitting fluid from formation below the seal into the interior of said tube, a solid mud displacer member of non-metallic material having longitudinal channels on the external surface thereof releasablyl and rotatably attached to said tube below said seal and of suiiicient volume vto displace most of the drilling fluid from the well bore below the level of the seal, a rst valve in said tube above said sealing means provided with a lock to close said pipe against entrance of fluid and adapted to be unlocked by dropping a rst weight thereon to open said valve to admit a sample of fluid into said tube, a second valve positioned in said tube above said first valve and provided with a lock holding it in open position Vand adapted to be unlocked by dropping a second weight thereon to permit said second valve to close and exclude entry of additional uid into said tube, the bore of said second adapted to hold said valve in open position, barbs on said member engaging a shoulder on the interior wall of said tube, a tubular plunger between said barbs. a weight adapted to strike sai'd plunger to depress the plunger and retract the barbs from said shoulder, and a spring urging said tubular member out of engagement with said valve when said barbs are retracted so that the valve may close to prevent upward iiow of fluid through said tube.
3. In a well uid sampler having a sample tube and sealing means thereon adjacent the lower end thereof: a solid mud displacer member releasably and rotatably attached to said tube provided with longitudinal grooves for passage ot iluid along the external surface thereof and of suilcient volume. to displace most of the drilling iluid in a well below the level at which`the sealing means is set, said mud displacer member being constructed of nonmetallic material to permit its destruction by drilling when detached from said tube.
4. In a weil fluid sampler having a sample tube and sealing means thereon adjacent the lower end thereof: a solid mud displacer member of nonmetallic material releasably and rotatably attached to said tube and provided with longitudinal grooves along the external surface.
5. In a well iluid sampler having a sample tube and a valve adjacent the lower end of said tube operated by dropping a weight thereon: a clamp adjacent the upper end of said tube for releasably suspending said weight within said tubeA and means on said clamp operable from outside said tube for releasing said weight to drop to said valve.
6. In a well fluid sampler having a sample tube and a packer thereon adjacent the lower end of said tube: a swivel providing for rotation of said tube relative to said packer and having a packing gland adapted to seat on said packer and support weight from said tube to compress a packing sealing against leakage between said tube and packer during rotation.
7. In a well fluid sampler having a. sample tube, a packer adjacent the lower end thereof, and a roller bearing swivel between said tube and packer: an emergency circulation outlet having a check valve opening outwardly from the interior of said 'tube and channels disposed to discharge 'fluid between the rollers of said swivel.
8. In a well uid sampler: a valve housing having a central longitudinal passage therethrough, a valve seat in said passage, a valve adapted to seat on said seat to close said passage, and a lock adapted to lock said valve in open position, said lock being unlocked by a Ablow from a weight to leave said valve free to close said passageagainst upward iiow of iluid.
9. In a well fluid sampler having a sample tube with a sealing means thereon adjacent the lower end of said tube: a mud displacer member of nonmetallic material having a solid central portion and attached to said tube below the sealing means so as to be inserted into a well cavity below the seal to displace a substantial quantity of the drilllng mudfrom said cavity before admitting a sample to said tube, the externaldiameter of said mud displacer being nearly as great as the wel?. cavity.
10. In a well fluid sampler having a sample tube with sealing means thereon adjacent the lower end of said tube: a mud displacer member attached to the tube below said sealing means and consisting of a solid central longitudinal body with longitudinal grooves along its external surface.
. GEORGE A. MACREADY.