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Publication numberUS2137308 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 22, 1938
Filing dateApr 15, 1935
Priority dateApr 15, 1935
Publication numberUS 2137308 A, US 2137308A, US-A-2137308, US2137308 A, US2137308A
InventorsChester E Rahr
Original AssigneeCertain Teed Prod Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Covering material
US 2137308 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 22, 1938. c. E. RAHR COVERING MATERIAL Filed April 15, 1935 ENVENTOR (Ms m? 4. Km.

Patented Nov. 22, 1938 PATENT orricr;

COVERING MATERIAI) Chester E. Rahr, New York, N. Y., assignor to Certain-Teed Products Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maryland Application April 15, 1935, Serial No. 16,289

Claims.

such as asphalt, and forming the' asphalt coatin in such a way that the thickness thereof upon the part of the element tobe exposed in an overlapping arrangement of such elements is greater and tapers toward a thinner layer of the coating upon the part to be overlapped by another element. It has also been proposed inthe past to produce a thick butt shingle by applying over the usual granular surfacing adhering to the normal coat upon a fabric base, especially upon the portion to be exposedthereof, a second coating of adhesive to which also a second layer of granular surfacing material adheres. This has been accomplished in some cases by dipping the shingle in a'bath of the adhesive material, for example, asphalt, to apply the second coating and subsequently covering this coating with a second surfacing of granular material.

The present invention has for its purpose producing a covering element of the type referred to by applying a second coating over granular material bound upon the base by a first coating but accomplishes this purpose in a manner different from that heretofore proposed and produces-a covering element which has not heretofore been produced; The covering element of the invention of the element to be exposed and makes it possible to-ut-ilize methods of manufacture by which maybe effected, savings in the cost of manufacture as well as in the cost of the materials used at to produce a given weight of the covering eleof the overlapped part with respect to that part ment, particularly upon the portion thereof to be 7 exposed.

The invention comprises the operations of coating the base fabric and of applying thereto the granular surfacing material while controlling the thickness of the part of the element to be overlapped with respect to that which is to be exposed. In order to carry out these operations the invention contemplates applying to 'a base fabric an adhesive coating with a given thickness upon that part of the base which is to be exposed but limiting to less than said thickness the thickness of v the coating upon that part of the base fabric which is to be overlapped. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, upon the thicker portion of thecoating is applied a layer of granular material, such as slate, or other mineral granules of a given size. When said portion of the coating is of normal thickness these granules may be of the size normally used in the manufacture of elements of the type to which the invention relates, and said layer of granules may be of normal thickness. Upon that part of the element which is to be overlapped, and which carries thereon the coating of less thickness, however, preferably is applied a layer of fine granular material of such grain size'as to be capable of adhering to saidthinner coating. The coarse or large granules do not so readily adhere to a thin coating as do small or fine granules but 'do readily adhere to the thicker coating and may be pressed thereinto. Thus it will be understood not onlyv that the difference in thickness, between the part of the element which is to be exposed with respect to that which is to be overlapped, is ereated by the difference in the thicknessof the coating but that this difference is eccentuated by the difference in thickness of the granular layers of surfacing because of the difference inthe grain upon a fabric base heretofore have been utilized, a

the invention goes beyond this step by again applying to the whole surface of the covering element a coating of the adhesive material. The thickness of this second coating also is made greater for that part of the element to be exposed and is reduced for that part of the element which is to be overlapped. Suflicient coating. however, is used in the thinner portions of both coatings to'bind fine granules thereto. Thus there is secured an added accentuation of the difference between the thickness of the part of the element which is to be exposed with relation to that to be overlapped. The invention contemplates, how- 56 e mannerof the invention;

ever, the further step and feature of applying to preferably of a size normally used in surfacing roofing materials, whereas, upon that part of the element which is to be overlapped there is applied fine granular material and of a grain size capable of adhering to said second coating of reduced thickness. Thus there is obtained a still greater accentuation of the difference between the thickness of the part of the element which is to be exposed and that part thereof which is to be overlappedin an assembly ofelements in a roofing structure.

In the embodiment above described the invention provides that the part of the element which is to be exposed in an assembly of elements in a structure has a uniform thickness and the part to be overlapped likewise has a reduced but uniform thickness creating what may be called a step or shoulder between these two portions. The invention, however, is not limited to such an embodiment and the coating. may be applied in different thicknesses in more than two portions of the area of the element. The thickness of the coatings. upon an intermediate area, for example, may be intermediate thatupon the exposed-part and that upon the part to be overlapped. The size of the granules upon the intermediate area may be correspondingly intermediate the sizes of the granules upon the adjacent areas. Thus will be secured a more gradual reduction of the thickness from the butt end to the opposite end of the element. In the ultimate case this reduction and the corresponding gradation of the granules may be accomplished by forming the asphalt coatings with a press roll or other forming device to taper this thickness from the butt to the overlapped edge of the element. in grain size from larger to smaller in the direction from the thicker portion of the coating to the thinner portion thereof may be applied to the respective coatings. This reduction and gradation within practical limits may be repeated in applying several coatings and layers of surfacing material while maintaining the difference in thickness of the coating in the successive portions of the element and, as well, the difference in the grain size of the granular materials applied thereto.

The invention will be more fully understood from the description of the drawing in which Figure 1 shows in plan a sheet. formed in the Figure 2 shows a cross-section on line 2-2 of Figure 1;

Figure 3 shows in plan a modified form of a sheet utilizing the invention;

Figure 4 is a section on line 44 of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is an enlarged cross-section of a portion of the sheet shown in Figure 1; and t Figure 6 shows a, modification of the invenion. 1

In Figures 1 and 2 the sheet I is formed with the marginal portions 3 thereof of greater thickness than the portions 4 thereof inwardly of these-margins. The sheet is also formed with a central portion 5 of greater thickness. In the form of sheet shown in Figures 1 and 2, in which the portions 3 and 5 represent bands or areas lengthwise of the sheet which have a greater thickness than the areas lying therebetween, the sheet may be out upon the dotted lines 6 and 1 Surfacings of granular material graded to sever the sheet into strips, each having a thick portion 3 and a thinner portion formed from the thin portion 4 of the sheet. The width transversely of the sheet of the bands 3' may be that of the part to be exposed of a covering element, and the width between the severing lines 6 and the shoulders or steps formed by the portions 3 and 5 with respect to the portions 4 may be that part of the element which is to be overlapped in an assembly of elements upon a roof or other structure. The width of the band 5 may be made twice that of the bands 3 in order that by the severing cut I similar elements to those produced on the marginal portion of the sheet will be produced at either side of the central cut I. To produce covering elements of suitable length, transverse cuts 9 may be made across the sheet and across the several strips formed by the severing cuts 6 and 1.

In Figures 3 and 4 are shown in plan and section a sheet having thick portions 3 and thin portions 4, the sheet being severed on lines 8 at the shoulder between the portions 3 and 4. In some cases the line of severance may be slightly removed from the edgeof the portion 3 and may cut through only the portion 4. Thus the cutting may be eifected through a thin portion only of the sheet and the wear upon the cutting knives may thus be reduced while substantially obtaining the form of element embodying the features of theinvention. In order to form the thick and thin portions 3 and 4 as shown in section in Figure 5 illustrating the detail of the construction of the sheet embodying the invention, upon a base I0, such as a roofing felt saturated with a bituminous saturant, may be applied a coating I 2 of asphalt of the character utilized in roofing to bind granular surfacing material such as slate upon the base felt. The coating l2 has a portion M of normal thickness or of such thickness as to bind upon the base l granular material l of a normal or given grain size. The coating 12 also has a portion iii of less thickness than the portion I4 but of such thickness as to bind uponthe base I ll granular material ll of a grain size less than that of the granular material l5.

Upon the granular surfacing material i5 is applied a portion I 8 of a second coating of adhesive binder, which may be of asphalt of the same or similar quality as that of the coating i2. This second coating also has a portion I 9 extending over the granular material [1, the portion I! being of less thickness than the portion [8 applied upon the granules l5. This coating serves in its respective portions l8 and I9 to bind the granules 2| and 22 respectively to the granules i5 and I1- and to the respective portions l4 and I6 of the coating I2. The granules 2i may be of similar size to the granules i 5 and the granules 22 may be of similar size to the granules l1. 7

It will be clear that the portion 3 is built up I of a normal coating binding upon the base I 0 granules of normal size and having bound thereto and to the granules IS a coating of similar thickness to which adheres a second layer of granules of normal size. The portion of the sheet upon which is applied the thin coating l6, however, is built up of this thin coating l6 and small granules bound thereto upon which a sec ond thin coating is applied to which adheres a second layer of small granules. Thus the thin portion 4 of the sheet is formed with materials of reduced sizes or thickness while the portion 3 is formed with materials of normal size or of a size larger than that of the respective materials upon the portion 4.

The thickness of the coatings upon the respective portions may be made merely sufficient to bind upon the base of the structure thus formed the granular material of the sizes being used. The size of these granules and the thickness of the coatings, however, may be made such as to provide not only the desired, degree of weatherproofing but also to build up the desired thickness of the butt and of the exposed part of the element. In the portion 4 of the sheet which is to be overlapped by elements in a superimposed course in a roof structure and therefore is not exposed to the weather, the coating need be only of suflicient thickness to hold upon the base granular material of fine grain size, such as fine slate or sand, in order that this fine granularmaterial and the coating to which it adheres may form a suitable base to bind upon themselves the second coating and the fine granular material adhering thereto.

In Figure 5 the line it represents a line of severance, as in Figures 1 and 2, to cut apart strips having a thick portion 3 of a width to provide the part'to be exposed and a thin portion d. .The

i it

Width of the portion t, as illustratedin Figure 5, may be double that of thepart to be overlapped by a superimposed strip and preferably is of sufficient width to aflord this overlap plus the usual headlapf provided in roof structures of this type.

Figure 6 represents a modification of the invention in which, upon a base sheet it, is applied a coating it, which coating is formed by means of a forming roller or other suitable means with a tapered section so that adjacent the edges of the sheet and at the center thereof the portions f b. are'of less thickness than the portions 21!, which are intermediate these thin portions 25. If the sheet is cut longitudinally thereof as upon lines fill and it the strips thereby produced will have the coating if thereof of tapering section in the direction from one longitudinal edge of the strip to the other.

If upon the coating l2, and preferably before the cutting operation just referred to, is applied a layer of surfacing material it having upon the portions ft'relatively fine grain size and upon the portions 21! relatively coarse grain size, and if intermediate between these portions the granular material is graded in size between that of the small grains and that of the large grains, the tapering section of the strip or element thus produced may be maintained and accentuated; Moreover, if upon the surfacing layer 30 is applied a second coating 32 tapered in the same manner and in the same direction as coating [If and, further, if upon this coating 32 is applied a second layer 36 of granular surfacing material I graded in grain size in the same manner as the surfacing layer 3u-there may be produced a strip or element of greater thickness adjacent the lines 28 than the thickness at the edges of the sheet Ill and adjacent the line 29. When the sheet Ill is severed upon the lines 28 and 29 the longitudinal strips thus produced may be cut into suitable lengths to produce covering elements which wil have a thick butt provided by that portion which is adjacent the lines of cutting 28 and tapering to a thin portion which may be overlapped by the thick butt portion of a superimposed element in the usual manner of laying shingles or similar covering elements.

.coatings of reduced thickness upon the base in the superimposed relations as shown. It is a feature of the invention that the differences in thickness of the exposed and overlapped parts of the elements produced is accentuated by the cooperation of the thick granules with the thick coatings in comparison with the granules of small size and their correspondingly thin coatings.

The thickness of one coating in itsportions of greater and less thickness may respectively be the same as those of the superimposed or underlying coating or these respective and corresponding portions may be 'of different thickness. One coating may also have its thicker portion of the same thickness as the superimposed or underlying coating and may have its thinner portion of greater or less thickness than that of the superimposed or underlying coating. Similarly, the thickness of the two coatings in their thinner portions may be the same and the thickness of the thicker portions may be greater or less in the two coatings. Moreover, in that embodiment of the invention in which coatings of tapering thickness are utilized, the tapering need not be uniform and the portion of the superimposed coating at any point upon the element may be greater or less than that of the underlying coating. In such modifications of the invention, however, that feature is maintained which utiliaes a granular material which is smaller upon the thinner pora mathematical or proportionate relationship is not intended but the term is used in its broader sense to indicate that the thinner portions of one coating are superimposed upon the thinner portions of, an underlying coating while the thicker porticns of the first coating are superimposed upon the thicker portions of the underlying coating.

Having thus described my invention I claim:

1. Process of producing a covering material which comprises applying to a base material an adhesive coating, said coating being applied'upon a. portion of the surface of said base with a thickness sufficient to bind upon said base a granular material of given grain size and being applied upon another portion of the surface of said base with less thickness but sufiicient to bind upon said base a granular material of a grain size less than that bound upon said first area, applying to becomes accentuated relative to the thin part of the cover. I

2. Process of producing a covering material bill which comprises applying to a base material an adhesive coating, said coating being applied upon 7 applying to said portions of said surface a coating having upon the respective portions thicknesses. corresponding to those of the first coating, and applying to said second coating granular surfacing material of grain sizes upon the respective portions of the surfacecorresponding to the grain sizes of the first granular surfacing material, whereby the thickness of the thick part of the covering becomes accentuated relative to the thin part of the cover.

3. Process of producing a covering material which comprises applying to a base material an adhesive coating, said coating being applied upon a portion of the surface of said base with a thickness sufiicient to bind upon said base a granular material of given grain size and being applied upon another portion of the surface of said base with less thickness but suflicient to bind upon said base a granular material of a grain size less than that bound upon said first area, pplying to the portion of .said coating having the greater thickness granular surfacing material of said given grain size, applying to the portion of said coating of lesser thickness granular surfacing material of a smaller grain size than that upon said portion of greater thickness, and repeating the steps of applying a coating with portions having greater or less thickness and of surfacing said coating with granular materials of the givenand smallergrain size respectively upon said portions having greater and less thickness of said first coating.

4. A covering material comprising a base pro viding a surface of substantial extent, a coating of adhesive upon said base, said coating upon a portion of said base being of a thickness sufiicient to bind upon the base a granular material of given grain size and upon another portion of said base being of less thickness but suflicient to bind upon said base a granular material of a grain size less than said given grain size, granular surfacing material of said given grain size bound upon said portion of the coating of greater thickness and granular surfacing material of less grain size bound upon said portion of the coating of less thickness, and a second coating of adhesive adhering to said first surfacing and coating and respectively of greater thickness and less thickness upon the portions of the first coating having greater and less thickness, said second coating binding to itself and to the covering material a surfacing of granular material have ing greater and less grain size respectively upon the portions of greater and less grain size bound upon said first coating, said thick portions of the coatings and the large grain surfacings building up an accentuated thickness of the covering relative to that provided by the thin portions of the coatings and the small grain surfacings.

5. A roofing element having bound upon a fabric base by a coating of weather-resisting adhesive a layer of granular surfacing material and having a second layer of granular surfacing material bound upon said first surfacing material and upon said first coating by a second adhesive coating, the thickness of each coating upon the part of the element to be exposed to the weather being greater than that upon the part of the element to be overlapped in an assembly of said elements, the grain size of the granular material upon each coating being respectively larger and smaller upon the parts of the element to be exposed andto be overlapped, said thick coatings and the granular material of larger grain size upon the part of the element to be exposed building up an accentuated thickness relative to the thickness provided by the thin coatings and granular material of smaller grain size upon the part of the element to be overlapped.

6. A covering material comprising a base providing a surface of substantial extent, a coating of adhesive upon said surface of said base having a thickness tapering from that upon one part thereof to that upon another part of said surface, granular material adhering to said coating and covering said tapering portion of said coating, said granular material upon said tapering portion being graded in grain size from a smaller grain size upon the part of the coating having a less thickness to a larger grain size upon the part having a greater thickness, the parts of the coatings of greater thickness and the large grain material thereon building up an accentuated thickness of the covering relative to the parts of the covering having thereon the coating of less thickness and the small grain material thereon.

7.'A covering material comprising a base pro: viding a surface of substantial extent, a coating of adhesive upon said base, said coating upon a portion of said base being of a thickness sufiicient to bind upon the base a granular material of given grain size and upon another portion of said base being of less thickness but sufficient to bind upon said base a granular material of a grain size less than said given grain size, granular surfacing material of said given grain size bound upon said portion of the coating of greater thickness and granular surfacing material of less grain size bound upon said portion of the coating of less thickness, and a second coating of adhesive adhering to said first surfacing and coating and respectively of greater thickness and less thickness upon the portions of the first coating having greater and less thickness, said thick portions of thecoatings and said granular material of given grain size building up an accentuated thickness of the covering relative to that provided by the thin portions of the coatings and the granular material of less grain size.

8. Process of producing a covering material which comprises applying to a base material an adhesive coating, said coating being applied upon a portion of the surface of said base with a given thickness and being applied upon an adjacent portion of the surface of said base with less thickness and so as to be demarked from said portion of given thickness, applying to said portions of the surface of given and less thickness granular material respectively of larger and smaller grain size, applying to said surface so as to maintain said demarcation of said portions a coating having a greater and less thickness upon the portions of said first coating which are of given and of less thickness, and cutting throughsaid base and the applied materials adjacent the line of demarcation between said portions of the surface to sever a covering material having apart of greater thickness and a part of less thickness adjacent thereto, whereby a covering having an accentuated thickness in the thick portions is secured.

9. Process of producing a covering material which comprises applying to a base material an adhesive coating, said coating being applied upon a portion of the surface of said base with a given thickness and being applied upon an adjacent portion of the surface of said base with less thickness and so as to be demarked from said portion of given thickness, applying to said portions of the surface of given and less thickness granular material respectively of larger and smaller grain size, applying to said surface so as to maintain said demarcation of said portions a coating having a greater and less thickness upon the portions of said first coating which are of given thickness and of less thickness, applying to said second coating granular surfacing material of grain sizes larger and smaller respectively upon the portions of greater and less thickness, and cutting through said base and the applied materials adjacent the line of demarcation between said portions of the surface to sever a covering material having a part of greater thickness and a part of less thickness adjacent thereto, whereby a covering having surface; granular material adhering to said coat-- ing and covering said tapering portion of said coating, said granular material upon said tapering portion being graded in grain size from a smaller grain size upon the part of the coating having a less thickness to a larger grain size upon the part having a greater thickness, a second coating of adhesive superimposed upon said granular material and having the thickness greater upon said thick portion of the first coating and less upon'said thin portion of the first coating, the parts of the coatings of greater thickness and the larger grain material building up an accentuated thickness of the covering relative to the parts of the covering having thereon the coatings of less thickness and the small grain material.

CHESTER E. RAHR.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5079088 *Mar 19, 1991Jan 7, 1992Paramount Technical Products, Inc.Water barrier
US6125602 *May 20, 1998Oct 3, 2000The Dorothy And Ben Freiborg 1980 TrustAsphalt composition ridge covers with three dimensional effect
US20040241369 *Jun 2, 2003Dec 2, 2004Joseph PressuttiSelf-adhering roll roofing product with tapered selvage edge and method of making
US20070068107 *Sep 26, 2005Mar 29, 2007Maurer Scott DArchitectural interleaf for shingle roof
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/150, 427/187, 427/188, 428/156, 428/212, 427/201, 427/202
International ClassificationE04D1/26
Cooperative ClassificationE04D1/26, E04D2001/005
European ClassificationE04D1/26