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Publication numberUS2138051 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 29, 1938
Filing dateJun 2, 1933
Priority dateJun 2, 1933
Publication numberUS 2138051 A, US 2138051A, US-A-2138051, US2138051 A, US2138051A
InventorsLongfellow Williams Robert
Original AssigneeSubmarine Signal Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Means for treating liquids
US 2138051 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 29, 1938. R. L. WILLIAMS MEANS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS Filed June 2, 1933 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. I I

FIG. 5

INVENTOR Razz/er L. BY 2 4M my ATTORNEY MAMA/vs FIG. 3

Nov. 29, 1938.

R. L. WILLIAMS 2,138,051

MEANS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS Filed June 2, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 r 60. (r l/ 60. L 11/11 11 u n n u u n u u u n u f INVENTOR ROBERT L. WILLIAMS ATTORNEY NOV. 29, 1938. w s I 2,138,051

MEANS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS- Filed June 2, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG. I2

E 99 INVENTOR RaBERT L. WILLIAMS ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 29, 1938 STATES res MEANS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS Application June 2, 1933, Serial No. 674,020

18 Claims.

The present invention relates to means for treating liquids in which compressional wave energy is applied to the liquid. It'is applicable in the manufacture of certain liquid products in which two component substances are brought together and a dispersion or emulsion is formed by the suspension of one substance in the other. The means and method are also generally applicable to the denaturing of certain cellular structure and also other physical and quasi-physical reactions.

In the present invention the inventor has discovered that the application of compressional wave energy of a frequency within the sonic range produces under proper methods of operation a complete emulsification or dispersion in certain kinds of liquid substances as, for instance, cream in milk. It has also been determined that within the range of sonic frequencies the size of the particles of dispersion is governed to a considerable extent by the sound frequencies and the intensity applied.

It has also been found that in effecting dispersions of this nature, in which apparently the action is a disruption of the surface between the two substances, that results may be gained with the application of small compressional wave energy provided it is sufiicient to bring about an actual particle movementgof one surface through the other and that this particular type of action is practically always present in the operation of a so-called sonic oscillator where cavitation is produced.

In the present type of apparatus and in the present method cavitation is produced in the medium in which the compressional wave energy is supplied when a particle in the medium is moving away from an adjacent particle so as to cause a vacuolar surface to exist between the two adjacent particles. This type of action can conceivablybe produced by motions of particles in opposite directions, but more frequently it is produced by motions of particles in the same direction, but one particle having a greater velocity than the other. It may obviously be produced in the medium or at the border of the medium and a nonmoving surface or even at the border of the medium and a moving surface which does not follow in the same manner that the liquid does.

The disruption of the liquid surface is a mechanical phenomenon and is produced because the potential energy stored in the liquid at the point where the liquid particle is to move is not suflicient when this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy to create sufiicient velocity to have the particle follow its adjacent particle. This action is therefore present to a more marked degree in substances in which the pressure or potential energy is the least. In the present ap- 5 paratus, therefore, this cavitation action is more readily observed in a flowing liquid at the point in which the velocity of fiow of the particles is changing.

In the present invention, I prefer to use fre- 1 quencies in the sonic range and more particularly frequencies of 4000 cycles or less. As the liquid load on the diaphragm at these frequencies varies the diaphragm resonance, the power source should have some flexibility in tuning or 5 variation in frequency so that the proper frequency producing the maximum resonance with the particular liquid load upon which the oscillator is operating, may be obtained.

In the present application various means are described for carrying out the invention and these are embodied in the description given below in connection with the drawings in which Fig. 1 is a sectional view of a device in accordance with the invention; Fig. 2 is a section taken on the line 22 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 shows a modification of a detail shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 shows a further modification of the detail shown in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 shows a plan view of the device shown in Fig. 4 as seen from the bottom; Fig. 6 shows a further modification of the device shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 6a shows a sectional view taken on the line 66 of Fig. 6; Fig. 7 shows another embodiment of the invention; Figs. 8 and 9 show further embodiments of the invention illustrating the methods of combining separate substances; Fig. 10 shows a further modification of the device illustrated in Fig. 1; Fig. 11 shows a plan view of a part of the modification shown in Fig. 10; Fig. 12 shows a further modification.

In the embodiment illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 the device comprises a base I which is part of a casing in which the compressional wave-producing means is contained. The casing includes the side walls 2 and a heavy recessed plate 3 positioned opposite the base I, the base I and the walls 2 and the top plate 3 forming a chamber 4 which may serve as a cooling means and in which water or other cooling liquid may flow, or be caused to flow, through the inlet pipe 5 and out of the outlet pipe 6.

The chamber 4 may be accessible through the threaded cover 1 positioned in the plate I. The base sides and plate may be formed as one integral element and this is the preferable construction. Mounted upon the recessed portion of the plate 3 is a flat plate 8 which, as indicated in Fig. 1, has a center projecting cylindrical portion 8 which may be threaded with threads ID to hold the plate at the center of the large center plate 3.

The plate 8 has welded to it a number of laminated blocks. As indicated in Fig. 2 these blocks l I, l2, l3 and I4 are placed about the center with their corners together. Each block is provided with a grove I5 in which one side of the coil l6 rests. The coil I 6 is energized from the conductor I I with the alternating current of the desired frequency. Opposed to the laminated blocks ll, l2, l3 and I4 are the laminated armature blocks I8 which are welded to the plate i 9 positioned on the center boss 26 of the diaphargm 2i. The boss 20 may have a threaded stud 22 by which the plate I9 is held firmly to the diaphragm or any other suitable means may be used to secure the armature to the diaphragm.

The diaphragm 2i is provided with a heavy outer rim 23 and is held to the lower plate 3 by means of a group of bolts or screws 24 arranged about the periphery of the diaphragm. Upon the diaphragm 2| is formed the chamber 25, the diaphragm 2i forming the lower face of the chamber, the upper face being formed by the cover 26 which is bolted to the diaphragm 2| in the rim 23 by means of the bolts 21 arranged around the outer edge of the cover, the inner surface of the cover at this point and the diaphragm touching one another. A fluid-tight gasket 28 ay be provided between the two surfaces to furnish a tight joint to prevent the escape of liquid from within the chamber. The chamber 25 is preferably formed with a wall sloping downward towards the edges so that the chamber is somewhat higher at the middle than at the sides. At the center of the chamber there may be positioned a nozzle 29 having a lower surface adapt-- ed to be disposed parallel with the surface of the diaphragm. This nozzle may be provided with a center orifice 30 which connects with the outlet pipe 3|. The nozzle 29, as indicated in Fig. l, is threaded into a central boss 32 in the cover 26 and a threaded nut 33 may be provided so that the nozzle may be adjusted and spaced from the diaphragm 2| and firmly held in place by the clamping nut 33. As indicated in Fig. 1 a petcock 34 is provided at the top of the cover so that any entrapped air or gases may be released. The nozzle 29 may be formed as indicated in Fig. 1 with inclined upper walls 35 corresponding to the inclination of the surface 36 in the upper central part of the casing.

The liquid may be entered through the inlet tube 31 to which is attached a container 38 in which the liquid may be held as a reservoir. The container 38 may be entirely enclosed and pressure may be applied to it for forcing the liquid through the system, or the container may be situated considerably above the end 39 of the outlet pipe 3i and in this case the head of liquid pressure upon the system will aid in forcing or drawing the liquid through it.

In the illustration shown in Fig. 1 it will be noted that the central orifice 36 is considerably larger in area than the entrance to it at the inner circumference of the nozzle 29 and that therefore under these conditions an increased velocity may occur as the liquid passes into the orifice 30. This action in connection with the siphoning of the liquid through the system provides a means whereby disruption of the liquid surface with the application of compressional wave energy more easily occurs. As indicated in Fig. 1 the nozzle 28 may be adjustably positioned in the cover 26.

As indicated in Fig. 3 the cover 40 may be formed with the nozzle 4| as a part of it. This may be formed by casting the center part of the cover 40 to form a downwardly projecting portion from the surface of the rim 42 of the cover.

In Fig. 4 the nozzle 43 corresponds to the nozzle 29 in Fig. 1 and may be used to replace the nozzle 29 in the device shown in Fig. l. The nozzle 43, as shown in Fig. 5, has a helical groove 44 which is formed by building up from the nozzle the helical wall 45 which preferably is made an integral part of the nozzle itself. The groove 44, as will be noted in Fig. 5, extends from the outer edge of the nozzle inwardly to the center opening 46. This nozzle may be used in a position slightly above the diaphragm 2| or in fact it may be used touching the diaphragm 2| in which case the only liquid which will escape from one side of the wall 45 to the other will be when the diaphragm is vibrating and away from the nozzle position. If it is desired to overcome this condition, a spring or some other means may be used to keep the nozzle in continuous contact with the diaphragm.

Another modification of the device shown in Fig. 1 is shown in Figs. 6 and 6a. In this modification the oscillator 50 which may be of a construction shown in Fig. 1 has a diaphragm 5| over which a chamber 52 is formed by means of the cover 53. The cover 53 is held firmly to the oscillator by means of the bolts 54 spaced around the periphery of the diaphragm. The chamber 52, as indicated in Fig. 6, is very fiat and the cover 53, as indicated in Figs. 6 and 6a, is provided with a helical groove 55 which extends continuously from the inlet opening 56 in the cover to the outlet opening at the center of the diaphragm. The groove 55 is formed by a downwardly extending wall 58 similarly as described in connection with Figs. 4 and 5. In Figs. 6 and 6a it will be noted that there is no space in which the liquid may remain idle and that practically a continuous flow is established for the whole volume of liquid from the inlet to the outlet opening.

A further modification of the system shown in Figs. 6 and 6a. is indicated in Figs. 10 and 11. As

' shown in Fig. 10 the liquid may be supplied from a tank 59 through a feed pipe 68 in which a valve 6| may be placed to a feed chamber 62 formed at the side of the vibration producer as illustrated in Fig. 11.

The vibration producer, as indicated in Fig. 10, comprises two opposed oscillators 63 and 64 having diaphragms 65 and 66, respectively. The diaphragms 65 and 66 are positioned to form a flat chamber 61 which is closed in by the side wall 68. The liquid is fed into the fiat chamber at one side through the small openings 69 and is drawn or forced across the faces of the diaphragms 64 and 85 and flows out through the small opening 10 into the outlet chamber II where it is drawn off through the pipe 12 which also is supplied with a control valve 13.

In the modification shown in Fig. 7 the liquid is supplied from a single feed 14 through the valve 15 after which the flow is divided between the supply pipes I6 and TI to the vibrator 18. The vibrator 18 has oscillating diaphragms 13 at both sides of the oscillator casing. Over the oscillat- 'ing diaphragm I3 are formed chambers in which the nozzles 8! are of a type similar as that described in Fig. 1. The device shown in Fig. 7

is positioned vertically with the base 82 supporting the diaphragms in a vertical position.

In Fig. 8 which shows a further modification,

the device is provided with a fixed nozzle 83 positioned slightly above the diaphragm 84. The liquid in this case may enter the diaphragm at its center through the pipe 85 and be withdrawn at the side through the pipe 86. This type of action may be contrasted with the action in which the liquid enters from the edge of the diaphragm and is pushed out at the center where a pumping action is created which materially aids in the flow of the liquid.

In the present modification in Fig. 8 this pumping action is opposed and as a result the pressure is built up in the reverse direction, that is, the diaphragm tends to hold back the flow of the liquid from the pipe 85. In this modification the pipe 85 is supplied directly from a mixing chamber 81 in which the paddle 88 may be positioned for preliminary mixing or beating together the liquid in the chamber 81 which is supplied through the inlet openings 89 and 90. The volume of how in each pipe may be governed by the valves 20! and 202 so that the desired mixture may be obtained and controlled.

The modification shown in Fig. 9 is similar to that shown in Fig. 8 with the exception that the beating or mixing chamber is eliminated and the supply to the diaphragm 84 is made direct through the inlet pipes 9| and 92. A suction pump 200 may be used to create a negative pressure and draws the liquid over the diaphragm thereby increasing the cavitation.

In the modification shown in Fig. 12 the liquid may be supplied from the tank 93 through a pipe 94 to the center of a pipe 95. At both ends of the pipe 95 there are positioned vibrating diaphragms 96 which are energized by the'oscillators 97. Each end of the pipe 95 is supplied with a nozzle 98 of the type shown in Figs. 8 and 9, and the flow of the liquid will be from the tank 93 through the pipe 94 at the end of which it divides and flows both ways in the pipe 95 over the diaphragms 96 and out through the outlet pipes 99 and I92 which are joined in a single pipe I00 in which a valve l0! may be placed. In this modification shown in Fig. 12 the pipe 95 may be made a half wave length or a whole wave length of the wave length corresponding to the frequency at which the oscillators are excited in the liquid medium, and a resonance may be built up in the pipe 95 to intensify the vibrational energy in the medium.

By properly adjusting the static pressure and the vibrational energy cavitation in the medium may be set up over a considerable section of the pipe. If desired, the flow of the liquid may be varied and the inlet may be at the valve l0l and the outlet through the center pipe 95, or, in fact, it may be preferable in some cases to have the inlet fiow at the pipe 99 and the outlet in the pipe I02 in which case the liquid medium will circulate through the whole length of the pipe 95.

Having now described the invention, I claim:

1. A device for treating liquids comprising a sonic oscillator having a sound radiating diaphragm and electromagnetic ineans contained therein for operating the same, means forming a chamber with the diaphragm as one side, said means including a plate positioned close to the diaphragm, means for feeding the liquidv to the chamber at points of small vibration of the diaphragm and means for withdrawing the liquid after it has passed over the points of great vibration of the diaphragm, said plate and. diaphragm forming at its greatest point of vibration a narrow channel through which said liquid flows.

2. A device for treating liquids comprising a sonic oscillator having a frequency approximately 4000 cycles or less, a chamber formed with the diaphragm as one side thereof, means feeding the liquid to the chamber at the side of the diaphragm, a plate positioned close to said diaphragm said plate being provided with an orifice for withdrawing said liquid, said plate and diaphragm forming a narrow channel through which said liquid flows.

3. A device for mixing liquids comprising a chamber having two vibratory opposed walls forming in part a narrow channel, means for V1- brating said walls normal to the surface thereof, means causing the liquid to flow in the edge of the chamber at one side and out at theopposite side.

4. A device for treating liquids comprising an oscillator having vibratory surfaces at opposite ends thereof, chambers formed over said vibratory surfaces, means for directing the liquid to enter at the sides of said chambers and means for withdrawing the liquid at the centers thereof, said chamber being fiat and providing a narrow channel through which the liquid flows.

5. A device for treating liquids comprising means for producing a source of sonic vibrations, said means having a radiating surface, means forming an enclosed chamber with one wall thereof comprising said radiating surface, a plate, means positioning said plate over and spaced away from said radiating surface within said chamber and means providing inlet and outlet entrances to said chamber, the space formed between the plate and the radiating surface providing a narrow channel through which the liquid flows.

6. A device for treating liquids comprising means for producing a source of sonic vibrations, said means having a radiating surface, means forming an enclosed chamber with one wall thereof comprising said radiating surface, a plate, means positioning said plate over and spaced away from said radiating surface within said chamber, means providing an inlet to said chamber and means providing another opening to said chamber through said plate, the space formed between the plate and the radiating surface providing a narrow channel through which the liquid flows.

'7. A device for treating liquids comprising means for producing a source of sonic vibrations, said means having a plane radiating surface, means forming an enclosed chamber with one wall thereof comprising said radiating surface, a plate having a portion thereof fiat, means mounting said plate in said chamber with said flat portion opposite and parallel to said radiating surface, said plate being provided with an opening connecting externally of said chamber, said chamber having a second opening, and the space between said plate and the radiating surface forming a narrow channel through which said liquid flows.

8. A device for treating liquids comprising means for producing a source of sonic vibrations, said means having a plane radiating surface, means forming an enclosed chamber with one wall thereof comprising said radiating surface, a plate having a portion thereof flat, means mounting said plate in said chamber in the center of the wall opposite the radiating surface, said flat portion being parallel to and over the radiating surface, said plate being provided with an opening in the center thereof, said chamber being provided with another opening, and the space between said plate and the radiating surface forming a narrow channel through which said liquid flows.

9. A device for treating liquids comprising an oscillator having vibratory surfaces at opposite ends thereof, chambers formed as a narrow channel over said vibratory surfaces, a conduit having individual branches entering at the sides of said chambers and a second conduit connected to the center of each chamber.

10. A device for-treating liquids comprising an oscillator having a diaphragm and a base, the diaphragm being arranged vertically and perpendicular to said base, a chamber formed as a narrow channel over said diaphragm, a conduit entering at the side of said chamber and one at the center.

11. A device for treating liquids comprising an oscillator having a diaphragm, means supporting said oscillator to position said diaphragm in a vertical position, a chamber formed over said diaphragm, said means including a plate member positioned close to and parallel to said diaphragm, and forming a narrow channel through which the liquid flows, a conduit entering said chamber at the side and a conduit entering said chamber at the center.

12. A device for treating liquids comprising an oscillator having diaphragms at both ends, means supporting said oscillator to position said diaphragm in vertical planes, chambers formed as a narrow channel over said diaphragms, conduits entering said chambers at the sides and conduits entering at the center.

13. A device for treating liquids comprising an oscillator having a diaphragm, means supporting said oscillator to position the diaphragm vertically, a chamber formed over said diaphragm having a thin fiat portion in proximity to said diaphragm and forming a narrow channel through which the liquid flows, and means for conducting and removing liquid from said chamber.

14. A device for treating liquids comprising an oscillator having diaphragms at both ends thereof, chambers formed as a narrow channel over said diaphragms, plates positioned with surfaces opposite and near said diaphragms in said chambers, means providing a conduit through said plates into said chambers and means providing a second conduit at the sides of said chambers. 15. A device for treating liquids comprising two oscillators, means positioning said oscillators to form a chamber between the diaphragms thereof, means providing openings at opposite ends of said chamber and means providing inlet and outlet openings to said chamber.

16. A device for treating liquids comprising a chamber having two vibratory opposed walls forming in part a narrow channel, means providing inlets and outlets at opposite ends of said chamber and means providing reservoirs adjacent said chamber connected thereto through said inlet and outlet openings.

1'7. A device for treating liquids comprising a chamber having two opposed walls forming in part a flat circular chamber forming a narrow channel, means forming reservoirs at opposite ends of said chamber, means connecting said reservoirs to said chambers and means providing external connections to said reservoirs.

18. A device for treating liquids comprising a sonic oscillator having a diaphragm and electromagnetic means contained therein for operating the same, a cooling chamber surrounding the oscillator, means forming a chamber at the top of the oscillator on the diaphragm, said means including a plate positioned close to the diaphragm and forming a narrow channel, means for causing the liquid to flow over the diaphragm and means for withdrawing the same.

ROBERT LONGF'EILOW WILLIAMS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2420687 *Dec 21, 1942May 20, 1947Arthur D SmallDehydration of emulsions
US2448372 *Feb 7, 1946Aug 31, 1948Ultrasonic CorpProcess of treatment by compression waves
US2452661 *Jan 12, 1944Nov 2, 1948Jergens Andrew NHomogenizer
US2456706 *Feb 2, 1946Dec 21, 1948Ultrasonic CorpAcoustic chamber
US2468537 *Jul 23, 1945Apr 26, 1949Submarine Signal CoUltra high frequency vibrator
US2468538 *Jan 10, 1946Apr 26, 1949Submarine Signal CoUltra high frequency vibrator
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Classifications
U.S. Classification366/113, 29/252, 116/137.00A, 239/102.2, 99/451, 241/1, 264/443, 367/171, 422/20, 165/109.1, 426/238, 204/193, 134/1, 367/174
International ClassificationB01F11/00, B01F11/02, A23C7/00
Cooperative ClassificationB01F11/0216, A23C7/00
European ClassificationA23C7/00, B01F11/02C